HOME TheInfoList.com
Providing Lists of Related Topics to Help You Find Great Stuff
[::MainTopicLength::#1500] [::ListTopicLength::#1000] [::ListLength::#15] [::ListAdRepeat::#3]

Photomask
A PHOTOMASK is an opaque plate with holes or transparencies that allow light to shine through in a defined pattern. They are commonly used in photolithography . CONTENTS * 1 Overview * 2 Mask Error Enhancement Factor (MEEF) * 3 Pellicles * 4 Leading commercial photomask manufacturers * 5 See also * 6 References OVERVIEW A simulated photomask. The thicker features are the integrated circuit that is desired to be printed on the wafer. The thinner features are assists that do not print themselves, but help the integrated circuit print better out-of-focus. The zig-zag appearance of the photomask is because optical proximity correction was applied to it to create a better print
[...More...]

"Photomask" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Photolithography
PHOTOLITHOGRAPHY, also termed OPTICAL LITHOGRAPHY or UV LITHOGRAPHY, is a process used in microfabrication to pattern parts of a thin film or the bulk of a substrate . It uses light to transfer a geometric pattern from a photomask to a light-sensitive chemical "photoresist ", or simply "resist," on the substrate. A series of chemical treatments then either engraves the exposure pattern into, or enables deposition of a new material in the desired pattern upon the material underneath the photo resist. For example, in complex integrated circuits , a modern CMOS
CMOS
wafer will go through the photolithographic cycle up to 50 times. Photolithography
Photolithography
shares some fundamental principles with photography in that the pattern in the etching resist is created by exposing it to light , either directly (without using a mask) or with a projected image using an optical mask
[...More...]

"Photolithography" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Optical Proximity Correction
OPTICAL PROXIMITY CORRECTION (OPC) is a photolithography enhancement technique commonly used to compensate for image errors due to diffraction or process effects. The need for OPC is seen mainly in the making of semiconductor devices and is due to the limitations of light to maintain the edge placement integrity of the original design, after processing, into the etched image on the silicon wafer. These projected images appear with irregularities such as line widths that are narrower or wider than designed, these are amenable to compensation by changing the pattern on the photomask used for imaging. Other distortions such as rounded corners are driven by the resolution of the optical imaging tool and are harder to compensate for. Such distortions, if not corrected for, may significantly alter the electrical properties of what was being fabricated. Optical proximity correction corrects these errors by moving edges or adding extra polygons to the pattern written on the photomask
[...More...]

"Optical Proximity Correction" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Fused Silica
FUSED QUARTZ or FUSED SILICA is glass consisting of silica in amorphous (non-crystalline ) form. It differs from traditional glasses in containing no other ingredients, which are typically added to glass to lower the melt temperature. Although the terms quartz and fused silica are used interchangeably, the fundamental structures and creation of each glass differ. Fused silica, therefore, has high working and melting temperatures. The optical and thermal properties of fused quartz are superior to those of other types of glass due to its purity. For these reasons, it finds use in situations such as semiconductor fabrication and laboratory equipment. It transmits ultraviolet better than other glasses, so is used to make lenses and optics for the ultraviolet spectrum. Its low coefficient of thermal expansion also makes it a useful material for precision mirror substrates
[...More...]

"Fused Silica" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

Nanometer
The NANOMETRE (International spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures ; SI symbol: NM) or NANOMETER (American spelling ) is a unit of length in the metric system , equal to one billionth of a metre (6991100000000000000♠0.000000001 m). The name combines the SI prefix
SI prefix
nano- (from the Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
νάνος, nanos, "dwarf") with the parent unit name metre (from Greek μέτρον, metrοn, "unit of measurement"). It can be written in scientific notation as 6991100000000000000♠1×10−9 m, in engineering notation as 1 E−9 m, and is simply 1/7009100000000000000♠1000000000 metres. One nanometre equals ten ångströms . When used as a prefix for something other than a unit of measure (as in "nanoscience"), NANO refers to nanotechnology , or phenomena typically occurring on a scale of nanometres (see nanoscopic scale )
[...More...]

"Nanometer" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography
EXTREME ULTRAVIOLET LITHOGRAPHY (also known as EUV or EUVL) is a next-generation lithography technology using an extreme ultraviolet (EUV) wavelength, currently expected to be 13.5 nm. EUV is currently being developed for high volume use by 2020. CONTENTS* 1 Tool * 1.1 Resource requirements * 2 Light source power and throughput * 3 EUV-specific optical issues * 3.1 H-V asymmetry * 3.2 Asymmetries in sets of parallel lines * 3.3 Pattern shift from defocus (non-telecentricity) * 3.4 Line tip effects * 3.5 Slit position dependence * 4 Enhancements for EUV Patterning * 4.1 Assist features * 4.2 Source-mask optimization * 4.3 Optimum illumination vs
[...More...]

"Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

X-ray
X-RADIATION (composed of X-RAYS) is a form of electromagnetic radiation . Most X-rays have a wavelength ranging from 0.01 to 10 nanometers , corresponding to frequencies in the range 30 petahertz to 30 exahertz (3×1016 Hz to 3×1019 Hz) and energies in the range 100 eV to 100 keV . X-ray wavelengths are shorter than those of UV rays and typically longer than those of gamma rays . In many languages, X-radiation is referred to with terms meaning RöNTGEN RADIATION, after the German scientist Wilhelm Röntgen , who usually is credited as its discoverer, and who had named it _X-radiation_ to signify an unknown type of radiation. Spelling of _X-ray(s)_ in the English language includes the variants _x-ray(s)_, _xray(s)_, and _X ray(s)_
[...More...]

"X-ray" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

Electrons
The ELECTRON is a subatomic particle , symbol e− or β− , with a negative elementary electric charge . Electrons belong to the first generation of the lepton particle family, and are generally thought to be elementary particles because they have no known components or substructure. The electron has a mass that is approximately 1/1836 that of the proton . Quantum mechanical properties of the electron include an intrinsic angular momentum (spin ) of a half-integer value, expressed in units of the reduced Planck constant , _ħ_. As it is a fermion , no two electrons can occupy the same quantum state , in accordance with the Pauli exclusion principle . Like all elementary particles, electrons exhibit properties of both particles and waves : they can collide with other particles and can be diffracted like light
[...More...]

"Electrons" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

Ions
An ION (/ˈaɪən, -ɒn/ ) is an atom , or a molecule , in which the total number of electrons is not equal to the total number of protons , giving the atom or molecule a net positive or negative electrical charge . An atom, or molecule, with a net positive charge is a cation . An atom, or molecule, with a net negative charge is an anion . Because of their opposite electric charges, cations and anions attract each other and readily form ionic compounds , such as salts . Ions can be created by chemical means, such as the dissolution of a salt into water, or by physical means, such as passing a direct current through a conducting solution, which will dissolve the anode via ionization . Ions consisting of only a single atom are atomic or monatomic ions . If they consist of two or more atoms, then they are called either molecular ions , or polyatomic ions
[...More...]

"Ions" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

Photomask Set
A MASK SET or a PHOTOMASK SET is a series of electronic data that define geometry for the photolithography steps of semiconductor fabrication. Each of the physical masks generated from this data is called a photomask . A mask set for a modern process typically contains as many as twenty or more masks, each of which defines a specific photolithographic step in the semiconductor fabrication process. Examples of masks include: * p-well * n-well * active * poly * p-select * n-select * contact * metal1, 2, 3...For more information, see photolithography and semiconductor manufacturing . REFERENCES* Saint, Christopher and Judy. (2002). IC Layout Basics. McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0-07-138625-4 Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Mask_set additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy .® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc
[...More...]

"Photomask Set" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

Semiconductor Device Fabrication
SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICE FABRICATION is the process used to create the integrated circuits that are present in everyday electrical and electronic devices. It is a multiple-step sequence of photo lithographic and chemical processing steps during which electronic circuits are gradually created on a wafer made of pure semiconducting material. Silicon is almost always used, but various compound semiconductors are used for specialized applications. The entire manufacturing process, from start to packaged chips ready for shipment, takes six to eight weeks and is performed in highly specialized facilities referred to as fabs
[...More...]

"Semiconductor Device Fabrication" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Stepper
A STEPPER is a device used in the manufacture of integrated circuits (ICs) that is similar in operation to a slide projector or a photographic enlarger . The term "stepper" is short for step-and-repeat camera. Steppers are an essential part of the complex process, called photolithography , that creates millions of microscopic circuit elements on the surface of tiny chips of silicon. These chips form the heart of ICs such as computer processors, memory chips, and many other devices. CONTENTS * 1 The stepper\'s role in photolithography * 2 Basic operation * 3 Major subassemblies * 4 Illumination and the challenges of improving resolution * 5 Scanners * 6 See also * 7 References THE STEPPER\'S ROLE IN PHOTOLITHOGRAPHYElements of the circuit to be created on the IC are reproduced in a pattern of transparent and opaque areas on the surface of a quartz plate called a photomask or reticle
[...More...]

"Stepper" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Double Patterning
MULTIPLE PATTERNING (or MULTI-PATTERNING) is a class of technologies for manufacturing integrated circuits (ICs), developed for photolithography to enhance the feature density. It is expected to be necessary for the upcoming 10 nm and 7 nm node semiconductor processes and beyond. The premise is that a single lithographic exposure may not be enough to provide sufficient resolution. Hence additional exposures would be needed, or else positioning patterns using etched feature sidewalls (using spacers) would be necessary. SELF-ALIGNED DOUBLE AND QUADRUPLE PATTERNING WITH BLOCKING. Above: Self-aligned double patterning (SADP) with a block mask is commonly used for 40-50 nm pitches. Below: An option for sub-40 nm pitch metal patterning (used by Intel) is to make use of self-aligned quadruple patterning (SAQP). In this example, two block patterns are used after SAQP
[...More...]

"Double Patterning" on:
Wikipedia
Google