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Pierre Monteux
Pierre Benjamin Monteux (pronounced [pjɛʁ mɔ̃.tø]; 4 April 1875 – 1 July 1964)[n 1] was a French (later American) conductor. After violin and viola studies, and a decade as an orchestral player and occasional conductor, he began to receive regular conducting engagements in 1907. He came to prominence when, for Sergei Diaghilev's Ballets Russes
Ballets Russes
company between 1911 and 1914, he conducted the world premieres of Stravinsky's The Rite of Spring and other prominent works including Petrushka, Ravel's Daphnis et Chloé, and Debussy's Jeux. Thereafter he directed orchestras around the world for more than half a century. From 1917 to 1919 Monteux was the principal conductor of the French repertoire at the Metropolitan Opera
Metropolitan Opera
in New York
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Conducting
Conducting
Conducting
is the art of directing a musical performance, such as an orchestral or choral concert
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Fritz Kreisler
Friedrich "Fritz" Kreisler (February 2, 1875 – January 29, 1962) was an Austrian-born violinist and composer.[1] One of the most noted violin masters of his day, and regarded as one of the greatest violin masters of all time, he was known for his sweet tone and expressive phrasing. Like many great violinists of his generation, he produced a characteristic sound which was immediately recognizable as his own
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Rabbi
In Judaism, a rabbi /ˈræbaɪ/ is a teacher of Torah. The basic form of the rabbi developed in the Pharisaic and Talmudic era, when learned teachers assembled to codify Judaism's written and oral laws. The first sage for whom the Mishnah
Mishnah
uses the title of rabbi was Yohanan ben Zakkai, active in the early-to-mid first century CE.[1] In more recent centuries, the duties of a rabbi became increasingly influenced by the duties of the Protestant Christian minister, hence the title "pulpit rabbis", and in 19th-century Germany and the United States rabbinic activities including sermons, pastoral counseling, and representing the community to the outside, all increased in importance. Within the various Jewish denominations there are different requirements for rabbinic ordination, and differences in opinion regarding who is to be recognized as a rabbi
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Conservatoire De Paris
The Conservatoire
Conservatoire
de Paris (pronounced [kɔ̃.sɛʁ.va.twaʁ də pa.ʁi]; English: Paris Conservatory) is a college of music and dance founded in 1795 associated with PSL Research University. It is situated in the avenue Jean Jaurès
Jean Jaurès
in the 19th arrondissement of Paris, France. The Conservatoire
Conservatoire
offers instruction in music, dance, and drama, drawing on the traditions of the "French School". In 1946 it was split in two, one part for acting, theatre and drama, known as the Conservatoire
Conservatoire
national supérieur d'art dramatique (CNSAD), and the other for music and dance, known as the Conservatoire national supérieur de musique et de danse de Paris (CNSMDP)
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Jules Garcin
Jules Auguste Garcin [Salomon] (11 July 1830 – 10 October 1896) was a French violinist, conductor and composer of the 19th century. He was born in Bourges. His maternal grandfather, Joseph Garcin, was director of a travelling company playing opéra comique in the central and southern provinces of France. Having entered the Paris Conservatoire
Paris Conservatoire
in adolescence, studying under Clavel and Alard, Garcin took the premier prix for violin in 1853, and entered the Opéra orchestra in 1856. He became solo violinist, then third conductor in 1871 and finally chief conductor in 1885. His long and successful teaching career at the Conservatoire de Paris
Conservatoire de Paris
began in 1875. Among his notable students were the child prodigy Henri Marteau (1874–1934) and Jules Boucherit (1877–1962)
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Charles Lenepveu
Charles-Ferdinand Lenepveu (4 October 1840 – 16 August 1910), was a French composer and teacher. Destined for a career as a lawyer, he defied his family and followed a musical career. He studied at the Paris Conservatoire, and won France's top musical award, the Prix de Rome in 1867. Much of Lenepveu's career was as a professor at the Conservatoire from 1880. He was known as a strict conservative, hostile to musical innovation, as was much of the French musical Establishment of the time
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Albert Lavignac
1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km2 (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries. 2 Population without double counting: residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once. Lavignac
Lavignac
(Occitan: Lavinhac) is a commune in the Haute-Vienne department in the
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George Enescu
George Enescu
George Enescu
(Romanian pronunciation: [ˈd͡ʒe̯ord͡ʒe eˈnesku] ( listen); 19 August 1881 – 4 May 1955), known in France as Georges Enesco, was a Romanian composer, violinist, pianist, conductor, and teacher. He is regarded by many as Romania's most important musician.[1]Contents1 Biography 2 Reception 3 Selected works3.1 Operas 3.2 Symphonies 3.3 Other orchestral works 3.4 Chamber works3.4.1 String quartets 3.4.2 Sonatas 3.4.3 Other chamber works3.5 Piano music 3.6 Songs4 Media 5 See also 6 References 7 Sources 8 External linksBiography[edit]Young George EnescuEnescu was born in Romania, in the village of Liveni (later renamed "George Enescu" in his honor), in Dorohoi County
Dorohoi County
at the time, today Botoşani County. He showed musical talent from early in his childhood. A child prodigy, Enescu began experimenting with composing at an early age
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Carl Flesch
Carl Flesch
Carl Flesch
(Hungarian: Flesch Károly, 9 October 1873 – 14 November 1944) was a violinist and teacher.[1] Life and career[edit] Flesch was born in Moson (now part of Mosonmagyaróvár) in Hungary
Hungary
in 1873. He began playing the violin at seven years of age. At 10 he was taken to Vienna
Vienna
to study with Jakob Grün. At 17 he left for Paris, and joined the Paris
Paris
Conservatoire. He settled in Berlin, and in 1934 in London. He was known for his solo performances in a very wide range of repertoire (from Baroque music
Baroque music
to contemporary), gaining fame as a chamber music performer. He also taught in Bucharest
Bucharest
(1897-1902), Amsterdam
Amsterdam
(1903-08), Philadelphia
Philadelphia
(1924-28) and Berlin
Berlin
(Hochschule fuer Musik, 1929-34)
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Alfred Cortot
Alfred Denis Cortot (26 September 1877 – 15 June 1962) was a Franco-Swiss pianist and conductor who was one of the most renowned classical musicians of the 20th century. He was especially valued for his poetic insight into Romantic piano works, particularly those of Chopin, Saint-Saëns and Schumann.[1]Contents1 Early life and education 2 Career 3 World War II 4 Death 5 Bibliography 6 Notes 7 References 8 External linksEarly life and education[edit]This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (February 2018) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)Born in Nyon, Vaud, in the French-speaking part of Switzerland, to a French father and a Swiss mother, Cortot studied at the Paris Conservatoire with Émile Decombes (a student of Frédéric Chopin), and with Louis Diémer, taking a premier prix in 1896
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Viola
The viola (/viˈoʊlə/;[1] Italian pronunciation: [viˈɔːla]) is a string instrument that is bowed or played with varying techniques. It is slightly larger than a violin and has a lower and deeper sound. Since the 18th century, it has been the middle or alto voice of the violin family, between the violin (which is tuned a perfect fifth above) and the cello (which is tuned an octave below).[2] The strings from low to high are typically tuned to C3, G3, D4, and A4. In the past, the viola varied in size and style as did its names. The word viola originates from Italian. The Italians often used the term: "viola da braccio" meaning literally: 'of the arm'. "Brazzo" was another Italian word for the viola, which the Germans adopted as Bratsche. The French had their own names: cinquiesme was a small viola, haute contre was a large viola, and taile was a tenor
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César Franck
César-Auguste-Jean-Guillaume-Hubert Franck (10 December 1822 – 8 November 1890) was a composer, pianist, organist, and music teacher who worked in Paris during his adult life. He was born at Liège, in what is now Belgium
Belgium
(though at the time of his birth it was part of the United Kingdom of the Netherlands). He gave his first concerts there in 1834 and studied privately in Paris from 1835, where his teachers included Anton Reicha. After a brief return to Belgium, and a disastrous reception to an early oratorio Ruth, he moved to Paris, where he married and embarked on a career as teacher and organist. He gained a reputation as a formidable improviser, and travelled widely in France to demonstrate new instruments built by Aristide Cavaillé-Coll. In 1858 he became organist at Sainte-Clotilde, a position he retained for the rest of his life
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Folies Bergère
The Folies Bergère
Folies Bergère
(French pronunciation: ​[fɔ.li bɛʁ.ʒɛʁ]) is a cabaret music hall, located in Paris, France. Established in 1869, the house was at the height of its fame and popularity from the 1890s' Belle Époque
Belle Époque
through the 1920s. The institution is still in business, and is still a strong symbol of French and Parisian life.Contents1 History 2 Performers 3 Filmography 4 Similar venues 5 References 6 See also 7 Notes 8 External linksHistory[edit]This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (April 2014) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)Jules Chéret, Folies Bergère, Fleur de Lotus, 1893 Art Nouveau poster for the Ballet PantomimeCostume, c
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Benjamin Godard
Benjamin Louis Paul Godard (18 August 1849 – 10 January 1895) was a French violinist and Romantic-era composer of Jewish extraction,[1] best known for his opera Jocelyn. Godard composed eight operas, five symphonies, two piano and two violin concertos, string quartets, sonatas for violin and piano, piano pieces and etudes, and more than a hundred songs. He died at the age of 45 in Cannes (Alpes-Maritimes) of tuberculosis and was buried in the family tomb in Taverny
Taverny
in the French department of Val-d'Oise.Contents1 Life and career 2 Works 3 Operas 4 References 5 External linksLife and career[edit]Plaster bust of Benjamin Godard
Benjamin Godard
by Ernest-Charles DiosiGodard was born in Paris in 1849
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Gabriel Fauré
Gabriel Urbain Fauré (French: [ɡabʁiɛl yʁbɛ̃ fɔʁe]; 12 May 1845 – 4 November 1924)[n 1] was a French composer, organist, pianist and teacher. He was one of the foremost French composers of his generation, and his musical style influenced many 20th-century composers. Among his best-known works are his Pavane, Requiem, nocturnes for piano and the songs "Après un rêve" and "Clair de lune". Although his best-known and most accessible compositions are generally his earlier ones, Fauré composed many of his most highly regarded works in his later years, in a more harmonically and melodically complex style. Fauré was born into a cultured but not especially musical family. His talent became clear when he was a small boy. At the age of nine, he was sent to a music college in Paris, where he was trained to be a church organist and choirmaster. Among his teachers was Camille Saint-Saëns, who became a lifelong friend
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