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Photomask
A photomask is an opaque plate with holes or transparencies that allow light to shine through in a defined pattern. They are commonly used in photolithography.Contents1 Overview 2 Mask Error Enhancement Factor (MEEF) 3 Pellicles 4 Leading commercial photomask manufacturers 5 See also 6 ReferencesOverview[edit]A simulated photomask. The thicker features are the integrated circuit that is desired to be printed on the wafer. The thinner features are assists that do not print themselves, but help the integrated circuit print better out-of-focus. The zig-zag appearance of the photomask is because optical proximity correction was applied to it to create a better print.Lithographic photomasks are typically transparent fused silica blanks covered with a pattern defined with a chrome metal-absorbing film. Photomasks are used at wavelengths of 365 nm, 248 nm, and 193 nm
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International Standard Serial Number
An International Standard Serial Number
International Standard Serial Number
(ISSN) is an eight-digit serial number used to uniquely identify a serial publication.[1] The ISSN is especially helpful in distinguishing between serials with the same title. ISSN are used in ordering, cataloging, interlibrary loans, and other practices in connection with serial literature.[2] The ISSN system was first drafted as an International Organization for Standardization (ISO) international standard in 1971 and published as ISO 3297 in 1975.[3] ISO subcommittee TC 46/SC 9 is responsible for maintaining the standard. When a serial with the same content is published in more than one media type, a different ISSN is assigned to each media type. For example, many serials are published both in print and electronic media
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Quartz
Quartz
Quartz
is a mineral composed of silicon and oxygen atoms in a continuous framework of SiO4 silicon–oxygen tetrahedra, with each oxygen being shared between two tetrahedra, giving an overall chemical formula of SiO2. Quartz
Quartz
is the second most abundant mineral in Earth's continental crust, behind feldspar.[7] Quartz
Quartz
crystals are chiral, and exist in two forms, the normal α-quartz and the high-temperature β-quartz. The transformation from α-quartz to β-quartz takes place abruptly at 573 °C (846 K). Since the transformation is accompanied by a significant change in volume, it can easily induce fracturing of ceramics or rocks passing through this temperature limit. There are many different varieties of quartz, several of which are semi-precious gemstones
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Micron Technology
Micron Technology, Inc. is an American global corporation based in Boise, Idaho, which produces many forms of semiconductor devices, including dynamic random-access memory, flash memory, and solid-state drives. Its consumer products are marketed under the brands Crucial and Ballistix. Micron and Intel
Intel
together created IM Flash Technologies, which produces NAND flash memory.Contents1 History1.1 1978–1999 1.2 2000–present2 Products 3 See also 4 References 5 External linksHistory[edit] 1978–1999[edit] Micron was founded in Boise, Idaho, in 1978[2] by Ward Parkinson, Joe Parkinson, Dennis Wilson, and Doug Pitman as a semiconductor design consulting company.[3] Startup funding was provided by local Idaho businessmen Tom Nicholson, Allen Noble, Rudolph Nelson, and Ron Yanke. Later it received funding from Idaho
Idaho
billionaire J. R. Simplot, whose fortune was made in the potato business
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Samsung
Samsung
Samsung
(Hangul: 삼성; Hanja: 三星; Korean pronunciation: [samsʌŋ]) is a South Korean multinational conglomerate headquartered in Samsung
Samsung
Town, Seoul.[1] It comprises numerous affiliated businesses,[1] most of them united under the Samsung
Samsung
brand, and is the largest South Korean chaebol (business conglomerate). Samsung
Samsung
was founded by Lee Byung-chul
Lee Byung-chul
in 1938 as a trading company. Over the next three decades, the group diversified into areas including food processing, textiles, insurance, securities and retail. Samsung
Samsung
entered the electronics industry in the late 1960s and the construction and shipbuilding industries in the mid-1970s; these areas would drive its subsequent growth
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United Microelectronics Corporation
United Microelectronics Corporation
United Microelectronics Corporation
(UMC; Chinese: 聯華電子; pinyin: Liánhuá Diànzǐ) was founded as Taiwan's first semiconductor company in 1980 as a spin-off of the government-sponsored Industrial Technology Research Institute (ITRI).[2] UMC is best known for its merchant foundry business, manufacturing integrated circuits wafers for fabless semiconductor companies. In this role, UMC is ranked behind competitors TSMC
TSMC
and GlobalFoundries.[3] It has three 300 mm fabs, one in Taiwan
Taiwan
and one in Singapore
Singapore
and one in China.[2] UMC is listed on the New York Stock Exchange
New York Stock Exchange
under the ticker symbol of UMC, and on the Taiwan Stock Exchange
Taiwan Stock Exchange
as 2303
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TSMC
Taiwan
Taiwan
Semiconductor
Semiconductor
Manufacturing Company, Limited (TSMC; Chinese: 台灣積體電路製造公司; pinyin: Táiwān Jī Tǐ Diànlù Zhìzào Gōngsī), also known as Taiwan
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NEC Corporation
NEC
NEC
Corporation (日本電気株式会社, Nippon
Nippon
Denki Kabushiki Gaisha) is a Japanese multinational provider of information technology (IT) services and products, headquartered in Minato, Tokyo, Japan.[2] It provides IT and network solutions to business enterprises, communications services providers and to government agencies, and has also been the biggest PC vendor in Japan
Japan
since the 1980s. The company was known as the Nippon
Nippon
Electric Company, Limited, before rebranding in 1983 as just NEC. Its NEC
NEC
Semiconductors business unit was one of the worldwide top 20 semiconductor sales leaders before merging with Renesas Electronics
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IBM
IBM
IBM
(International Business
Business
Machines Corporation) is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Armonk, New York, United States, with operations in over 170 countries. The company originated in 1911 as the Computing-Tabulating-Recording Company
Computing-Tabulating-Recording Company
(CTR) and was renamed "International Business
Business
Machines" in 1924. IBM
IBM
manufactures and markets computer hardware, middleware and software, and provides hosting and consulting services in areas ranging from mainframe computers to nanotechnology. IBM
IBM
is also a major research organization, holding the record for most U.S
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GlobalFoundries
GlobalFoundries
GlobalFoundries
is an American semiconductor foundry headquartered in Santa Clara, California, United States.[3] GlobalFoundries
GlobalFoundries
was created by the divestiture of the manufacturing arm of Advanced Micro Devices (AMD) on March 2, 2009, expanded through the acquisition of Chartered Semiconductor
Semiconductor
on January 23, 2010, and further expanded through the acquisition of IBM
IBM
Microelectronics on July 1, 2015. The Emirate of Abu Dhabi is the owner of the company through its subsidiary Advanced Technology Investment Company (ATIC). On March 4, 2012, AMD announced they divested their final 14% stake in the company, which concluded AMD's multi-year plan to divest its manufacturing arm.[4] The firm manufactures integrated circuits in high volume mostly for semiconductor companies such as AMD, Broadcom, Qualcomm, and STMicroelectronics
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Intel
Coordinates: 37°23′16.54″N 121°57′48.74″W / 37.3879278°N 121.9635389°W / 37.3879278; -121.9635389 Intel
Intel
Corporation Intel
Intel
Corporation's current logo, used since 2006Intel's headquarters in Santa Clara, CaliforniaFormerly calledN M
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National Diet Library
The National Diet
National Diet
Library (NDL) (国立国会図書館, Kokuritsu Kokkai Toshokan) is the national library of Japan
Japan
and among the largest libraries in the world. It was established in 1948 for the purpose of assisting members of the National Diet
National Diet
of Japan
Japan
(国会, Kokkai) in researching matters of public policy
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Dai Nippon Printing
1,446,607 million Yen
Yen
(Fiscal year ended March 31, 2013) [1]Number of employees39,445 (Consolidated, 2013) [1]Subsidiaries DNP Imagingcomm America CorporationWebsite http://www.dnp.co.jp/eng/ Dai Nippon Printing
Dai Nippon Printing
(大日本印刷, Dai Nippon Insatsu), established in 1876, is a Japanese printing company. The company operates its printing in three areas; Information Communications, Lifestyle and Industrial Supplies, and Electronics.[2] It is involved in a wide variety of printing processes, ranging from magazines through to shadow masks for the production of displays, as well as out-coupling enhancement structures for LCD displays and scattering for display backlights. The company has more than 35,000 employees. See also[edit]Vertical (company)References[edit]^ a b " Dai Nippon Printing
Dai Nippon Printing
on the Forbes Global 2000 List". forbes.com
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SPIE
2018 President: Maryellen Giger CEO: Eugene ArthursEmployees180Website spie.org SPIE
SPIE
is an international not-for-profit professional society for optics and photonics technology,[1] founded in 1955. It organizes technical conferences, trade exhibitions, and continuing education programs for researchers and developers in the light-based fields of physics, including: optics, photonics, and imaging engineering. SPIE is most known for Photonics
Photonics
West, held in San Francisco. The society publishes peer-reviewed scientific journals, conference proceedings, monographs, tutorial texts, field guides, and reference volumes in print and online
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Immersion Lithography
Immersion lithography
Immersion lithography
is a photolithography resolution enhancement technique for manufacturing integrated circuits (ICs) that replaces the usual air gap between the final lens and the wafer surface with a liquid medium that has a refractive index greater than one. The resolution is increased by a factor equal to the refractive index of the liquid. Current immersion lithography tools use highly purified water for this liquid, achieving feature sizes below 45 nanometers.[1] ASML and Nikon
Nikon
are currently the only manufacturers of immersion lithography systems. The idea for Immersion lithography
Immersion lithography
was first proposed and realized in the 1980s
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IMEC
Imec is an international R&D and innovation hub, active in the fields of nanoelectronics and digital technologies. It is led since 2009 by Luc Van den Hove.[1] In September 2016, imec merged with the Flemish digital research center, iMinds.[2]Contents1 Overview1.1 History 1.2 Merger with iMinds2 Campus 3 Research domains 4 Locations 5 References 6 External linksOverview[edit] Imec is one of the leading organizations for R&D in nanoelectronics and digital technologies
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