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Phenotype
A PHENOTYPE (from Greek _phainein_, meaning 'to show', and _typos_, meaning 'type') is the composite of an organism 's observable characteristics or traits , such as its morphology , development , biochemical or physiological properties, behavior , and products of behavior (such as a bird's nest). A phenotype results from the expression of an organism's genetic code, its genotype , as well as the influence of environmental factors and the interactions between the two. When two or more clearly different phenotypes exist in the same population of a species, the species is called polymorphic . A well-documented polymorphism is Labrador Retriever coloring ; while the coat color depends on many genes, it is clearly seen in the environment as yellow, black and brown. This genotype-phenotype distinction was proposed by Wilhelm Johannsen in 1911 to make clear the difference between an organism's heredity and what that heredity produces
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Introduction To Genetics
A long molecule that looks like a twisted ladder. It is made of four types of simple units and the sequence of these units carries information, just as the sequence of letters carries information on a page. Nucleotide They form the rungs of the DNA
DNA
ladder and are the repeating units in DNA. There are four types of nucleotides (A, T, G and C) and it is the sequence of these nucleotides that carries information. Chromosome
Chromosome
A package for carrying DNA
DNA
in the cells. They contain a single long piece of DNA
DNA
that is wound up and bunched together into a compact structure. Different species of plants and animals have different numbers and sizes of chromosomes. Gene A segment of DNA
DNA

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Phenotype (igneous Petrology)
In igneous petrology, a PHENOTYPE is an aphanitic igneous rock which is identified and classified according to the mineralogy of its phenocrysts , when it is impossible to determine the mineralogy of the groundmass. Because phenocrysts represent the earlier part of crystallisation, and a melt may have evolved somewhat in between stages of cooling, they cannot be used to accurately describe the rock's true mineralogy or chemistry, but do provide an approximate estimation. As a result of this potential for error, phenotypes are identified using the prefix pheno-. REFERENCES * ^ A B Winter, J.D. 2010. Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology. New Jersey: Pearson Education Inc. pp. 29 Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Phenotype_(igneous_petrology) additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy .® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc
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Mollusc Shell
The MOLLUSC (or MOLLUSK ) SHELL is typically a calcareous exoskeleton which encloses, supports and protects the soft parts of an animal in the phylum Mollusca
Mollusca
, which includes snails , clams , tusk shells , and several other classes. Not all shelled molluscs live in the sea; many live on the land and in freshwater. The ancestral mollusc is thought to have had a shell, but this has subsequently been lost or reduced on some families, such as the squid, octopus, and some smaller groups such as the caudofoveata and solenogastres , and the highly derived Xenoturbella . Today, over 100,000 living species bear a shell; there is some dispute as to whether these shell-bearing molluscs form a monophyletic group (conchifera) or whether shell-less molluscs are interleaved into their family tree
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Bivalve
See text Empty shell of the giant clam (_Tridacna gigas_) Empty shells of the sword razor (_ Ensis ensis_) BIVALVIA, in previous centuries referred to as the LAMELLIBRANCHIATA and PELECYPODA, is a class of marine and freshwater molluscs that have laterally compressed bodies enclosed by a shell consisting of two hinged parts. BIVALVES as a group have no head and they lack some usual molluscan organs like the radula and the odontophore . They include the clams , oysters , cockles , mussels , scallops , and numerous other families that live in saltwater, as well as a number of families that live in freshwater. The majority are filter feeders . The gills have evolved into ctenidia , specialised organs for feeding and breathing. Most bivalves bury themselves in sediment where they are relatively safe from predation . Others lie on the sea floor or attach themselves to rocks or other hard surfaces
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Mollusca
See text . DIVERSITY 85,000 recognized living species. _ Cornu aspersum _ (formerly _Helix aspersa_) – a common land snail The MOLLUSC (or MOLLUSK /ˈmɒləsk/ ) composes the large phylum MOLLUSCA of invertebrate animals. Around 85,000 extant species of molluscs are recognized. Molluscs are the largest marine phylum, comprising about 23% of all the named marine organisms . Numerous molluscs also live in freshwater and terrestrial habitats . They are highly diverse, not just in size and in anatomical structure, but also in behaviour and in habitat. The phylum is typically divided into 9 or 10 taxonomic classes , of which two are entirely extinct
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Donax Variabilis
DONAX VARIABILIS, known by the common name "coquina", is a species of small edible saltwater clam, a marine bivalve mollusc in the family Donacidae , the bean clams. It is a warm water species which occurs in shallow water on sandy beaches. CONTENTS * 1 Distribution * 2 Description * 3 Biology * 4 Human uses * 5 See also * 6 References DISTRIBUTIONThis species occurs on the east coast of the United States , from Virginia Beach, Virginia
Virginia Beach, Virginia
to Florida including East Florida, West Florida and the Florida Keys. DESCRIPTIONThe maximum reported size is 19 mm. The exterior of the small shell of this species can have any one of a wide range of possible colors, from almost white, through yellow, pink, orange, red, purple, to brownish and blueish, with or without the presence of darker rays. BIOLOGYThis species lives from the intertidal zone of sandy beaches to a depth of 11 m
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Punnett Square
The PUNNETT SQUARE is a diagram that is used to predict an outcome of a particular cross or breeding experiment. It is named after Reginald C. Punnett , who devised the approach. The diagram is used by biologists to determine the probability of an offspring having a particular genotype . The Punnett square
Punnett square
is a tabular summary of possible combinations of maternal alleles with paternal alleles. These tables can be used to examine the genotypic outcome probabilities of the offspring of a single trait (allele), or when crossing multiple traits from the parents. The Punnett Square is a visual representation of Mendelian inheritance
Mendelian inheritance
. It is important to understand the terms "heterozygous", "homozygous", "double heterozygote" (or homozygote), "dominant allele" and "recessive allele" when using the Punnett square
Punnett square
method
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Greek Language
GREEK ( Modern Greek
Modern Greek
: ελληνικά , _elliniká_, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα (_ listen ), ellinikí glóssa_, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece
Greece
and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean . It has the longest documented history of any living Indo-European language, spanning 34 centuries of written records. Its writing system has been the Greek alphabet
Greek alphabet
for the major part of its history; other systems, such as Linear B
Linear B
and the Cypriot syllabary
Cypriot syllabary
, were used previously. The alphabet arose from the Phoenician script and was in turn the basis of the Latin
Latin
, Cyrillic
Cyrillic
, Armenian , Coptic , Gothic and many other writing systems
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Organism
In biology , an ORGANISM (from Greek : οργανισμός, _organismos_) is any individual life form , of an animal , plant , fungus , or single-celled microorganism such as a protist , bacterium , and archaeon . All types of organisms are capable of reproduction , growth and development , maintenance , and some degree of response to stimuli . An organism consists of one or more cells ; when it has one cell it is known as a unicellular organism ; and when it has more than one it is known as a multicellular organism . Humans are multicellular organisms composed of many trillions of cells grouped into specialized tissues and organs . An organism may be either a prokaryote or a eukaryote
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Trait (biology)
A PHENOTYPIC TRAIT, or simply TRAIT, is a distinct variant of a phenotypic characteristic of an organism ; it may be either inherited or determined environmentally, but typically occurs as a combination of the two. For example, eye color is a CHARACTER of an organism, while blue, brown and hazel are traits. CONTENTS * 1 Definition * 2 Genetic origin of traits in diploid organisms * 3 Mendelian expression of genes in diploid organisms * 4 Biochemistry of dominance and extensions to expression of traits * 5 Schizotypy * 6 See also * 7 Citations * 8 References DEFINITIONA phenotypic trait is an obvious, observable, and measurable trait; it is the expression of genes in an observable way. An example of a phenotypic trait is hair color; underlying genes, which make up the genotype , "control" the hair color, but the actual hair color, the part we see, is the phenotype
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Morphology (biology)
MORPHOLOGY is a branch of biology dealing with the study of the form and structure of organisms and their specific structural features. This includes aspects of the outward appearance (shape , structure , colour , pattern , size ), i.e. EXTERNAL MORPHOLOGY (or eidonomy ), as well as the form and structure of the internal parts like bones and organs , i.e. INTERNAL MORPHOLOGY (or anatomy ). This is in contrast to physiology , which deals primarily with function. Morphology is a branch of life science dealing with the study of gross structure of an organism or taxon and its component parts. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Divisions of morphology * 3 Morphology and classification * 4 3D cell morphology:classification * 5 See also * 6 References HISTORYThe word "morphology" is from the Ancient Greek μορφή, morphé, meaning "form", and λόγος, lógos, meaning "word, study, research"
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Developmental Biology
DEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGY is the study of the process by which animals and plants grow and develop. Developmental biology also encompasses the biology of regeneration, asexual reproduction and metamorphosis and the growth and differentiation of stem cells in the adult organism. CONTENTS * 1 Perspectives * 2 Developmental processes * 2.1 Cell differentiation * 2.2 Regeneration * 3 Embryonic development of animals * 3.1 Metamorphosis * 4 Plant Development * 4.1 Growth * 4.2 Morphological variation * 4.3 Evolution of plant morphology * 5 Developmental model organisms * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 Further reading * 9 External links PERSPECTIVESThe main processes involved in the embryonic development of animals are: regional specification , morphogenesis , cell differentiation , growth , and the overall control of timing explored in evolutionary developmental biology
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Behavior
BEHAVIOR ( American English ) or BEHAVIOUR (Commonwealth English ) is the range of actions and mannerisms made by individuals, organisms , systems , or artificial entities in conjunction with themselves or their environment, which includes the other systems or organisms around as well as the (inanimate) physical environment. It is the response of the system or organism to various stimuli or inputs, whether internal or external, conscious or subconscious , overt or covert , and voluntary or involuntary . Taking a behavior informatics perspective, a behavior consists of behavior actor, operation, interactions, and their properties. A behavior can be represented as a behavior vector
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Gene Expression
GENE EXPRESSION is the process by which information from a gene is used in the synthesis of a functional gene product . These products are often proteins , but in non-protein coding genes such as transfer RNA
RNA
(tRNA) or small nuclear RNA
RNA
(snRNA) genes, the product is a functional RNA
RNA
. The process of gene expression is used by all known life—eukaryotes (including multicellular organisms ), prokaryotes (bacteria and archaea ), and utilized by viruses —to generate the macromolecular machinery for life. Several steps in the gene expression process may be modulated, including the transcription , RNA
RNA
splicing , translation , and post-translational modification of a protein. Gene
Gene
regulation gives the cell control over structure and function, and is the basis for cellular differentiation , morphogenesis and the versatility and adaptability of any organism
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Genotype