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Pierre André Latreille
PIERRE ANDRé LATREILLE (29 November 1762 – 6 February 1833) was a French zoologist , specialising in arthropods . Having trained as a Roman Catholic priest before the French Revolution
French Revolution
, Latreille was imprisoned, and only regained his freedom after recognising a rare beetle species he found in the prison, Necrobia ruficollis
Necrobia ruficollis
. He published his first important work in 1796 (Précis des caractères génériques des insectes), and was eventually employed by the Muséum National d\'Histoire Naturelle . His foresighted work on arthropod systematics and taxonomy gained him respect and accolades, including being asked to write the volume on arthropods for George Cuvier 's monumental work, Le Règne Animal , the only part not by Cuvier himself. Latreille was considered the foremost entomologist of his time, and was described by one of his pupils as "the prince of entomologists"
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Natural History
NATURAL HISTORY is the research and study of organisms including animals , fungi and plants in their environment, leaning more towards observational than experimental methods of study. It encompasses scientific research but is not limited to it, with articles nowadays more often published in science magazines than in academic journals . Grouped among the natural sciences , natural history is the systematic study of any category of natural objects or organisms. That is a very broad designation in a world filled with many narrowly focused disciplines. So while natural history dates historically from studies in the ancient Greco-Roman world and the mediaeval Arabic
Arabic
world , through to European Renaissance
Renaissance
naturalists working in near isolation, today's field is more of a cross discipline umbrella of many specialty sciences
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Jardin Des Plantes
The JARDIN DES PLANTES (French pronunciation: ​ ; French: garden of plants) is the main botanical garden in France
France
. It is one of seven departments of the Muséum national d\'histoire naturelle . It is situated in the 5ème arrondissement , Paris
Paris
, on the left bank of the river Seine
Seine
and covers 28 hectares (280,000 m²). CONTENTS * 1 Garden plan * 2 History * 3 Access * 4 See also * 5 Gallery * 6 References * 7 External links GARDEN PLANThe grounds of the Jardin des Plantes
Jardin des Plantes
includes four galleries of the Muséum: the Grande Galerie de l\'Évolution , the Mineralogy
Mineralogy
Museum, the Paleontology
Paleontology
Museum and the Entomology Museum
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Georges-Louis Leclerc, Comte De Buffon
GEORGES-LOUIS LECLERC, COMTE DE BUFFON (French pronunciation: ​ ; 7 September 1707 – 16 April 1788) was a French naturalist , mathematician , cosmologist , and encyclopédiste . His works influenced the next two generations of naturalists, including Jean-Baptiste Lamarck
Jean-Baptiste Lamarck
and Georges Cuvier
Georges Cuvier
. Buffon published thirty-six quarto volumes of his Histoire Naturelle during his lifetime; with additional volumes based on his notes and further research being published in the two decades following his death. It has been said that "Truly, Buffon was the father of all thought in natural history in the second half of the 18th century". Buffon held the position of intendant (director) at the Jardin du Roi, now called the Jardin des Plantes
Jardin des Plantes

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Deacon
DEACON is an office in Christian Churches that is generally associated with service of some kind, but which varies among theological and denominational traditions. In many traditions the "diaconate", the term for a deacon's office, is a clerical office; in others it is for laity . Some Christian Churches, such as the Catholic Church and the Eastern Orthodox Church
Eastern Orthodox Church
, view the diaconate as part of the clerical state. The word "deacon" is derived from the Greek word diákonos (διάκονος), which is a standard ancient Greek word meaning "servant", "waiting-man", "minister", or "messenger". One commonly promulgated speculation as to its etymology is that it literally means "through the dust", referring to the dust raised by the busy servant or messenger
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Limoges
1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km² (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries. 2 Population without double counting : residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once. LIMOGES (/lɪˈmoʊʒ/ ; French pronunciation: ​ ; Occitan : Lemòtges or Limòtges ) is a city and commune , the capital of the Haute-Vienne department and the administrative capital of the Limousin in west-central France
France
. Limoges
Limoges
is known for its medieval and Renaissance enamels (Limoges enamels ) on copper, for its 19th-century porcelain ( Limoges
Limoges
porcelain ) and for its oak barrels which are used for Cognac and Bordeaux production. Some are even exported to wineries in California
California

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Illegitimate Child
LEGITIMACY, in traditional Western common law , is the status of a child born to parents who are legally married to each other, and of a child conceived before the parents obtain a legal divorce . Conversely, illegitimacy (or bastardy) is the status of a child born outside marriage. Depending on the cultural context, legitimacy can affect a child's rights of inheritance to the putative father 's estate and the child's right to bear the father's surname or title. Illegitimacy has also had consequences for the mother's and child's right to support from the putative father. See Affiliation (family law)
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Nickname
A NICKNAME is a substitute for the proper name of a familiar person, place, or thing, for affection or ridicule. The term hypocoristic is used to refer to a nickname of affection between those in love or with a close emotional bond, compared with a term of endearment . The term diminutive name refers to nicknames that convey smallness, hence something regarded with affection or familiarity (e.g., referring to children), or contempt. The distinction between the two is often blurred. It is a form of endearment and amusement. As a concept, it is distinct from both pseudonym and stage name , and also from a title (for example, City of Fountains), although there may be overlap in these concepts. A MONIKER also means a nickname or personal name. The word often distinguishes personal names from nicknames that became proper names out of former nicknames. English examples are Bob and Rob, nickname variants for Robert
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Latreille (other)
DISAMBIGUATION is word-sense disambiguation, the process of identifying which meaning of a word is used in context
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Insect Collecting
INSECT COLLECTING refers to the collection of insects and other arthropods for scientific study or as a hobby . Because most insects are small and the majority cannot be identified without the examination of minute morphological characters, entomologists often make and maintain insect collections. Very large collections are conserved in natural history museums or universities where they are maintained and studied by specialists. Many college courses require students to form small collections. There are also amateur entomologists and collectors who keep collections. Historically, insect collecting has been widespread and was in the Victorian age a very popular educational hobby . Insect
Insect
collecting has left traces in European cultural history , literature and songs (e.g., Georges Brassens 's La chasse aux papillons (The Hunt for Butterflies))
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Botany
BOTANY, also called PLANT SCIENCE(S), PLANT BIOLOGY or PHYTOLOGY, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology . A BOTANIST or PLANT SCIENTIST is a scientist who specialises in this field. The term "botany" comes from the Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
word βοτάνη (botanē) meaning "pasture ", "grass", or "fodder "; βοτάνη is in turn derived from βόσκειν (boskein), "to feed" or "to graze". Traditionally, botany has also included the study of fungi and algae by mycologists and phycologists respectively, with the study of these three groups of organisms remaining within the sphere of interest of the International Botanical Congress . Nowadays, botanists (in the strict sense) study approximately 410,000 species of land plants of which some 391,000 species are vascular plants (including ca 369,000 species of flowering plants ), and ca 20,000 are bryophytes
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Bernard Germain De Lacépède
BERNARD-GERMAIN-ÉTIENNE DE LA VILLE-SUR-ILLON, COMTE DE LACéPèDE or LA CéPèDE (26 December 1756 – 6 October 1825) was a French naturalist and an active freemason. He is known for his contribution to the Comte de Buffon 's great work, the Histoire Naturelle . CONTENTS * 1 Biography * 2 Works * 3 Notes * 4 References * 5 External links BIOGRAPHY Bust of Bernard-Germain de Lacépède by David d\'Angers (1824). Lacépède was born at Agen in Guienne . His education was carefully conducted by his father, and the early perusal of Buffon 's Natural History (Histoire naturelle, générale et particulière ) awakened his interest in that branch of study, which absorbed his chief attention
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Muséum National D'histoire Naturelle
The French NATIONAL MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY, known in French as the MUSéUM NATIONAL D\'HISTOIRE NATURELLE (abbreviation MNHN), is the national natural history museum of France
France
and a grand établissement of higher education part of Sorbonne
Sorbonne
Universities . The main museum is located in Paris
Paris
, France
France
, on the left bank of the River Seine
Seine
. It was founded in 1793 during the French Revolution
French Revolution
, but was established earlier in 1635. As of 2017, the museum has 14 sites throughout France, with four in Paris, including the original location at the royal botanical garden , the Jardin des Plantes
Jardin des Plantes
, which remains one of the seven departments of MNHN
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Legion Of Honour
The LEGION OF HONOUR, full name NATIONAL ORDER OF THE LEGION OF HONOUR (French : Ordre national de la Légion d'honneur), is the highest French order of merit for military and civil merits, established 1802 by Napoléon Bonaparte . The order is divided into five degrees of increasing distinction: Chevalier ( Knight
Knight
), Officier (Officer), Commandeur (Commander ), Grand Officier (Grand Officer) and Grand-Croix ( Grand Cross
Grand Cross
). The order's motto is "Honneur et Patrie" ("Honour and Motherland") and its seat is the Palais de la Légion d\'Honneur next to the Musée d\'Orsay , on the left bank of the River Seine in Paris
Paris

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House Arrest
In justice and law , HOUSE ARREST (also called HOME CONFINEMENT, HOME DETENTION, or ELECTRONIC MONITORING) is a measure by which a person is confined by the authorities to a residence . Travel is usually restricted, if allowed at all. House
House
arrest is an alternative to prison time or juvenile-detention time. While house arrest can be applied to criminal cases when prison does not seem an appropriate measure, the term is often applied to the use of house confinement as a measure of repression by authoritarian governments against political dissidents . In that case, typically, the person under house arrest does not have access to any means of communication . If electronic communication is allowed, conversations will most likely be monitored. With some electronic monitoring units, the conversations of prisoners can be directly monitored via the unit itself
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Civil Constitution Of The Clergy
The CIVIL CONSTITUTION OF THE CLERGY (French : "CONSTITUTION CIVILE DU CLERGé") was a law passed on 12 July 1790 during the French Revolution , that caused the immediate subordination of the Catholic Church in France
France
to the French government. Earlier legislation had already arranged the confiscation of the Catholic Church's French land holdings and banned monastic vows . This new law completed the destruction of the monastic orders, outlawing "all regular and secular chapters for either sex, abbacies and priorships, both regular and in commendam , for either sex", etc. It also sought to settle the chaos caused by the earlier confiscation of Church lands and the abolition of the tithe. Additionally, the Civil Constitution of the Clergy regulated the current dioceses so that they could become more uniform and aligned with the administrative districts that had recently been created
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