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Planet
Shown in order from the Sun
Sun
and in true color. Sizes are not to scale.A planet is an astronomical body orbiting a star or stellar remnant thatis massive enough to be rounded by its own gravity, is not massive enough to cause thermonuclear fusion, and has cleared its neighbouring region of planetesimals.[a][1][2]The term planet is ancient, with ties to history, astrology, science, mythology, and religion. Several planets in the Solar System
Solar System
can be seen with the naked eye. These were regarded by many early cultures as divine, or as emissaries of deities. As scientific knowledge advanced, human perception of the planets changed, incorporating a number of disparate objects. In 2006, the International Astronomical Union
International Astronomical Union
(IAU) officially adopted a resolution defining planets within the Solar System
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Hydrology
Hydrology
Hydrology
is the scientific study of the movement, distribution, and quality of water on Earth
Earth
and other planets, including the water cycle, water resources and environmental watershed sustainability. A practitioner of hydrology is a hydrologist, working within the fields of earth or environmental science, physical geography, geology or civil and environmental engineering.[1] Using various analytical methods and scientific techniques, they collect and analyze data to help solve water related problems such as environmental preservation, natural disasters, and water management.[2] Hydrology
Hydrology
subdivides into surface water hydrology, groundwater hydrology (hydrogeology), and marine hydrology
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Thermonuclear Fusion
Thermonuclear fusion is a way to achieve nuclear fusion by using extremely high temperatures. There are two forms of thermonuclear fusion: uncontrolled, in which the resulting energy is released in an uncontrolled manner, as it is in thermonuclear weapons ("hydrogen bombs") and in most stars; and controlled, where the fusion reactions take place in an environment allowing some or all of the energy released to be harnessed for constructive purposes. This article focuses on the latter.Contents1 Temperature
Temperature
requirements 2 Confinement2.1 Gravitational confinement 2.2 Magnetic confinement 2.3 Inertial confinement 2.4 Electrostatic confinement3 See also 4 References Temperature
Temperature
requirements[edit] Temperature
Temperature
is a measure of the average kinetic energy of particles, so by heating the material it will gain energy
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Hurricane
A tropical cyclone is a rapidly rotating storm system characterized by a low-pressure center, a closed low-level atmospheric circulation, strong winds, and a spiral arrangement of thunderstorms that produce heavy rain. Depending on its location and strength, a tropical cyclone is referred to by different names, including hurricane (/ˈhʌrɪkən, -keɪn/),[1][2][3] typhoon (/taɪˈfuːn/), tropical storm, cyclonic storm, tropical depression, and simply cyclone.[4] A hurricane is a tropical cyclone that occurs in the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
and northeastern Pacific Ocean, and a typhoon occurs in the northwestern Pacific Ocean; while in the south Pacific or Indian Ocean, comparable storms are referred to simply as “tropical cyclones” or “severe cyclonic storms”.[4] “Tropical” refers to the geographical origin of these systems, which form almost exclusively over tropical seas
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Space Age
The Space Age
Space Age
is a time period encompassing the activities related to the Space Race, space exploration, space technology, and the cultural developments influenced by these events. The Space Age
Space Age
is generally considered to have begun with Sputnik
Sputnik
(1957).Contents1 Beginning 2 Current period 3 Chronology 4 Earlier spaceflights 5 Arts and architecture 6 See also 7 References 8 External links8.1 Interactive mediaBeginning[edit] The Space Age
Space Age
began with the development of several technologies that converged with the October 4, 1957 launch of Sputnik 1 by the Soviet Union. This was the world's first artificial satellite, orbiting the Earth in 98.1 minutes and weighing 83 kg (183 lb)
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Ice Cap
An ice cap is an ice mass that covers less than 50,000 km2 of land area (usually covering a highland area). Larger ice masses covering more than 50,000 km2 are termed ice sheets.[1][2][3] Ice
Ice
caps are not constrained by topographical features (i.e., they will lie over the top of mountains). By contrast, ice masses of similar size that are constrained by topographical features are known as ice fields. The dome of an ice cap is usually centred on the highest point of a massif. Ice
Ice
flows away from this high point (the ice divide) towards the ice cap's periphery.[1][3] Ice
Ice
caps have significant effects on the geomorphology of the area they occupy. Plastic moulding, gouging and other glacial erosional features become present upon the glacier's retreat
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Deity
A deity (/ˈdiːəti/ ( listen) or /ˈdeɪ.əti/ ( listen))[1] is a hypothetical supernatural being considered divine or sacred.[2] The Oxford Dictionary of English defines deity as "a god or goddess (in a polytheistic religion)", or anything revered as divine.[3] C
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Mythology
Mythology
Mythology
refers variously to the collected myths of a group of people[1] or to the study of such myths.[2] A folklore genre, myth is a feature of every culture. Many sources for myths have been proposed, ranging from personification of nature or personification of natural phenomena, to truthful or hyperbolic accounts of historical events to explanations of existing rituals. A culture's collective mythology helps convey belonging, shared and religious experiences, behavioral models, and moral and practical lessons. The study of myth began in ancient history. Rival classes of the Greek myths by Euhemerus, Plato
Plato
and Sallustius were developed by the Neoplatonists
Neoplatonists
and later revived by Renaissance
Renaissance
mythographers
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Telescope
A telescope is an optical instrument that aids in the observation of remote objects by collecting electromagnetic radiation (such as visible light)[citation needed]. The first known practical telescopes were invented in the Netherlands
Netherlands
at the beginning of the 17th century, by using glass lenses. They found use in both terrestrial applications and astronomy. The reflecting telescope, which uses mirrors to collect and focus light, was invented within a few decades of the first telescopes being made. In the 20th century, many new types of telescopes were invented, including radio telescopes in the 1930s and infrared telescopes in the 1960s
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Gravity
Gravity, or gravitation, is a natural phenomenon by which all things with mass are brought toward (or gravitate toward) one another, including objects ranging from atoms and photons, to planets and stars. Since energy and mass are equivalent, all forms of energy (including light) cause gravitation and are under the influence of it. On Earth, gravity gives weight to physical objects, and the Moon's gravity causes the ocean tides. The gravitational attraction of the original gaseous matter present in the Universe
Universe
caused it to begin coalescing, forming stars – and for the stars to group together into galaxies – so gravity is responsible for many of the large scale structures in the Universe
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Observational Astronomy
Observational astronomy
Observational astronomy
is a division of astronomy that is concerned with recording data about the observable universe, in contrast with theoretical astronomy, which is mainly concerned with calculating the measurable implications of physical models. It is the practice and study of observing celestial objects with the use of telescopes and other astronomical instruments. As a science, the study of astronomy is somewhat hindered in that direct experiments with the properties of the distant universe are not possible. However, this is partly compensated by the fact that astronomers have a vast number of visible examples of stellar phenomena that can be examined. This allows for observational data to be plotted on graphs, and general trends recorded. Nearby examples of specific phenomena, such as variable stars, can then be used to infer the behavior of more distant representatives
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Astronomer
An astronomer is a scientist in the field of astronomy who concentrates their studies on a specific question or field outside the scope of Earth. They look at stars, planets, moons, comets and galaxies, as well as many other celestial objects — either in observational astronomy, in analyzing the data, or in theoretical astronomy. Examples of topics or fields astronomers work on include: planetary science, solar astronomy, the origin or evolution of stars, or the formation of galaxies. There are also related but distinct subjects like physical cosmology which studies the Universe
Universe
as a whole. Astronomers usually fit into two types: observational and theoretical. Observational astronomers make direct observations of planets, stars and galaxies, and analyze the data. In contrast, theoretical astronomers create and investigate models of things that cannot be observed
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Elliptic Orbit
In astrodynamics or celestial mechanics, an elliptic orbit or elliptical orbit is a Kepler orbit
Kepler orbit
with an eccentricity of less than 1; this includes the special case of a circular orbit, with eccentricity equal to 0. In a stricter sense, it is a Kepler orbit with the eccentricity greater than 0 and less than 1 (thus excluding the circular orbit). In a wider sense, it is a Kepler orbit
Kepler orbit
with negative energy. This includes the radial elliptic orbit, with eccentricity equal to 1. In a gravitational two-body problem with negative energy, both bodies follow similar elliptic orbits with the same orbital period around their common barycenter
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Tectonics
Tectonics
Tectonics
(from Latin tectonicus; from Ancient Greek τεκτονικός (tektonikos), meaning 'pertaining to building'[1]) is the process that controls the structure and properties of the Earth's crust
Earth's crust
and its evolution through time. In particular, it describes the processes of mountain building, the growth and behavior of the strong, old cores of continents known as cratons, and the ways in which the relatively rigid plates that constitute the Earth's outer shell interact with each other. Tectonics also provides a framework for understanding the earthquake and volcanic belts that directly affect much of the global population. Tectonic studies are important as guides for economic geologists searching for fossil fuels and ore deposits of metallic and nonmetallic resources
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Johannes Kepler
Johannes Kepler
Johannes Kepler
(/ˈkɛplər/;[1] German: [joˈhanəs ˈkɛplɐ]; December 27, 1571 – November 15, 1630) was a German mathematician, astronomer, and astrologer. Kepler is a key figure in the 17th-century scientific revolution. He is best known for his laws of planetary motion, based on his works Astronomia nova, Harmonices Mundi, and Epitome of Copernican Astronomy. These works also provided one of the foundations for Isaac Newton's theory of universal gravitation. Kepler was a mathematics teacher at a seminary school in Graz, where he became an associate of Prince Hans Ulrich von Eggenberg. Later he became an assistant to the astronomer Tycho Brahe
Tycho Brahe
in Prague, and eventually the imperial mathematician to Emperor Rudolf II and his two successors Matthias and Ferdinand II. He also taught mathematics in Linz, and was an adviser to General Wallenstein
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Ptolemy
Claudius
Claudius
Ptolemy
Ptolemy
(/ˈtɒləmi/; Greek: Κλαύδιος Πτολεμαῖος, Klaúdios Ptolemaîos [kláwdios ptolɛmɛ́ːos]; Latin: Claudius
Claudius
Ptolemaeus; c. AD 100 – c. 170)[2] was a Greco-Roman[3] mathematician, astronomer, geographer, astrologer, and poet of a single epigram in the Greek Anthology.[4][5] He lived in the city of Alexandria
Alexandria
in the Roman province of Egypt, wrote in Koine Greek, and held Roman citizenship.[6] The 14th-century astronomer Theodore Meliteniotes gave his birthplace as the prominent Greek city Ptolemais Hermiou
Ptolemais Hermiou
(Greek: Πτολεμαΐς ‘Ερμείου) in the Thebaid
Thebaid
(Greek: Θηβαΐδα [Θηβαΐς])
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