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Pipeline Transport
Pipeline transport
Pipeline transport
is the transportation of goods or material through a pipe. The latest data from 2014 gives a total of slightly less than 2,175,000 miles (3,500,000 km) of pipeline in 120 countries of the world.[1] The United States had 65%, Russia had 8%, and Canada had 3%, thus 75% of all pipeline were in these three countries.[1] Pipeline and Gas Journal's worldwide survey figures indicate that 118,623 miles (190,905 km) of pipelines are planned and under construction
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Channel (geography)
In physical geography, a channel is a type of landform consisting of the outline of a path of relatively shallow and narrow body of fluid, most commonly the confine of a river, river delta or strait. The word is cognate to canal, and sometimes shows in this form, e.g. the Hood Canal. Most examples of this are fjords in the Pacific Northwest
Pacific Northwest
of North America; a notable exception is the Casiquiare canal. All likely share borrowing from Spanish, Portuguese or French. Channels can be either natural or human-made
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Plastic
Note 1: The use of this term instead of polymer is a source of confusion and thus is not recommended. Note 2: This term is used in polymer engineering for materials often compounded that can be processed by flow.[1] Plastic
Plastic
is material consisting of any of a wide range of synthetic or semi-synthetic organic compounds that are malleable and so can be molded into solid objects. Plasticity is the general property of all materials which can deform irreversibly without breaking but, in the class of moldable polymers, this occurs to such a degree that their actual name derives from this specific ability. Plastics are typically organic polymers of high molecular mass and often contain other substances
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Hill
A hill is a landform that extends above the surrounding terrain. It often has a distinct summit, although in areas with scarp/dip topography a hill may refer to a particular section of flat terrain without a massive summit (e.g. Box Hill, Surrey).Contents1 Terminology 2 Historical significance 3 Military significance 4 Sports and games 5 Largest man-made 6 Gallery 7 See also 8 References 9 External linksTerminology[edit] Chocolate Hills
Chocolate Hills
of the PhilippinesHills in Tuscany, ItalyThe distinction between a hill and a mountain is unclear and largely subjective, but a hill is universally considered to be less tall and less steep than a mountain. In the United Kingdom, geographers historically regarded mountains as hills greater than 1,000 feet (304.8 meters) above sea level, which formed the basis of the plot of the 1995 film The Englishman Who Went Up a Hill
Hill
But Came Down a Mountain
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Irrigation
Irrigation
Irrigation
is the application of controlled amounts of water to plants at needed intervals. Irrigation
Irrigation
helps grow agricultural crops, maintain landscapes, and revegetate disturbed soils in dry areas and during periods of less than average rainfall. Irrigation
Irrigation
also has other uses in crop production, including frost protection,[1] suppressing weed growth in grain fields[2] and preventing soil consolidation.[3] In contrast, agriculture that relies only on direct rainfall is referred to as rain-fed or dry land farming. Irrigation
Irrigation
systems are also used for cooling livestock, dust suppression, disposal of sewage, and in mining
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Drinking Water
Drinking
Drinking
water, also known as potable water, is water that is safe to drink or to use for food preparation. The amount of drinking water required varies.[1] It depends on physical activity, age, health issues, and environmental conditions.[1] Americans, on average, drink one litre of water a day and 95% drink less than three litres per day.[2] For those who work in a hot climate, up to 16 liters a day may be required.[1] Water
Water
is essential for life.[1] Typically in developed countries, tap water meets drinking water quality standards, even though only a small proportion is actually consumed or used in food preparation. Other typical uses include washing, toilets, and irrigation. Greywater
Greywater
may also be used for toilets or irrigation
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Beer
Beer
Beer
is one of the oldest[1][2][3] and most widely consumed[4] alcoholic drinks in the world, and the third most popular drink overall after water and tea.[5] Beer
Beer
is brewed from cereal grains—most commonly from malted barley, though wheat, maize (corn), and rice are also used. During the brewing process, fermentation of the starch sugars in the wort produces ethanol and carbonation in the resulting beer.[6] Most modern beer is brewed with hops, which add bitterness and other flavours and act as a natural preservative and stabilizing agent. Other flavouring agents such as gruit, herbs, or fruits may be included or used instead of hops
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Water
Water
Water
is a transparent, tasteless, odorless, and nearly colorless chemical substance that is the main constituent of Earth's streams, lakes, and oceans, and the fluids of most living organisms. Its chemical formula is H2O, meaning that each of its molecules contains one oxygen and two hydrogen atoms that are connected by covalent bonds. Strictly speaking, water refers to the liquid state of a substance that prevails at standard ambient temperature and pressure; but it often refers also to its solid state (ice) or its gaseous state (steam or water vapor). It also occurs in nature as snow, glaciers, ice packs and icebergs, clouds, fog, dew, aquifers, and atmospheric humidity. Water
Water
covers 71% of the Earth's surface.[1] It is vital for all known forms of life
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Slurry
A slurry is a thin sloppy mud or cement or, in extended use, any fluid mixture of a pulverized solid with a liquid (usually water), often used as a convenient way of handling solids in bulk.[1] Slurries behave in some ways like thick fluids, flowing under gravity and are also capable of being pumped if not too thick.Contents1 Examples 2 Calculations2.1 Determining solids fraction 2.2 Liquid mass from mass fraction of solids 2.3 Volumetric fraction from mass fraction3 See also 4 References 5 External linksExamples[edit] Examples of slurries include: Cement
Cement
slurry, a mixture of ceme
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Sewage
Sewage
Sewage
(or domestic wastewater or municipal wastewater) is a type of wastewater that is produced from a community of people. It is characterized by volume or rate of flow, physical condition, chemical and toxic constituents, and its bacteriologic status (which organisms it contains and in what quantities). It consists mostly of greywater (from sinks, tubs, showers, dishwashers, and clothes washers), blackwater (the water used to flush toilets, combined with the human waste that it flushes away); soaps and detergents; and toilet paper (less so in regions where bidets are widely used instead of paper). Sewage
Sewage
usually travels from a building's plumbing either into a sewer, which will carry it elsewhere, or into an onsite sewage facility (of which there are many kinds). Whether it is combined with surface runoff in the sewer depends on the sewer design (sanitary sewer or combined sewer)
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Fuel
A fuel is any material that can be made to react with other substances so that it releases energy as heat energy or to be used for work. The concept was originally applied solely to those materials capable of releasing chemical energy but has since also been applied to other sources of heat energy such as nuclear energy (via nuclear fission and nuclear fusion). The heat energy released by reactions of fuels is converted into mechanical energy via a heat engine. Other times the heat itself is valued for warmth, cooking, or industrial processes, as well as the illumination that comes with combustion. Fuels are also used in the cells of organisms in a process known as cellular respiration, where organic molecules are oxidized to release usable energy
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Pollution
Pollution
Pollution
is the introduction of contaminants into the natural environment that cause adverse change.[1] Pollution
Pollution
can take the form of chemical substances or energy, such as noise, heat or light. Pollutants, the components of pollution, can be either foreign substances/energies or naturally occurring contaminants. Pollution
Pollution
is often classed as point source or nonpoint source pollution
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Pump
A pump is a device that moves fluids (liquids or gases), or sometimes slurries, by mechanical action. Pumps can be classified into three major groups according to the method they use to move the fluid: direct lift, displacement, and gravity pumps.[1] Pumps operate by some mechanism (typically reciprocating or rotary), and consume energy to perform mechanical work by moving the fluid. Pumps operate via many energy sources, including manual operation, electricity, engines, or wind power, come in many sizes, from microscopic for use in medical applications to large industrial pumps. Mechanical pumps serve in a wide range of applications such as pumping water from wells, aquarium filtering, pond filtering and aeration, in the car industry for water-cooling and fuel injection, in the energy industry for pumping oil and natural gas or for operating cooling towers
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Evaporation
Evaporation
Evaporation
is a type of vaporization, that occurs on the surface of a liquid as it changes into the gaseous phase.[1] The surrounding gas must not be saturated with the evaporating substance. When the molecules of the liquid collide, they transfer energy to each other based on how they collide. When a molecule near the surface absorbs enough energy to overcome the vapor pressure, it will "escape" and enter the surrounding air as a gas.[2] When evaporation occurs, the energy removed from the vaporized liquid will reduce the temperature of the liquid, resulting in evaporative cooling.[3] On average, only a fraction of the molecules in a liquid have enough heat energy to escape from the liquid. The evaporation will continue until an equilibrium is reached when the evaporation of the liquid is the equal to its condensation
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Carbon Steel
Carbon
Carbon
steel is a steel with carbon content up to 2.1% by weight
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District Heating
District heating
District heating
(also known as heat networks or teleheating) is a system for distributing heat generated in a centralized location for residential and commercial heating requirements such as space heating and water heating. The heat is often obtained from a cogeneration plant burning fossil fuels but increasingly also biomass, although heat-only boiler stations, geothermal heating, heat pumps and central solar heating are also used, as well as nuclear power. District heating plants can provide higher efficiencies and better pollution control than localized boilers
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