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Placentophagy
Placentophagy
Placentophagy
(from 'placenta' + Greek φαγειν, to eat; also referred to as placentophagia) is the act of mammals eating the placenta of their young after childbirth. The placenta contains high levels of prostaglandin. Prostaglandin stimulates involution (an inward curvature or penetration, or, a shrinking or return to a former size) of the uterus.[citation needed] The placenta also contains small amounts of oxytocin which eases birth stress and causes the smooth muscles around the mammary cells to contract and eject milk.[citation needed] There have been no studies of whether placentophagy provides hormonal effects in humans.[1] There is also a school of thought that holds that placentophagy naturally occurred to hide any trace of childbirth from predators in the wild. Many placental mammals participate in placentophagy, including herbivores; exceptions include mainly humans, Pinnipedia, Cetacea, and camels
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Greek Language
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά [eliniˈka], elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα [eliniˈci ˈɣlosa] ( listen), ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece
Greece
and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean
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Traditional Chinese Characters
Traditional Chinese characters
Chinese characters
(traditional Chinese: 正體字/繁體字; simplified Chinese: 正体字/繁体字; Pinyin: Zhèngtǐzì/Fántǐzì) are Chinese characters
Chinese characters
in any character set that does not contain newly created characters or character substitutions performed after 1946. They are most commonly the characters in the standardized character sets of Taiwan, of Hong Kong and Macau
Macau
or in the Kangxi Dictionary
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Mammals
Mammals are the vertebrates within the class Mammalia (/məˈmeɪliə/ from Latin mamma "breast"), a clade of endothermic amniotes distinguished from reptiles (including birds) by the possession of a neocortex (a region of the brain), hair, three middle ear bones, and mammary glands. Females of all mammal species nurse their young with milk, secreted from the mammary glands. Mammals include the largest animal on the planet, the blue whale. The basic body type is a terrestrial quadruped, but some mammals are adapted for life at sea, in the air, in trees, underground or on two legs. The largest group of mammals, the placentals, have a placenta, which enables the feeding of the fetus during gestation. Mammals range in size from the 30–40 mm (1.2–1.6 in) bumblebee bat to the 30-meter (98 ft) blue whale. With the exception of the five species of monotreme (egg-laying mammals), all modern mammals give birth to live young
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Royal College Of Obstetricians And Gynaecologists
The Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists
Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists
(RCOG) is professional association based in London, United Kingdom. Its members, including people with and without medical degrees, work in the field of obstetrics and gynaecology (O&G),[1] that is, pregnancy, childbirth, and female sexual and reproductive health
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Randomized Controlled Trial
A randomized controlled trial (or randomized control trial;[2] RCT) is a type of scientific (often medical) experiment which aims to reduce bias when testing a new treatment. The people participating in the trial are randomly allocated to either the group receiving the treatment under investigation or to a group receiving standard treatment (or placebo treatment) as the control. Randomization minimises selection bias and the different comparison groups allow the researchers to determine any effects of the treatment when compared with the no treatment (control) group, while other variables are kept constant. The RCT is often considered the gold standard for a clinical trial. RCTs are often used to test the efficacy or effectiveness of various types of medical intervention and may provide information about adverse effects, such as drug reactions
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Anthropology
Anthropology
Anthropology
is the study of humans and human behaviour and societies in the past and present.[1][2][3] Social anthropology
Social anthropology
and cultural anthropology[1][2]
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University Of South Florida
The University of South Florida, also known as USF, is an American metropolitan public research university in Tampa, Florida, United States. USF is also a member institution of the State University System of Florida. Founded in 1956, USF is the fourth-largest public university in the state of Florida, with an enrollment of 48,373 as of the 2014–2015 academic year.[5] The USF system has three institutions: USF Tampa, USF St
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University Of Nevada, Las Vegas
The University of Nevada, Las Vegas
Las Vegas
(UNLV) is an American public research university in the Las Vegas
Las Vegas
suburb of Paradise, Nevada. The 332-acre (134 ha)[4] campus is about 1.6-mile (2.6 km) east of the Las Vegas
Las Vegas
Strip. The university includes the Shadow Lane Campus, just east of the University Medical Center of Southern Nevada, which houses the School of Dental Medicine— the only dental school in Nevada. In addition, UNLV's law school, the William S. Boyd School of Law, is also the only law school in the state. The university is classified a "research-intensive university" by the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching. The William F. Harrah College of Hotel Administration is annually ranked among the top hospitality programs in the United States due to the university's proximity to the Las Vegas
Las Vegas
Strip
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Traditional Chinese Medicine
Traditional Chinese medicine
Traditional Chinese medicine
(TCM; simplified Chinese: 中医; traditional Chinese: 中醫; pinyin: Zhōngyī) is a style of traditional medicine built on a foundation of more than 2,500 years of Chinese medical practice that includes various forms of herbal medicine, acupuncture, massage (tui na), exercise (qigong), and dietary therapy,[1] but recently also influenced by modern Western medicine
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Simplified Chinese Characters
Simplified Chinese characters
Chinese characters
(简化字; jiǎnhuàzì)[1] are standardized Chinese characters
Chinese characters
prescribed in the Table of General Standard Chinese
Standard Chinese
Characters for use in mainland China. Along with traditional Chinese characters, they are one of the two standard character sets of the contemporary Chinese written language. The government of the People's Republic of China
People's Republic of China
in mainland China has promoted them for use in printing since the 1950s and 1960s to encourage literacy.[2] They are officially used in the People's Republic of China
Republic of China
and Singapore. Traditional Chinese
Traditional Chinese
characters are currently used in Hong Kong, Macau, and the Republic of China
Republic of China
(Taiwan)
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Pinyin
Hanyu Pinyin
Hanyu Pinyin
Romanization
Romanization
(simplified Chinese: 汉语拼音; traditional Chinese: 漢語拼音), often abbreviated to pinyin, is the official romanization system for Standard Chinese
Standard Chinese
in mainland China
China
and to some extent in Taiwan. It is often used to teach Standard Mandarin Chinese, which is normally written using Chinese characters. The system includes four diacritics denoting tones. Pinyin
Pinyin
without tone marks is used to spell Chinese names and words in languages written with the Latin alphabet, and also in certain computer input methods to enter Chinese characters. The pinyin system was developed in the 1950s by many linguists, including Zhou Youguang,[1] based on earlier form romanizations of Chinese
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Metatherian
Metatheria is a mammalian clade that includes all mammals more closely related to marsupials than to placentals. First proposed by Thomas Henry Huxley in 1880, it is a slightly more inclusive group than the marsupials; it contains all marsupials as well as many extinct non-marsupial relatives. Metatherians are one of three main classes of extant mammals:monotremes: egg laying mammals like the platypus and the echidna, metatheria: marsupials, which includes three American orders (Didelphimorphia, Paucituberculata and Microbiotheria) and four Australasian orders (Notoryctemorphia, Dasyuromorphia, Peramelemorphia and Diprotodontia),[2] and the eutherians: placental mammals, consisting of twenty-one orders, divided into four superorders.[3]Metatherians belong to a subgroup of the northern tribosphenic mammal clade or Boreosphenida
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Digital Object Identifier
In computing, a Digital Object Identifier or DOI is a persistent identifier or handle used to uniquely identify objects, standardized by the International Organization for Standardization
International Organization for Standardization
(ISO).[1] An implementation of the Handle System,[2][3] DOIs are in wide use mainly to identify academic, professional, and government information, such as journal articles, research reports and data sets, and official publications though they also have been used to identify other types of information resources, such as commercial videos. A DOI aims to be "resolvable", usually to some form of access to the information object to which the DOI refers. This is achieved by binding the DOI to metadata about the object, such as a URL, indicating where the object can be found. Thus, by being actionable and interoperable, a DOI differs from identifiers such as ISBNs and ISRCs which aim only to uniquely identify their referents
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PubMed Identifier
PubMed
PubMed
is a free search engine accessing primarily the MEDLINE database of references and abstracts on life sciences and biomedical topics. The United States National Library of Medicine
United States National Library of Medicine
(NLM) at the National Institutes of Health
National Institutes of Health
maintains the database as part of the Entrez
Entrez
system of information retrieval. From 1971 to 1997, MEDLINE online access to the MEDLARS Online computerized database primarily had been through institutional facilities, such as university libraries
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Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews
Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering behavioral neuroscience published by Elsevier. The journal publishes reviews, theoretical articles, and mini-reviews. It is an official journal of the International Behavioral Neuroscience Society. Abstracting and indexing[edit] The journal is abstracted and indexed by BIOSIS, Current Contents/Life Sciences, EMBASE, MEDLINE, Science Citation Index, and Scopus.[1] According to the Journal Citation Reports, the journal has a 2012 impact factor of 9.440.[2] References[edit]^ "Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews - Elsevier". Retrieved 2010-02-20.  ^ "Web of Science". 2013
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