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Photography
Photography
Photography
is the science, art, application and practice of creating durable images by recording light or other electromagnetic radiation, either electronically by means of an image sensor, or chemically by means of a light-sensitive material such as photographic film.[1] Typically, a lens is used to focus the light reflected or emitted from objects into a real image on the light-sensitive surface inside a camera during a timed exposure. With an electronic image sensor, this produces an electrical charge at each pixel, which is electronically processed and stored in a digital image file for subsequent display or processing. The result with photographic emulsion is an invisible latent image, which is later chemically "developed" into a visible image, either negative or positive depending on the purpose of the photographic material and the method of processing
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Albertus Magnus
Catholicism portal Philosophy portalv t eAlbertus Magnus,[3] O.P. (c. 1200 – November 15, 1280), also known as Saint
Saint
Albert the Great and Albert of Cologne, was a German Catholic Dominican friar and bishop. Later canonised as a Catholic
Catholic
saint, he was known during his lifetime as Doctor universalis and Doctor expertus and, late in his life, the sobriquet Magnus was appended to his name.[4] Scholars such as James A. Weisheipl and Joachim R
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Image Processing
Digital image
Digital image
processing is the use of computer algorithms to perform image processing on digital images. As a subcategory or field of digital signal processing, digital image processing has many advantages over analog image processing
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Ibn Al-Haytham
Hasan Ibn al-Haytham
Ibn al-Haytham
(Latinized Alhazen[8] /ˌælˈhɑːzən/; full name Abū ʿAlī al-Ḥasan ibn al-Ḥasan ibn al-Haytham أبو علي، الحسن بن الحسن بن الهيثم; c. 965 – c. 1040) was an Arab[9][10][11][12][13] mathematician, astronomer, and physicist of the Islamic Golden Age.[14] He made significant contributions to the principles of optics and visual perception in particular, his most influential work being his Kitāb al-Manāẓir (كتاب المناظر, "Book of Optics"), written during 1011–1021, which survived in the
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Arab
Historically: Arabian mythology (Hubal · al-Lāt · Al-‘Uzzá · Manāt · Other Goddesses) Predominantly: Islam (Sunni · Shia · Sufi · Ibadi · Alawite · Ismaili) Sizable minority: Christianity (Eastern Orthodox · Maronite · Coptic Orthodox · Greek Orthodox · Greek Catholic · Chaldean Christian) Smaller minority: Other monotheistic religions (Druze · Bahá'í Faith · Sabianism · Bábism · Mandaeism)Related ethnic groupsOther Afroasiatic-speaking peoplesa Arab
Arab
ethnicity should not be confused with non- Arab
Arab
ethnicities that are also native to the Arab
Arab
world.[30] b Not all Arabs
Arabs
are Muslims
Muslims
and not all Muslims
Muslims
are Arabs
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Shen Kuo
Shen Kuo
Shen Kuo
(Chinese: 沈括; 1031–1095), courtesy name Cunzhong (存中) and pseudonym Mengqi (now usually given as Mengxi) Weng (夢溪翁),[1] was a Han Chinese
Han Chinese
polymathic scientist and statesman of the Song dynasty
Song dynasty
(960–1279). Excelling in many fields of study and statecraft, he was a mathematician, astronomer, meteorologist, geologist, zoologist, botanist, pharmacologist, agronomist, archaeologist, ethnographer, cartographer, encyclopedist, general, diplomat, hydraulic engineer, inventor, academy chancellor, finance minister, governmental state inspector, poet, and musician
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Polymath
A polymath (Greek: πολυμαθής, polymathēs, "having learned much,"[1] Latin: homo universalis, "universal man"[citation needed]) is a person whose expertise spans a significant number of different subject areas—such a person is known to draw on complex bodies of knowledge to solve specific problems. In Western Europe, the first work to use polymathy in its title (De Polymathia tractatio: integri operis de studiis veterum) was published in 1603 by Johann von Wower, a Hamburg philosopher.[2][3][4][5] Wower defined polymathy as "knowledge of various matters, drawn from all kinds of studies [...] ranging freely through all the fields of the disciplines, as far as the human mind, with unwearied industry, is able to pursue them".[3] Wower lists erudition, literature, philology, philomathy and polyhistory as synonyms
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Anthemius Of Tralles
Anthemius of Tralles
Tralles
(Greek: Ἀνθέμιος ὁ Τραλλιανός, Medieval Greek: [anˈθemios o traliaˈnos], Anthémios o Trallianós; c. 474 – 533 x 558)[1] was a Greek from Tralles
Tralles
who worked as a geometer and architect in Constantinople, the capital of the Byzantine Empire. With Isidore of Miletus, he designed the Hagia Sophia
Hagia Sophia
for Justinian I. Contents1 Life 2 Mathematics 3 Architecture 4 See also 5 Notes 6 References 7 Further reading 8 External linksLife[edit] Anthemius was one of the five sons of Stephanus of Tralles, a physician. His brothers were Dioscorus, Alexander, Olympius, and Metrodorus
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Euclid
Euclid
Euclid
(/ˈjuːklɪd/; Greek: Εὐκλείδης Eukleidēs [eu̯.klěː.dɛːs]; fl. 300 BC), sometimes given the name Euclid
Euclid
of Alexandria[1] to distinguish him from Euclides of Megara, was a Greek mathematician, often referred to as the "founder of geometry"[1] or the "father of geometry". He was active in Alexandria
Alexandria
during the reign of Ptolemy I (323–283 BC). His Elements is one of the most influential works in the history of mathematics, serving as the main textbook for teaching mathematics (especially geometry) from the time of its publication until the late 19th or early 20th century.[2][3][4] In the Elements, Euclid
Euclid
deduced the theorems of what is now called Euclidean geometry
Euclidean geometry
from a small set of axioms
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Aristotle
Aristotle
Aristotle
(/ˈærɪˌstɒtəl/;[3] Greek: Ἀριστοτέλης Aristotélēs, pronounced [aristotélɛːs]; 384–322 BC)[n 1] was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira, Chalkidiki, in the north of Classical Greece. Along with Plato, Aristotle
Aristotle
is considered the "Father of Western Philosophy", which inherited almost its entire lexicon from his teachings, including problems and methods of inquiry, so influencing almost all forms of knowledge. Little is known for certain about his life. His father, Nicomachus, died when Aristotle
Aristotle
was a child, and he was brought up by a guardian. At seventeen or eighteen years of age, he joined Plato's Academy
Plato's Academy
in Athens and remained there until the age of thirty-seven (c
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School Of Names
The Logicians or School of Names
School of Names
(Chinese: 名家; pinyin: Míngjiā) was a school of Chinese philosophy
Chinese philosophy
that grew out of Mohism
Mohism
during the Warring States period
Warring States period
in 479–221 BCE. It is also sometimes called the School of Forms and Names (Chinese: 形名家; pinyin: Xíngmíngjiā; Wade–Giles: Hsing2-ming2-chia1).[1] Deng Xi has been named its founder. Their philosophy is often considered to be akin to those of the sophists or of the dialecticians
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Mo Di
Mozi
Mozi
(/ˈmoʊˈtsiː/;[1] Chinese: 墨子; pinyin: Mòzǐ; Wade–Giles: Mo Tzu /ˈmoʊˈtsuː/;[2] Latinized as Micius[3] /ˈmɪsiəs/; c. 468 – c. 391 BC), original name Mo Di (墨翟), was a Chinese philosopher during the Hundred Schools of Thought period (early Warring States period). A book named after him, the Mozi, contains material ascribed to him and his followers. Born in what is now Tengzhou, Shandong
Shandong
Province, he founded the school of Mohism
Mohism
that argued strongly against Confucianism
Confucianism
and Taoism. His philosophy emphasized self-restraint, self-reflection and authenticity rather than obedience to ritual. During the Warring States period, Mohism
Mohism
was actively developed and practiced in many states but fell out of favour when the legalist Qin dynasty
Qin dynasty
came to power
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History Of Science And Technology In China
Ancient Chinese scientists and engineers made significant scientific innovations, findings and technological advances across various scientific disciplines including the natural sciences, engineering, medicine, military technology, mathematics, geology and astronomy. Among the earliest inventions were the abacus, the "shadow clock," and the first items such as Kongming lanterns.[1] The Four Great Inventions – the compass, gunpowder, papermaking, and printing – were among the most important technological advances, only known to Europe by the end of the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
1000 years later
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Royal Society
The President, Council and Fellows of the Royal Society
Royal Society
of London for Improving Natural Knowledge,[1] commonly known as the Royal Society, is a learned society. Founded in November 1660, it was granted a royal charter by King Charles II as "The Royal Society".[1] It is the oldest national scientific institution in the world.[2] The society is the United Kingdom's and Commonwealth of Nations' Academy of Sciences
Academy of Sciences
and fulfils a number of roles: promoting science and its benefits, recognising excellence in science, supporting outstanding science, providing scientific advice for policy, fostering international and global co-operation, education and public engagement. The society is governed by its Council, which is chaired by the Society's President, according to a set of statutes and standing orders
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Johann Von Maedler
Johann Heinrich von Mädler
Johann Heinrich von Mädler
(May 29, 1794, Berlin
Berlin
– March 14, 1874, Hannover) was a German astronomer.Contents1 Life and work 2 References 3 Bibliography 4 External links4.1 ObituaryLife and work[edit] His father was a master tailor and when 12 he studied at the Friedrich‐Werdersche Gymnasium in Berlin.[1] He was orphaned at age 19 by an outbreak of typhus, and found himself responsible for raising three younger sisters. He began giving academic lessons as a private tutor and in this way met Wilhelm Beer, a wealthy banker, in 1824. In 1829 Beer decided to set up a private observatory in Berlin, with a 95 mm refractor telescope made by Joseph von Fraunhofer, and Mädler worked there. In 1830 they began producing drawings of Mars which later became the first true maps of that planet
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Contact Print
A contact print is a photographic image produced from film; sometimes from a film negative, and sometimes from a film positive. In a darkroom an exposed and developed piece of photographic film is placed emulsion side down, in contact with a piece of photographic paper, light is briefly shone through the negative and then the paper is developed to reveal the final print. The defining characteristic of a contact print is that the resulting print is the same size as the original, rather than having been projected through an enlarger.Contents1 Basic tools 2 Proof sheets 3 Finished prints 4 Production tools 5 Other uses for the technique 6 Artistic and practical considerations 7 Famous photographers 8 See also 9 References 10 External linksBasic tools[edit] Contact print
Contact print
of a photo film cut in pieces, used for reviewing and selecting images for the final print
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