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Philosophy
PHILOSOPHY (from Greek φιλοσοφία, _philosophia_, literally "love of wisdom" ) is the study of general and fundamental problems concerning matters such as existence , knowledge , values , reason , mind , and language . The term was probably coined by Pythagoras (c. 570–495 BCE). Philosophical methods include questioning , critical discussion , rational argument and systematic presentation. Classic philosophical questions include: Is it possible to know anything and to prove it? What is most real ? However, philosophers might also pose more practical and concrete questions such as: Is there a best way to live? Is it better to be just or unjust (if one can get away with it)? Do humans have free will ? Historically, "philosophy" encompassed any body of knowledge. From the time of Ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle to the 19th century, "natural philosophy " encompassed astronomy , medicine and physics . For example, Newton 's 1687 _Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy _ later became classified as a book of physics. In the 19th century, the growth of modern research universities led academic philosophy and other disciplines to professionalize and specialize. In the modern era, some investigations that were traditionally part of philosophy became separate academic disciplines, including psychology , sociology , linguistics and economics
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Philosophy (other)
PHILOSOPHY is the study of existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language. PHILOSOPHY may also refer to: * A Philosophical system , a larger body of systematic philosophical theory * Philosophy (journal) , a journal published by the Cambridge University Press * Philosophy (album) , an album by Coldcut * Philosophy: The Best of Bill Hicks , an album by Bill Hicks * "Philosophy" (Ben Folds Five song) * "Philosophy", a song by Tom Snare * A 1640 painting by Salvator Rosa SEE ALSO * Getting to Phillosophy , a phenomenon * Philosophy of life , an attitude to life or way or principle of living This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title PHILOSOPHY. If an internal link led you here, you may wish to change the link to point directly to the intended article. Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Philosophy_(other) additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy .® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc
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Plato
PLATO (/ˈpleɪtoʊ/ ; Greek : Πλάτων _Plátōn_, pronounced in Classical Attic ; 428/427 or 424/423 – 348/347 BC) was a philosopher in Classical Greece and the founder of the Academy in Athens , the first institution of higher learning in the Western world . He is widely considered the most pivotal figure in the development of philosophy, especially the Western tradition . Unlike nearly all of his philosophical contemporaries , Plato's entire work is believed to have survived intact for over 2,400 years. Others believe that the oldest extant manuscript dates to around AD 895, 1100 years after Plato's death. This makes it difficult to know exactly what Plato wrote. Along with his teacher, Socrates , and his most famous student, Aristotle , Plato laid the very foundations of Western philosophy and science . Alfred North Whitehead once noted: "the safest general characterization of the European philosophical tradition is that it consists of a series of footnotes to Plato." In addition to being a foundational figure for Western science, philosophy, and mathematics, Plato has also often been cited as one of the founders of Western religion and spirituality
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Immanuel Kant
IMMANUEL KANT (/kænt/ ; German: ; 22 April 1724 – 12 February 1804) was a German philosopher who is a central figure in modern philosophy . Kant argued that the human mind creates the structure of human experience, that reason is the source of morality , that aesthetics arises from a faculty of disinterested judgment , that space and time are forms of our sensibility, and that the world as it is "in-itself" is independent of our concepts of it. Kant took himself to have effected a "Copernican revolution " in philosophy , akin to Copernicus
Copernicus
' reversal of the age-old belief that the sun revolved around the earth. His beliefs continue to have a major influence on contemporary philosophy, especially the fields of metaphysics , epistemology , ethics , political theory , and aesthetics . Politically, Kant was one of the earliest exponents of the idea that perpetual peace could be secured through universal democracy and international cooperation . He believed that this will be the eventual outcome of universal history , although it is not rationally planned
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Friedrich Nietzsche
FRIEDRICH WILHELM NIETZSCHE (/ˈniːtʃə/ German: (_ listen ); 15 October 1844 – 25 August 1900) was a German philosopher , cultural critic , poet , philologist , and Latin and Greek scholar whose work has exerted a profound influence on Western philosophy and modern intellectual history. He began his career as a classical philologist before turning to philosophy. He became the youngest ever to hold the Chair of Classical Philology at the University of Basel in 1869, at the age of 24. Nietzsche resigned in 1879 due to health problems that plagued him most of his life, and he completed much of his core writing in the following decade. In 1889, at age 44, he suffered a collapse and a complete loss of his mental faculties. He lived his remaining years in the care of his mother until her death in 1897, and then with his sister Elisabeth Förster-Nietzsche , and died in 1900. Nietzsche's body of work touched widely on art , philology , history , religion , tragedy , culture , and science , and drew early inspiration from figures such as Schopenhauer , Wagner , and Goethe . His writing spans philosophical polemics , poetry, cultural criticism , and fiction while displaying a fondness for aphorism and irony
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Buddha
GAUTAMA BUDDHA (c. 563 BCE/480 BCE – c. 483 BCE/400 BCE), also known as SIDDHāRTHA GAUTAMA , SHAKYAMUNI BUDDHA , or simply the BUDDHA, after the title of Buddha , was an ascetic (śramaṇa ) and sage , on whose teachings Buddhism was founded. He is believed to have lived and taught mostly in the eastern part of ancient India sometime between the sixth and fourth centuries BCE . Gautama taught a Middle Way between sensual indulgence and the severe asceticism found in the śramaṇa movement common in his region. He later taught throughout other regions of eastern India such as Magadha and Kosala . Gautama is the primary figure in Buddhism. He is recognized by Buddhists as an enlightened teacher who attained full Buddhahood , and shared his insights to help sentient beings end rebirth and suffering . Accounts of his life, discourses, and monastic rules are believed by Buddhists to have been summarized after his death and memorized by his followers. Various collections of teachings attributed to him were passed down by oral tradition and first committed to writing about 400 years later
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Confucius
CONFUCIUS (/kənˈfjuːʃəs/ ; September 28, 551 BC – 479 BC) was a Chinese teacher, editor, politician, and philosopher of the Spring and Autumn period of Chinese history . The philosophy of Confucius
Confucius
emphasized personal and governmental morality, correctness of social relationships, justice and sincerity. His followers competed successfully with many other schools during the Hundred Schools of Thought era only to be suppressed in favor of the Legalists during the Qin Dynasty
Qin Dynasty
. Following the victory of Han over Chu after the collapse of Qin, Confucius's thoughts received official sanction and were further developed into a system known in the West as Confucianism . Confucius
Confucius
is traditionally credited with having authored or edited many of the Chinese classic texts including all of the Five Classics , but modern scholars are cautious of attributing specific assertions to Confucius
Confucius
himself. Aphorisms concerning his teachings were compiled in the _ Analects
Analects
_, but only many years after his death. Confucius's principles had a basis in common Chinese tradition and belief. He championed strong family loyalty, ancestor veneration , and respect of elders by their children and of husbands by their wives. He also recommended family as a basis for ideal government
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Averroes
IBN RUSHD (Arabic : ابن رشد‎‎; 14 April 1126 – 10 December 1198), full name (Arabic : أبو الوليد محمد ابن احمد ابن رشد‎, translit. ʾAbū l-Walīd Muḥammad Ibn ʾAḥmad Ibn Rushd‎), often Latinized as AVERROES (/əˈvɛroʊˌiːz/ ), was a medieval Andalusian polymath . He wrote on logic , Aristotelian and Islamic philosophy , theology , the Maliki school of Islamic jurisprudence , psychology , political and Andalusian classical music theory, geography , mathematics , and the mediæval sciences of medicine , astronomy , physics , and celestial mechanics . Ibn Rushd was born in Córdoba , Al Andalus (present-day Spain ), and died at Marrakesh in present-day Morocco . His body was interred in his family tomb at Córdoba. The 13th-century philosophical movement in Latin Christian and Jewish tradition based on Ibn Rushd's work is called Averroism . Ibn Rushd was a defender of Aristotelian philosophy against Ash\'ari theologians led by Al-Ghazali . Although highly regarded as a legal scholar of the Maliki school of Islamic law , Ibn Rushd's philosophical ideas were considered controversial in Ash'arite Muslim circles. Whereas al-Ghazali believed that any individual act of a natural phenomenon occurred only because God willed it to happen, Ibn Rushd insisted phenomena followed natural laws that God created
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List Of Aestheticians
This is a LIST OF AESTHETICIANS (or aestheticists), philosophers of art, and aesthetes. That is, people who theorize about the nature of art and beauty . See also: Index of aesthetics articles Contents * Top * A * B * C * D * E * F * G * H * I * J * K * L * M * N * O * P * Q * R * S * T * U * V * W * X * Y * Z * External links A * Virgil Aldrich * Anandavardhana * Sri Aurobindo
Sri Aurobindo
* John Anderson * Yves Marie André * St. Thomas Aquinas
Thomas Aquinas
* Aristotle
Aristotle
(see Poetics and Rhetoric ) * Rudolf Arnheim * Mazen Asfour * Georg Anton Friedrich Ast * St
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List Of Epistemologists
This is a list of epistemologists , that is, people who theorize about the nature of knowledge , belief formation and the nature of justification . See also: Index of epistemology articles * William Alston * Elizabeth Anscombe
Elizabeth Anscombe
* St. Thomas Aquinas
Thomas Aquinas
* Aristotle
Aristotle
* Robert Audi * A. J. Ayer
A. J

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List Of Ethicists
LIST OF ETHICISTS including religious or political figures recognized by those outside their tradition as having made major contributions to ideas about ethics , or raised major controversies by taking strong positions on previously unexplored problems. All are known for an ethical work or problem, but a few are primarily authors or satirists , or known as a mediator , politician , futurist or scientist , rather than as an ethicist or philosopher . Some controversial figures are included, some of whom you may see as bad examples. A few are included because their names have become synonymous with certain ethical debates, but only if they personally elaborated an ethical theory justifying their actions. Contents * Top * A * B * C * D * E * F * G * H * I * J * K * L * M * N * O * P * Q * R * S * T * U * V * W * X * Y * Z * See also * External links A * Pierre Abélard * Ambedkar * John Stevens Cabot Abbott * Mortimer Adler * Nayef Al-Rodhan * Thomas Aquinas
Thomas Aquinas
* Nomy Arpaly * Ambrose
Ambrose
* Andronicus of Rhodes * Julia Annas * G. E. M. Anscombe * Karl-Otto Apel * Jacob M
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List Of Logicians
A logician is a person whose topic of scholarly study is logic . Some famous logicians are listed below in English alphabetical transliteration order (by surname ). Contents : * Top * 0–9 * A * B * C * D * E * F * G * H * I * J * K * L * M * N * O * P * Q * R * S * T * U * V * W * X * Y * Z A * Peter Abelard (France, 1079–1142) * Wilhelm Ackermann (Germany, 1896–1962) * Sergei Adian (Russia/Soviet Union/Armenia, born 1931) * Rodolphus Agricola (Germany, 1443/1444–1485) * Kazimierz Ajdukiewicz (Poland, 1890–1963) * Alcuin (England/France, c. 735-804) * Alan Ross Anderson (USA, 1924–1972) * Peter B
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List Of Metaphysicians
This is a LIST OF METAPHYSICIANS, philosophers who specialize in metaphysics . See also Lists of philosophers . See also: Index of metaphysics articles METAPHYSICIANS BORN BEFORE 1900 * Pythagoras
Pythagoras
* Democritus
Democritus
* Heraclitus * Anaximander
Anaximander
* Plotinus
Plotinus
* Lucretius * Proclus Lycaeus * Zeno of Elea
Zeno of Elea
* Parmenides
Parmenides
* Protagoras * Plato
Plato
* Aristotle
Aristotle
* Thomas Aquinas
Thomas Aquinas
* Duns Scotus * Galileo Galilei
Galileo Galilei
* René Descartes
René Descartes
* Anne Conway (philosopher) * Baruch Spinoza * Nicolas Malebranche * John McTaggart * Gottfried Leibniz * George Berkeley * Immanuel Kant
Immanuel Kant
* Georg W. F
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List Of Social And Political Philosophers
The following is a LIST OF SOCIAL AND POLITICAL PHILOSOPHERS. ALPHABETICAL LIST * Abraham Joshua Heschel
Abraham Joshua Heschel
* Abul Kalam Azad * Adam Müller * Adrian Johnston (philosopher) * Alan Carter (philosopher) * Alan Ryan * Alastair Norcross * Alexis de Tocqueville
Alexis de Tocqueville
* Alfred Rosenberg * Ali Shariati * Alon Ben-Meir * Andrei Marga * António Castanheira Neves * Antonio Negri * Archon * Aristotle
Aristotle
* Armin Mohler * Arthur Linton Corbin * Arthur Moeller van den Bruck * Auberon Herbert
Auberon Herbert
* Averroes
Averroes
* Axel Honneth * Ayn Rand
Ayn Rand
* Benjamin Tucker
Benjamin Tucker
* Bertrand de Jouvenel * Bertrand Russell * B. R
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African Philosophy
AFRICAN PHILOSOPHY is philosophy produced by African people , philosophy that presents African worldviews, or philosophy that uses distinct African philosophical methods. Although African philosophers may be found in the various academic fields of philosophy, such as metaphysics , epistemology , moral philosophy , and political philosophy , much of the modern African philosophy has been concerned with defining the ethnophilosophical parameters of African philosophy and identifying what differentiates it from other philosophical traditions. One of the implicit assumptions of ethnophilosophy is that a specific culture can have a philosophy that is not applicable and accessible to all peoples and cultures in the world, however this concept is disputed by traditional philosophers. Furthermore, in _A Discourse on African Philosophy: A New Perspective on_ Ubuntu _and Transitional Justice in South Africa_, Christian B. N. Gade argues that the ethnophilosophical approach to African philosophy as a static group property is highly problematic. His research on _ubuntu_ presents an alternative collective discourse on African philosophy ("collective" in the sense that it does not focus on any individual in particular) that takes differences, historical developments, and social contexts seriously
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Analytic Philosophy
ANALYTIC PHILOSOPHY (sometimes ANALYTICAL PHILOSOPHY) is a style of philosophy that became dominant in English-speaking countries at the beginning of the 20th century. In the United Kingdom, United States, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, and Scandinavia, the majority of university philosophy departments today identify themselves as "analytic" departments. The term "analytic philosophy" can refer to one of several things: * As a philosophical practice, it is characterized by an emphasis on argumentative clarity and precision, often making use of formal logic , conceptual analysis, and, to a lesser degree, mathematics and the natural sciences . * As a historical development, analytical philosophy refers to certain developments in early 20th-century philosophy that were the historical antecedents of the current practice. Central figures in this historical development are Bertrand Russell , Ludwig Wittgenstein , G. E. Moore , Gottlob Frege , and the logical positivists . In this more specific sense, analytic philosophy is identified with specific philosophical traits (many of which are rejected by many contemporary analytic philosophers), such as: * The logical-positivist principle that there are not any specifically philosophical facts and that the object of philosophy is the logical clarification of thoughts
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