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Philopatry
Philopatry
Philopatry
is the tendency of an organism to stay in or habitually return to a particular area.[1] The causes of philopatry are numerous, but natal philopatry, where animals return to their birthplace to breed, may be the most common.[2] The term derives from the Greek 'home-loving', although in recent years the term has been applied to more than just the animal's birthplace. Recent usage refers to animals returning to the same area to breed despite not being born there, and migratory species that demonstrate site fidelity: reusing stopovers, staging points, and wintering grounds.[3] Some of the known reasons for organisms to be philopatric would be for mating (reproduction), survival, migration, parental care, resources, etc.
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Neuroethology
Neuroethology
Neuroethology
is the evolutionary and comparative approach to the study of animal behavior and its underlying mechanistic control by the nervous system.[1][2][3] This interdisciplinary branch of behavioral neuroscience endeavors to understand how the central nervous system translates biologically relevant stimuli into natural behavior. For example, many bats are capable of echolocation which is used for prey capture and navigation. The auditory system of bats is often cited as an example for how acoustic properties of sounds can be converted into a sensory map of behaviorally relevant features of sounds.[4] Neuroethologists hope to uncover general principles of the nervous system from the study of animals with exaggerated or specialized behaviors. As its name implies, neuroethology is a multidisciplinary field composed of neurobiology (the study of the nervous system) and ethology (the study of animal behavior in natural conditions)
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Animal Cognition
Animal
Animal
cognition describes the mental capacities of non-human animals and the study of those capacities. The field developed from comparative psychology, including the study of animal conditioning and learning. It has also been strongly influenced by research in ethology, behavioral ecology, and evolutionary psychology, and hence the alternative name cognitive ethology is sometimes used
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Territory (animal)
In ethology, territory is the sociographical area that an animal of a particular species consistently defends against conspecifics (or, occasionally, animals of other species). Animals that defend territories in this way are referred to as territorial. Territoriality is only shown by a minority of species. More commonly, an individual or a group of animals has an area that it habitually uses but does not necessarily defend; this is called the home range. The home ranges of different groups of animals often overlap, or in the overlap areas, the groups tend to avoid each other rather than seeking to expel each other
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Digital Object Identifier
In computing, a Digital Object Identifier or DOI is a persistent identifier or handle used to uniquely identify objects, standardized by the International Organization for Standardization
International Organization for Standardization
(ISO).[1] An implementation of the Handle System,[2][3] DOIs are in wide use mainly to identify academic, professional, and government information, such as journal articles, research reports and data sets, and official publications though they also have been used to identify other types of information resources, such as commercial videos. A DOI aims to be "resolvable", usually to some form of access to the information object to which the DOI refers. This is achieved by binding the DOI to metadata about the object, such as a URL, indicating where the object can be found. Thus, by being actionable and interoperable, a DOI differs from identifiers such as ISBNs and ISRCs which aim only to uniquely identify their referents
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JSTOR
JSTOR
JSTOR
(/ˈdʒeɪstɔːr/ JAY-stor;[3] short for Journal Storage) is a digital library founded in 1995. Originally containing digitized back issues of academic journals, it now also includes books and primary sources, and current issues of journals.[4] It provides full-text searches of almost 2,000 journals.[5] As of 2013, more than 8,000 institutions in more than 160 countries had access to JSTOR;[5] most access is by subscription, but some older public domain content is freely available to anyone.[6] JSTOR's revenue was $69 million in 2014.[7]Contents1 History 2 Content 3 Access3.1 Aaron Swartz
Aaron Swartz
incident 3.2 Limitations 3.3 Increasing public access4 Use 5 See also 6 References 7 Further reading 8 External linksHistory[edit] William G
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Bibcode
The bibcode (also known as the refcode) is a compact identifier used by several astronomical data systems to uniquely specify literature references.Contents1 Adoption 2 Format 3 Examples 4 See also 5 ReferencesAdoption[edit] The Bibliographic Reference Code (refcode) was originally developed to be used in SIMBAD
SIMBAD
and the NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database
NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database
(NED), but it became a de facto standard and is now used more widely, for example, by the NASA Astrophysics Data System
Astrophysics Data System
who coined and prefer the term "bibcode".[1][2] Format[edit] The code has a fixed length of 19 characters and has the form YYYYJJJJJVVVVMPPPPA where YYYY is the four-digit year of the reference and JJJJJ is a code indicating where the reference was published
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PubMed Identifier
PubMed
PubMed
is a free search engine accessing primarily the MEDLINE database of references and abstracts on life sciences and biomedical topics. The United States National Library of Medicine
United States National Library of Medicine
(NLM) at the National Institutes of Health
National Institutes of Health
maintains the database as part of the Entrez
Entrez
system of information retrieval. From 1971 to 1997, MEDLINE online access to the MEDLARS Online computerized database primarily had been through institutional facilities, such as university libraries
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PubMed Central
PubMed
PubMed
Central (PMC) is a free digital repository that archives publicly accessible full-text scholarly articles that have been published within the biomedical and life sciences journal literature. As one of the major research databases within the suite of resources that have been developed by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), PubMed
PubMed
Central is much more than just a document repository
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International Standard Serial Number
An International Standard Serial Number
International Standard Serial Number
(ISSN) is an eight-digit serial number used to uniquely identify a serial publication.[1] The ISSN is especially helpful in distinguishing between serials with the same title. ISSN are used in ordering, cataloging, interlibrary loans, and other practices in connection with serial literature.[2] The ISSN system was first drafted as an International Organization for Standardization (ISO) international standard in 1971 and published as ISO 3297 in 1975.[3] ISO subcommittee TC 46/SC 9 is responsible for maintaining the standard. When a serial with the same content is published in more than one media type, a different ISSN is assigned to each media type. For example, many serials are published both in print and electronic media
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Ethology
Ethology
Ethology
is the scientific and objective study of animal behaviour, usually with a focus on behaviour under natural conditions, and viewing behaviour as an evolutionarily adaptive trait.[1] Behaviourism is a term that also describes the scientific and objective study of animal behaviour, usually referring to measured responses to stimuli or trained behavioural responses in a laboratory context, without a particular emphasis on evolutionary adaptivity.[2] Many naturalists have studied aspects of animal behaviour throughout history. Ethology has its scientific roots in the work of Charles Darwin
Charles Darwin
and of American and German ornithologists of the late 19th and early 20th century, including Charles O. Whitman, Oskar Heinroth, and Wallace Craig
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Animal Communication
Animal communication
Animal communication
is the transfer of information from one or a group of animals (sender or senders) to one or more other animals (receiver or receivers) that affects the current or future behaviour of the receivers. Information may be sent intentionally, as in a courtship display, or unintentionally, as in the transfer of scent from predator to prey. Information may be transferred to an "audience" of several receivers. Animal communication
Animal communication
is a rapidly growing area of study in disciplines including animal behaviour, sociobiology, neurobiology and animal cognition. Many aspects of animal behaviour, such as symbolic name use, emotional expression, learning and sexual behaviour, are being understood in new ways. When the information from the sender changes the behavior of a receiver, the information is referred to as a "signal"
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Bee
Apiformes (from Latin 'apis')Bees are flying insects closely related to wasps and ants, known for their role in pollination and, in the case of the best-known bee species, the European honey bee, for producing honey and beeswax. Bees are a monophyletic lineage within the superfamily Apoidea
Apoidea
and are presently considered a clade, called Anthophila. There are nearly 20,000 known species of bees in seven recognized biological families.[1][2] They are found on every continent except Antarctica, in every habitat on the planet that contains insect-pollinated flowering plants. Some species including honey bees, bumblebees, and stingless bees live socially in colonies. Bees are adapted for feeding on nectar and pollen, the former primarily as an energy source and the latter primarily for protein and other nutrients. Most pollen is used as food for larvae
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Animal Consciousness
Animal consciousness, or animal awareness, is the quality or state of self-awareness within an animal, or of being aware of an external object or something within itself.[2][3] In humans, consciousness has been defined as: sentience, awareness, subjectivity, qualia, the ability to experience or to feel, wakefulness, having a sense of selfhood, and the executive control system of the mind.[4] Despite the difficulty in definition, many philosophers believe there is a broadly shared underlying intuition about what consciousness is.[5] The topic of animal consciousness is beset with a number of difficulties
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Animal Culture
Animal culture
Animal culture
describes the current theory of cultural learning in non-human animals through socially transmitted behaviors. The question as to the existence of culture in non-human societies has been a contentious subject for decades, much due to the inexistence of a concise definition for culture
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Evolutionary Neuroscience
Evolutionary neuroscience
Evolutionary neuroscience
is an interdisciplinary scientific research field that studies the evolution of nervous systems. Evolutionary neuroscientists attempt to understand the evolution and natural history of nervous system structure and function. The field draws on concepts and findings from both neuroscience and evolutionary biology. Historically, most empirical work has been in the area of comparative neuroanatomy, and modern studies often make use of phylogenetic comparative methods
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