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Pierre André Latreille
PIERRE ANDRé LATREILLE (29 November 1762 – 6 February 1833) was a French zoologist , specialising in arthropods . Having trained as a Roman Catholic priest before the French Revolution , Latreille was imprisoned, and only regained his freedom after recognising a rare beetle species he found in the prison, Necrobia ruficollis
Necrobia ruficollis
. He published his first important work in 1796 (Précis des caractères génériques des insectes), and was eventually employed by the Muséum National d\'Histoire Naturelle . His foresighted work on arthropod systematics and taxonomy gained him respect and accolades, including being asked to write the volume on arthropods for George Cuvier 's monumental work, Le Règne Animal , the only part not by Cuvier himself. Latreille was considered the foremost entomologist of his time, and was described by one of his pupils as "the prince of entomologists"
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Jardin Des Plantes
The JARDIN DES PLANTES (French pronunciation: ​ ; French: _garden of plants_) is the main botanical garden in France . It is one of seven departments of the Muséum national d\'histoire naturelle . It is situated in the 5ème arrondissement , Paris , on the left bank of the river Seine and covers 28 hectares (280,000 m²). CONTENTS * 1 Garden plan * 2 History * 3 Access * 4 See also * 5 Gallery * 6 References * 7 External links GARDEN PLANThe grounds of the Jardin des Plantes includes four galleries of the Muséum: the Grande Galerie de l\'Évolution , the Mineralogy Museum, the Paleontology Museum and the Entomology Museum. In addition to the gardens there is also a small zoo , Ménagerie du Jardin des plantes , founded in 1795 by Bernardin de Saint-Pierre from animals of the royal menagerie at Versailles
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Georges-Louis Leclerc, Comte De Buffon
GEORGES-LOUIS LECLERC, COMTE DE BUFFON (French pronunciation: ​ ; 7 September 1707 – 16 April 1788) was a French naturalist , mathematician , cosmologist , and encyclopédiste . His works influenced the next two generations of naturalists, including Jean-Baptiste Lamarck and Georges Cuvier
Georges Cuvier
. Buffon published thirty-six quarto volumes of his Histoire Naturelle during his lifetime; with additional volumes based on his notes and further research being published in the two decades following his death. Ernst Mayr
Ernst Mayr
wrote that "Truly, Buffon was the father of all thought in natural history in the second half of the 18th century". Buffon held the position of intendant (director) at the Jardin du Roi, now called the Jardin des Plantes
Jardin des Plantes

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Insect Collecting
INSECT COLLECTING refers to the collection of insects and other arthropods for scientific study or as a hobby . Because most insects are small and the majority cannot be identified without the examination of minute morphological characters, entomologists often make and maintain insect collections. Very large collections are conserved in natural history museums or universities where they are maintained and studied by specialists. Many college courses require students to form small collections. There are also amateur entomologists and collectors who keep collections. Historically insect collecting has been widespread and was in the Victorian age
Victorian age
a very popular educational hobby . Insect
Insect
collecting has left traces in European cultural history , literature and songs (e.g., Georges Brassens
Georges Brassens
's La chasse aux papillons (The Hunt for Butterflies))
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Botany
BOTANY, also called PLANT SCIENCE(S), PLANT BIOLOGY or PHYTOLOGY, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology . A BOTANIST or PLANT SCIENTIST is a scientist who specialises in this field. The term "botany" comes from the Ancient Greek word βοτάνη (_botanē_) meaning "pasture ", "grass", or "fodder "; βοτάνη is in turn derived from βόσκειν (_boskein_), "to feed" or "to graze". Traditionally, botany has also included the study of fungi and algae by mycologists and phycologists respectively, with the study of these three groups of organisms remaining within the sphere of interest of the International Botanical Congress . Nowadays, botanists (in the strict sense) study approximately 410,000 species of land plants of which some 391,000 species are vascular plants (including ca 369,000 species of flowering plants ), and ca 20,000 are bryophytes
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Natural History
NATURAL HISTORY is the research and study of organisms including animals , fungi and plants in their environment, leaning more towards observational than experimental methods of study. It encompasses scientific research but is not limited to it, with articles nowadays more often published in science magazines than in academic journals . Grouped among the natural sciences , natural history is the systematic study of any category of natural objects or organisms. That is a very broad designation in a world filled with many narrowly focused disciplines. So while natural history dates historically from studies in the ancient Greco-Roman world and the mediaeval Arabic world , through to European Renaissance naturalists working in near isolation, today's field is more of a cross discipline umbrella of many specialty sciences
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Deacon
DEACON is an office in Christian Churches that is generally associated with service of some kind, but which varies among theological and denominational traditions. In many traditions the "diaconate", the term for a deacon's office, is a clerical office; in others it is for laity . Some Christian Churches, such as the Catholic Church and the Eastern Orthodox Church , view the diaconate as part of the clerical state. The word "deacon" is derived from the Greek word _diákonos_ (διάκονος), which is a standard ancient Greek word meaning "servant", "waiting-man", "minister", or "messenger". One commonly promulgated speculation as to its etymology is that it literally means "through the dust", referring to the dust raised by the busy servant or messenger. It is generally assumed that the office of deacon originated in the selection of seven men by the apostles, among them Stephen , to assist with the charitable work of the early church as recorded in Acts 6
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Illegitimate Child
LEGITIMACY, in traditional Western common law , is the status of a child born to parents who are legally married to each other, and of a child conceived before the parents obtain a legal divorce . Conversely, illegitimacy (or bastardy) has been the status of a child born outside marriage. Depending on the local legislation, legitimacy can affect a child's rights of inheritance to the putative father 's estate and the child's right to bear the father's surname or title. Illegitimacy has also had consequences for the mother's and child's right to support from the putative father
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Nickname
A NICKNAME is a substitute for the proper name of a familiar person, place, or thing, for affection or ridicule. The term hypocoristic is used to refer to a nickname of affection between those in love or with a close emotional bond, compared with a term of endearment . The term diminutive name refers to nicknames that convey smallness, hence something regarded with affection or familiarity (e.g., referring to children), or contempt. The distinction between the two is often blurred. It is a form of endearment and amusement. As a concept, it is distinct from both pseudonym and stage name , and also from a title (for example, City of Fountains), although there may be overlap in these concepts. A MONIKER also means a nickname or personal name. The word often distinguishes personal names from nicknames that became proper names out of former nicknames. English examples are Bob and Rob, nickname variants for Robert
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Priest
A PRIEST or PRIESTESS (feminine) (/priːst/ from Greek πρεσβύτερος _presbýteros_ through Latin
Latin
_presbyter_, "elder", or from Old High German _priast_, _prest_, from Vulgar Latin "provost" "one put over others", from Latin
Latin
_praepositus_ "person placed in charge"), is a religious leader authorized to perform the sacred rituals of a religion, especially as a mediatory agent between humans and one or more deities. They also have the authority or power to administer religious rites ; in particular, rites of sacrifice to, and propitiation of, a deity or deities. Their office or position is the PRIESTHOOD, a term which also may apply to such persons collectively
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René Just Haüy
RENé JUST HAüY (French pronunciation: ​ ) FRS MWS FRSE (28 February 1743 – 3 June 1822) was a French mineralogist , commonly styled the ABBé HAüY after he was made an honorary canon of Notre Dame . He is often referred to as the "Father of Modern Crystallography." CONTENTS * 1 Biography * 2 Works * 3 See also * 4 Notes * 5 References BIOGRAPHYHaüy was born at Saint-Just-en-Chaussée , in the département of Oise
Oise
. His parents were of a humble rank of life, and were only enabled by the kindness of friends to send their son to the College of Navarre and later to the College of Lemoine. Haüy became an ordained Roman Catholic Priest
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Jean-Baptiste Lamarck
JEAN-BAPTISTE PIERRE ANTOINE DE MONET, CHEVALIER DE LAMARCK (1 August 1744 – 18 December 1829), often known simply as LAMARCK (/ləˈmɑːrk/ ; French: ), was a French naturalist . He was a soldier , biologist , academic , and an early proponent of the idea that biological evolution occurred and proceeded in accordance with natural laws . He gave the term "biology " a broader meaning by coining the term for special sciences, chemistry , meteorology , geology , and botany-zoology. Lamarck fought in the Pomeranian War (1757–62) against Prussia , and was awarded a commission for bravery on the battlefield. Posted to Monaco , Lamarck became interested in natural history and resolved to study medicine. He retired from the army after being injured in 1766, and returned to his medical studies
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French Academy Of Sciences
The FRENCH ACADEMY OF SCIENCES (French: _Académie des sciences_) is a learned society , founded in 1666 by Louis XIV at the suggestion of Jean-Baptiste Colbert , to encourage and protect the spirit of French scientific research . It was at the forefront of scientific developments in Europe in the 17th and 18th centuries, and is one of the earliest Academies of Sciences . Currently headed by Sébastien Candel (President of the Academy), it is one of the five Academies of the Institut de France
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Legion Of Honour
The LEGION OF HONOUR, full name NATIONAL ORDER OF THE LEGION OF HONOUR (French : _Ordre national de la Légion d'honneur_), is the highest French order of merit for military and civil merits, established 1802 by Napoléon Bonaparte . The order is divided into five degrees of increasing distinction: _Chevalier_ ( Knight ), _Officier_ (Officer), _Commandeur_ (Commander ), _Grand Officier_ (Grand Officer) and _Grand-Croix_ ( Grand Cross ). The order's motto is "_Honneur et Patrie_" ("Honour and Motherland") and its seat is the Palais de la Légion d\'Honneur next to the Musée d\'Orsay , on the left bank of the River Seine in Paris
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Clerical Celibacy
CLERICAL CELIBACY is the requirement in certain religions that some or all members of the clergy be unmarried. These religions consider that, outside of marriage, deliberate sexual thoughts, feelings, and behavior are sinful; clerical celibacy also requires abstention from these. Within the Roman Catholic Church
Roman Catholic Church
, clerical celibacy is mandated for all clergy in the Latin Church
Latin Church
except in the permanent diaconate . Exceptions are sometimes admitted for ordination to transitional diaconate and priesthood on a case-by-case basis for married clergymen of other churches or communities who become Catholics, but ordination of married men to the episcopacy is excluded (see Personal ordinariate )
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Muséum National D'histoire Naturelle
The French NATIONAL MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY, known in French as the MUSéUM NATIONAL D\'HISTOIRE NATURELLE (abbreviation MNHN), is the national natural history museum of France
France
and a grand établissement of higher education part of Sorbonne
Sorbonne
Universities . The main museum is located in Paris
Paris
, France
France
, on the left bank of the River Seine
Seine
. It was founded in 1793 during the French Revolution , but was established earlier in 1635. As of 2017, the museum has 14 sites throughout France, with four in Paris, including the original location at the royal botanical garden , the Jardin des Plantes , which remains one of the seven departments of MNHN
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