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Philology
Philology
Philology
is the study of language in oral and written historical sources; it is a combination of literary criticism, history, and linguistics.[1] Philology
Philology
is more commonly defined as the study of literary texts as well as oral and written records, the establishment of their authenticity and their original form, and the determination of their meaning. A person who pursues this kind of study is known as a philologist. In older usage, especially British, philology is more general, covering comparative and historical linguistics.[2][3] Classical philology
Classical philology
studies classical languages. Classical philology principally originated from the Library of Pergamum
Library of Pergamum
and the Library of Alexandria[4] around the fourth century BCE, continued by Greeks and Romans throughout the Roman/Byzantine Empire
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Structuralism
In sociology, anthropology, and linguistics, structuralism is the methodology that implies elements of human culture must be understood by way of their relationship to a larger, overarching system or structure. It works to uncover the structures that underlie all the things that humans do, think, perceive, and feel. Alternatively, as summarized by philosopher Simon Blackburn, structuralism is "the belief that phenomena of human life are not intelligible except through their interrelations. These relations constitute a structure, and behind local variations in the surface phenomena there are constant laws of abstract culture".[1] Structuralism
Structuralism
in Europe developed in the early 1900s, in the structural linguistics of Ferdinand de Saussure
Ferdinand de Saussure
and the subsequent Prague,[2] Moscow[2] and Copenhagen schools of linguistics
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John Lydgate
John Lydgate
John Lydgate
of Bury (c. 1370 – c. 1451)[1] was a monk and poet, born in Lidgate, near Haverhill, Suffolk, England. Lydgate's poetic output is prodigious, amounting, at a conservative count, to about 145,000 lines. He explored and established every major Chaucerian
Chaucerian
genre, except such as were manifestly unsuited to his profession, like the fabliau. In the Troy Book
Troy Book
(30,117 lines), an amplified translation of the Trojan history of the thirteenth-century Latin writer Guido delle Colonne, commissioned by Prince Henry (later Henry V), he moved deliberately beyond Chaucer's Knight's Tale
Knight's Tale
and his Troilus, to provide a full-scale epic. The Siege of Thebes (4716 lines) is a shorter excursion in the same field of chivalric epic
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LOGOS
Logos
Logos
(UK: /ˈloʊɡɒs, ˈlɒɡɒs/, US: /ˈloʊɡoʊs/; Ancient Greek: λόγος, translit. lógos; from λέγω, légō, lit. 'I say') is a term in Western philosophy, psychology, rhetoric, and religion derived from a Greek word variously meaning "ground", "plea", "opinion", "expectation", "word", "speech", "account", "reason", "proportion", and "discourse",[1][2] but it became a technical term in philosophy beginning with Heraclitus (c. 535 – c. 475 BC), who used the term for a principle of order and knowledge.[3] Logos
Logos
is the logic behind an argument.[4] Logos
Logos
tries to persuade an audience using logical arguments and supportive evidence. Logos
Logos
is a persuasive technique often used in writing and rhetoric. Ancient Greek philosophers used the term in different ways
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Philosophy
Philosophy
Philosophy
(from Greek φιλοσοφία, philosophia, literally "love of wisdom")[1][2][3][4] is the study of general and fundamental questions[5][6][7] about existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language. Such questions are often posed as problems[8][9] to be studied or resolved. The term was probably coined by Pythagoras
Pythagoras
(c. 570 – 495 BCE)
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Syntax
In linguistics, syntax (/ˈsɪntæks/[1][2]) is the set of rules, principles, and processes that govern the structure of sentences in a given language, usually including word order. The term syntax is also used to refer to the study of such principles and processes.[3] The goal of many syntacticians is to discover the syntactic rules common to all languages. In mathematics, syntax refers to the rules governing the behavior of mathematical systems, such as formal languages used in logic
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Chomskyan
Avram Noam Chomsky
Noam Chomsky
(born December 7, 1928) is an American linguist, philosopher, cognitive scientist, historian, social critic, and political activist. Sometimes described as "the father of modern linguistics," Chomsky is also a major figure in analytic philosophy and one of the founders of the field of cognitive science. He holds a joint appointment as Institute Professor Emeritus at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and laureate professor at the University of Arizona,[22][23] and is the author of over 100 books on topics such as linguistics, war, politics, and mass media. Ideologically, he aligns with anarcho-syndicalism and libertarian socialism. Born to middle-class Ashkenazi Jewish immigrants in Philadelphia, Chomsky developed an early interest in anarchism from alternative bookstores in New York City
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Synchronic Analysis (linguistics)
Synchrony and diachrony are two different and complementary viewpoints in linguistic analysis. A synchronic approach (from Greek συν- "together" and χρόνος "time") considers a language at a moment in time without taking its history into account. Synchronic linguistics aims at describing a language at a specific point of time, usually the present. By contrast, a diachronic approach (from δια- "through" and χρόνος "time") considers the development and evolution of a language through history. Historical linguistics
Historical linguistics
is typically a diachronic study.[1] The concepts were theorized by the Swiss linguist Ferdinand de Saussure, professor of general linguistics in Geneva
Geneva
from 1896 to 1911, and appeared in writing in his posthumous Course in General Linguistics
Linguistics
published in 1916
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Theoretical Linguistics
Theoretical linguistics is the branch of linguistics which inquires into the nature of language itself and seeks to answer fundamental questions as to what language is; how it works; how universal grammar (UG) as a domain-specific mental organ operates; what are its unique properties; how does language relate to other cognitive processes, etc. Theoretical linguists are most concerned with constructing models of linguistic knowledge, and ultimately developing a linguistic theory. The fields that are generally considered the core of theoretical linguistics are phonology, morphology, syntax, and semantics
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Synchrony And Diachrony
Synchrony and diachrony are two different and complementary viewpoints in linguistic analysis. A synchronic approach (from Greek συν- "together" and χρόνος "time") considers a language at a moment in time without taking its history into account. Synchronic linguistics aims at describing a language at a specific point of time, usually the present. By contrast, a diachronic approach (from δια- "through" and χρόνος "time") considers the development and evolution of a language through history. Historical linguistics
Historical linguistics
is typically a diachronic study.[1] The concepts were theorized by the Swiss linguist Ferdinand de Saussure, professor of general linguistics in Geneva
Geneva
from 1896 to 1911, and appeared in writing in his posthumous Course in General Linguistics
Linguistics
published in 1916
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Chaucer
Geoffrey Chaucer
Geoffrey Chaucer
(/ˈtʃɔːsər/; c. 1343 – 25 October 1400), known as the Father of English literature,[1] is widely considered the greatest English poet of the Middle Ages. He was the first poet to be buried in Poets' Corner
Poets' Corner
of Westminster Abbey. While he achieved fame during his lifetime as an author, philosopher, and astronomer, composing a scientific treatise on the astrolabe for his ten-year-old son Lewis, Chaucer also maintained an active career in the civil service as a bureaucrat, courtier and diplomat. Among his many works are The Book of the Duchess, The House of Fame, The Legend of Good Women and Troilus
Troilus
and Criseyde
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Sanskrit Grammarians
DivisionsSamhita Brahmana Aranyaka UpanishadsUpanishads Rig vedicAitareya KaushitakiSama vedicChandogya KenaYajur vedicBrihadaranyaka Isha Taittiriya Katha Shvetashvatara MaitriAtharva vedicMundaka Mandukya PrashnaOther scripturesBhagavad Gita AgamasRelated Hindu
Hindu
textsVedangasShiksha Chandas Vyakarana Nirukta Kalpa JyotishaPuranas Brahma
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Persian Language
Persian (/ˈpɜːrʒən, -ʃən/), also known by its endonym Farsi (فارسی, fārsi, [fɒːɾˈsiː] (listen)), is a Western Iranian language belonging to the Iranian branch of the Indo-Iranian subdivision of the Indo-European languages. It is a pluricentric language predominantly spoken and used officially within Iran, Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and Tajikistan
Tajikistan
in three mutually intelligible standard varieties, namely Iranian Persian, Dari
Dari
Persian (officially named Dari since 1958)[9] and Tajiki Persian (officially named Tajik since the Soviet era).[10] It is also spoken natively in the Tajik variety by a significant population within Uzbekistan,[11][12][13] as well as within other regions with a Persianate history in the cultural sphere of Greater Iran
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Koine Greek
Koine Greek
Koine Greek
(UK English /ˈkɔɪniː/,[1] US English /kɔɪˈneɪ/, /ˈkɔɪneɪ/ or /kiːˈniː/;[2][3]), also known as Alexandrian dialect, common Attic, Hellenistic or Biblical Greek, was the common supra-regional form of Greek spoken and written during Hellenistic and Roman antiquity and the early Byzantine era, or Late Antiquity. It evolved from the spread of Greek following the conquests of Alexander the Great in the 4th century BC, and served as the lingua franca of much of the Mediterranean region and the Middle East during the following centuries
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Arabic Language
Arabic
Arabic
(Arabic: العَرَبِيَّة‎, al-ʻarabiyyah, [al ʕaraˈbijja] (listen) or عَرَبِيّ‎, ʻarabī, [ˈʕarabiː] (listen) or [ʕaraˈbij]) is a Semitic language that first emerged in the 1st to 4th centuries CE.[5] It is now the lingua franca of the Arab world.[6] It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living in the area bounded by Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
in the east and the Anti- Lebanon
Lebanon
mountains in the west, in Northwestern Arabia
Arabia
and in the Sinai Peninsula. The ISO classifies Arabic
Arabic
as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic,[7] which is derived from Classical Arabic
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Sound Law
Sound change includes any processes of language change that affect pronunciation (phonetic change) or sound system structures (phonological change). Sound change can consist of the replacement of one speech sound (or, more generally, one phonetic feature value) by another, the complete loss of the affected sound, or even the introduction of a new sound in a place where there had been none. Sound changes can be environmentally conditioned, meaning that the change only occurs in a defined sound environment, whereas in other environments the same speech sound is not affected by the change. The term "sound change" refers to diachronic changes—that is, irreversible changes in a language's sound system over time; "alternation", on the other hand, refers to changes that happen synchronically (i.e
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