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Piperine Crystals
Piperine, along with its isomer chavicine, is the alkaloid[1] responsible for the pungency of black pepper and long pepper
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Piperidine
Piperidine
Piperidine
is an organic compound with the molecular formula (CH2)5NH. This heterocyclic amine consists of a six-membered ring containing five methylene bridges (–CH2–) and one amine bridge (–NH–)
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Hans Christian Ørsted
Hans Christian Ørsted
Hans Christian Ørsted
(/ˈɜːrstɛd/;[2] Danish: [hans kʁæsdjan ˈɶɐ̯sdɛð]; often rendered Oersted
Oersted
in English; 14 August 1777 – 9 March 1851) was a Danish physicist and chemist who discovered that electric currents create magnetic fields, which was the first connection found between electricity and magnetism. He is still known today for Oersted's Law
Oersted's Law
and the oersted (Oe), the cgs unit of magnetic H-field strength, is named after him. He shaped post-Kantian philosophy and advances in science throughout the late 19th century.[3] In 1824, Ørsted founded Selskabet for Naturlærens Udbredelse (SNU), a society to disseminate knowledge of the natural sciences. He was also the founder of predecessor organizations which eventually became the Danish Meteorological Institute and the Danish Patent and Trademark Office
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Alkaloid
Alkaloids are a group of naturally occurring chemical compounds that mostly contain basic nitrogen atoms. This group also includes some related compounds with neutral[2] and even weakly acidic properties.[3] Some synthetic compounds of similar structure are also termed alkaloids.[4] In addition to carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen, alkaloids may also contain oxygen, sulfur and, more rarely, other elements such as chlorine, bromine, and phosphorus.[5] Alkaloids are produced by a large variety of organisms including bacteria, fungi, plants, and animals. They can be purified from crude extracts of these organisms by acid-base extraction. Alkaloids have a wide range of pharmacological activities including antimalarial (e.g. quinine), antiasthma (e.g. ephedrine), anticancer (e.g. homoharringtonine),[6] cholinomimetic (e.g. galantamine),[7] vasodilatory (e.g. vincamine), antiarrhythmic (e.g. quinidine), analgesic (e.g. morphine),[8] antibacterial (e.g
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Pungency
Pungency
Pungency
is the condition of having a strong, sharp smell or flavor that is often so strong that it is unpleasant.[1][2] Pungency
Pu

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Black Pepper
Black pepper
Black pepper
(Piper nigrum) is a flowering vine in the family Piperaceae, cultivated for its fruit which is usually dried and used as a spice and seasoning, known as a peppercorn. When fresh and fully mature, it is approximately 5 millimetres (0.20 in) in diameter and dark red, and contains a single seed like all drupes. Peppercorns and the ground pepper derived from them may be described simply as pepper, or more precisely as black pepper (cooked and dried unripe fruit), green pepper (dried unripe fruit), and white pepper (ripe fruit seeds). Black pepper
Black pepper
is native to south India
India
and is extensively cultivated there and elsewhere in tropical regions
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Long Pepper
Long pepper
Long pepper
(Piper longum), sometimes called Indian long pepper (pipli), is a flowering vine in the family Piperaceae, cultivated for its fruit, which is usually dried and used as a spice and seasoning. Long pepper
Long pepper
has a taste similar to, but hotter than, that of its close relative Piper nigrum
Piper nigrum
- from which black, green and white pepper are obtained. The fruit of the pepper consists of many minuscule fruits — each about the size of a poppy seed — embedded in the surface of a flower spike that closely resembles a hazel tree catkin. Like Piper nigrum, the fruits contain the alkaloid piperine, which contributes to their pungency. Another species of long pepper, Piper retrofractum, is native to Java, Indonesia
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Traditional Medicine
Traditional medicine
Traditional medicine
(also known as indigenous or folk medicine) comprises medical aspects of traditional knowledge that developed over generations within various societies before the era of modern medicine
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Dichloromethane
Dichloromethane
Dichloromethane
(DCM, or methylene chloride) is an organic compound with the formula CH2Cl2. This colorless, volatile liquid with a moderately sweet aroma is widely used as a solvent. Although it is not miscible with water, it is miscible with many organic solvents.[10]Contents1 Occurrence 2 Production 3 Uses3.1 Specialized uses4 Toxicity4.1 Regulation5 Environmental effects5.1 Ozone6 See also 7 References 8 External linksOccurrence[edit] Natural sources of dichloromethane include oceanic sources, macroalgae, wetlands, and volcanoes.[11] However, the majority of dichloromethane in the environment is the result of industrial emissions.[11] Production[edit] DCM is produced by treating either chloromethane or methane with chlorine gas at 400–500 °C. At these temperatures, both methane and chloromethane undergo a series of reactions producing progressively more chlorinated products
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Potassium Hydroxide
Potassium
Potassium
hydroxide is an inorganic compound with the formula KOH, and is commonly called caustic potash. Along with sodium hydroxide (NaOH), this colorless solid is a prototypical strong base. It has many industrial and niche applications, most of which exploit its corrosive nature and its reactivity toward acids. An estimated 700,000 to 800,000 tonnes were produced in 2005
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Iodine
Iodine
Iodine
is a chemical element with symbol I and atomic number 53. The heaviest of the stable halogens, it exists as a lustrous, purple-black metallic solid at standard conditions that sublimes readily to form a violet gas. The elemental form was discovered by the French chemist Bernard Courtois in 1811. It was named two years later by Joseph-Louis Gay-Lussac from this property, after the Greek ἰώδης "violet-coloured". Iodine
Iodine
occurs in many oxidation states, including iodide (I−), iodate (IO− 3), and the various periodate anions. It is the least abundant of the stable halogens, being the sixty-first most abundant element. It is even less abundant than the so-called rare earths. It is the heaviest essential mineral nutrient
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Potassium Iodide
Potassium
Potassium
iodide is a chemical compound, medication, and dietary supplement.[1][2] As a medication it is used to treat hyperthyroidism, in radiation emergencies, and to protect the thyroid gland when certain types of radiopharmaceuticals are used.[3] In the developing world it is also used to treat skin sporotrichosis and phycomycosis.[3][4] As a supplement it is used in those who have low intake of iodine in the diet.[2] It is given by mouth.[3] Common side effects include vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, rash, and swelling of the salivary glands.[3] Other side effects include allergic react
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Hydrochloric Acid
Hydrochloric acid
Hydrochloric acid
or muriatic acid is a colorless inorganic chemical system with the formula H2O:HCl. Hydrochloric acid
Hydrochloric acid
has a distinctive pungent smell. It is classified as strongly acidic and can attack the skin over a wide composition range, since the hydrogen chloride completely dissociates in aqueous solution. Hydrochloric acid
Hydrochloric acid
is the simplest chlorine-based acid system containing water. It is a solution of hydrogen chloride and water, and a variety of other chemical species, including hydronium and chloride ions. It is an important chemical reagent and industrial chemical, used in the production of polyvinyl chloride for plastic. In households, diluted hydrochloric acid is often used as a descaling agent. In the food industry, hydrochloric acid is used as a food additive and in the production of gelatin
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Piper Nigrum
Black pepper
Black pepper
(Piper nigrum) is a flowering vine in the family Piperaceae, cultivated for its fruit which is usually dried and used as a spice and seasoning, known as a peppercorn. When fresh and fully mature, it is approximately 5 millimetres (0.20 in) in diameter and dark red, and contains a single seed like all drupes. Peppercorns and the ground pepper derived from them may be described simply as pepper, or more precisely as black pepper (cooked and dried unripe fruit), green pepper (dried unripe fruit), and white pepper (ripe fruit seeds). Black pepper
Black pepper
is native to south India
India
and is extensively cultivated there and elsewhere in tropical regions
[...More...]

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Isomer
An isomer (/ˈaɪsəmər/; from Greek ἰσομερής, isomerès; isos = "equal", méros = "part") is a molecule with the same molecular formula as another molecule, but with a different chemical structure. Isomers contain the same number of atoms of each element, but have different arrangements of their atoms.[1][2] Isomers do not necessarily share similar properties, unless they also have the same functional groups
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Piper Longum
Long pepper
Long pepper
(Piper longum), sometimes called Indian long pepper (pipli), is a flowering vine in the family Piperaceae, cultivated for its fruit, which is usually dried and used as a spice and seasoning. Long pepper
Long pepper
has a taste similar to, but hotter than, that of its close relative Piper nigrum
Piper nigrum
- from which black, green and white pepper are obtained. The fruit of the pepper consists of many minuscule fruits — each about the size of a poppy seed — embedded in the surface of a flower spike that closely resembles a hazel tree catkin. Like Piper nigrum, the fruits contain the alkaloid piperine, which contributes to their pungency. Another species of long pepper, Piper retrofractum, is native to Java, Indonesia
[...More...]

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