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Phenotype
A PHENOTYPE (from Greek phainein, meaning 'to show', and typos, meaning 'type') is the composite of an organism 's observable characteristics or traits , such as its morphology , development , biochemical or physiological properties, behavior , and products of behavior (such as a bird's nest). A phenotype results from the expression of an organism's genetic code, its genotype , as well as the influence of environmental factors and the interactions between the two. When two or more clearly different phenotypes exist in the same population of a species, the species is called polymorphic . A well-documented polymorphism is Labrador Retriever coloring ; while the coat color depends on many genes, it is clearly seen in the environment as yellow, black and brown. This genotype-phenotype distinction was proposed by Wilhelm Johannsen in 1911 to make clear the difference between an organism's heredity and what that heredity produces
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Germ Plasm
GERM PLASM or POLAR PLASM is a zone found in the cytoplasm of the egg cells of some organisms, which contains determinants (specific proteins and mRNAs) that will give rise to the germ cell lineage. As the zygote undergoes mitotic divisions the germ plasm is ultimately restricted to a few cells of the embryo . These germ cells then migrate to the gonads . CONTENTS * 1 Germ plasm theory * 2 Germplasm, other usage * 3 References * 4 External links GERM PLASM THEORYThe term germ plasm was first used by the German biologist August Weismann (1834–1914). His germ plasm theory states that multicellular organisms consist of germ cells that contain and transmit heritable information, and somatic cells which carry out ordinary bodily functions. In the germ plasm theory, inheritance in a multicellular organism only takes place by means of the germ cells: the gametes , such as egg cells and sperm cells. Other cells of the body do not function as agents of heredity
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Somatic Cell
A SOMATIC CELL (Greek: σὠμα/soma = body) or VEGETAL CELL is any biological cell forming the body of an organism; that is, in a multicellular organism , any cell other than a gamete , germ cell , gametocyte or undifferentiated stem cell . In contrast, gametes are cells that fuse during sexual reproduction , germ cells are cells that give rise to gametes, and stem cells are cells that can divide through mitosis and differentiate into diverse specialized cell types. For example, in mammals , somatic cells make up all the internal organs, skin, bones, blood and connective tissue, while mammalian germ cells give rise to spermatozoa and ova which fuse during fertilization to produce a cell called a zygote , which divides and differentiates into the cells of an embryo . There are approximately 220 types of somatic cells in the human body
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August Weismann
AUGUST FRIEDRICH LEOPOLD WEISMANN (17 January 1834 – 5 November 1914) was a German evolutionary biologist . Ernst Mayr
Ernst Mayr
ranked him as the second most notable evolutionary theorist of the 19th century, after Charles Darwin
Charles Darwin
. Weismann became the Director of the Zoological Institute and the first Professor of Zoology at Freiburg
Freiburg
. His main contribution involved germ plasm theory , at one time also known as Weismannism, according to which inheritance (in a multicellular organism) only takes place by means of the germ cells —the gametes such as egg cells and sperm cells. Other cells of the body—somatic cells —do not function as agents of heredity. The effect is one-way: germ cells produce somatic cells and are not affected by anything the somatic cells learn or therefore any ability an individual acquires during its life
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Hieracium Umbellatum
HIERACIUM CANADENSE, commonly called CANADIAN HAWKWEED, CANADA HAWKWEED, NARROWLEAF HAWKWEED, or NORTHERN HAWKWEED, is a plant in the genus Hieracium . Its pointed leaves have toothed margins, where the teeth can appear almost hooked. The flowers of the plant are yellow. CONTENTS* 1 Distribution * 1.1 Asia * 1.2 Europe * 1.3 North America * 2 Subspecies which are synonyms * 3 References * 4 External links DISTRIBUTION Hieracium canadense is a native to much of the northern hemisphere
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Cliff
In geography and geology, a CLIFF is a vertical, or nearly vertical, rock exposure. Cliffs are formed as erosion landforms by the processes of weathering and erosion. Cliffs are common on coasts, in mountainous areas, escarpments and along rivers. Cliffs are usually formed by rock that is resistant to weathering and erosion. Sedimentary rocks most likely to form cliffs include sandstone , limestone , chalk , and dolomite . Igneous rocks such as granite and basalt also often form cliffs. An escarpment (or scarp) is a type of cliff, formed by the movement of a geologic fault or landslide, or by differential erosion of rock layers of differing hardness. Most cliffs have some form of scree slope at their base. In arid areas or under high cliffs, they are generally exposed jumbles of fallen rock. In areas of higher moisture, a soil slope may obscure the talus. Many cliffs also feature tributary waterfalls or rock shelters
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Habitat
A HABITAT is an ecological or environmental area that is inhabited by a particular species of animal , plant , or other type of organism . The term typically refers to the zone in which the organism lives and where it can find food, shelter, protection and mates for reproduction. It is the natural environment in which an organism lives, or the physical environment that surrounds a species population . A habitat is made up of physical factors such as soil , moisture , range of temperature , and light intensity as well as biotic factors such as the availability of food and the presence or absence of predators . Every organism has certain habitat needs for the conditions in which it will thrive, but some are tolerant of wide variations while others are very specific in their requirements
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GC Content
In molecular biology and genetics , GC-CONTENT (or GUANINE-CYTOSINE CONTENT) is the percentage of nitrogenous bases on a DNA
DNA
or RNA molecule that are either guanine or cytosine (from a possibility of four different ones, also including adenine and thymine in DNA
DNA
and adenine and uracil in RNA). This may refer to a certain fragment of DNA
DNA
or RNA, or that of the whole genome . When it refers to a fragment of the genetic material, it may denote the GC-content of section of a gene (domain), single gene, group of genes (or gene clusters), or even a non-coding region. G (guanine) and C (cytosine) undergo a specific hydrogen bonding , whereas A (adenine) bonds specifically with T (thymine, in DNA) or U (uracil, in RNA). The GC pair is bound by three hydrogen bonds , while AT and AU pairs are bound by two hydrogen bonds
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Central Dogma Of Molecular Biology
The CENTRAL DOGMA OF MOLECULAR BIOLOGY is an explanation of the flow of genetic information within a biological system. It was first stated by Francis Crick
Francis Crick
in 1958 “ The Central Dogma. This states that once ‘information’ has passed into protein it cannot get out again. In more detail, the transfer of information from nucleic acid to nucleic acid, or from nucleic acid to protein may be possible, but transfer from protein to protein, or from protein to nucleic acid is impossible. Information means here the precise determination of sequence, either of bases in the nucleic acid or of amino acid residues in the protein. ” — Francis Crick, 1958and re-stated in a Nature paper published in 1970: Information flow in biological systems “ The central dogma of molecular biology deals with the detailed residue-by-residue transfer of sequential information
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Beaver Dam
BEAVER DAMS are dams built by beavers to provide ponds as protection against predators such as coyotes, wolves, and bears, and to provide easy access to food during winter. These structures modify the natural environment in such a way that the overall ecosystem builds upon the change, making beavers a keystone species . Beavers work at night and are prolific builders, carrying mud and stones with their fore-paws and timber between their teeth. Beavers can rebuild primary dams overnight, though they may not defend secondary dams as vigorously
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Western Blot
The WESTERN BLOT (sometimes called the PROTEIN IMMUNOBLOT) is a widely used analytical technique used in molecular biology , immunogenetics and other molecular biology disciplines to detect specific proteins in a sample of tissue homogenate or extract. Synthetic or animal-derived antibodies are created that react with a specific target protein. The sample to be tested is prepared and put together with these antibodies on a membrane – if the specific protein sought for is present, after a gel electrophoresis step this will result in an accordingly stained band on the western blot. Other related techniques include dot blot analysis, quantitative dot blot , immunohistochemistry , and immunocytochemistry where antibodies are used to detect proteins in tissues and cells by immunostaining , and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay ( ELISA
ELISA
)
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Caddis Fly
The CADDISFLIES, or order TRICHOPTERA, are a group of insects with aquatic larvae and terrestrial adults. There are approximately 14,500 described species, most of which can be divided into the suborders Integripalpia and Annulipalpia on the basis of the adult mouthparts. Integripalpian larvae construct a portable casing to protect themselves as they move around looking for food, while Annulipalpian larvae make themselves a fixed retreat in which they remain, waiting for food to come to them. The affinities of the small third suborder Spicipalpia are unclear, and molecular analysis suggests it may not be monophyletic
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DNA-DNA Hybridization
DNA– DNA
DNA
HYBRIDIZATION generally refers to a molecular biology technique that measures the degree of genetic similarity between pools of DNA
DNA
sequences. It is usually used to determine the genetic distance between two organisms. This has been used extensively in phylogeny and taxonomy . CONTENTS * 1 Method * 2 Use in zoology * 3 Use in microbiology * 4 Replacement by genome sequencing * 5 See also * 6 References METHODThe DNA
DNA
of one organism is labeled, then mixed with the unlabeled DNA to be compared against. The mixture is incubated to allow DNA
DNA
strands to dissociate and renewal forming hybrid double-stranded DNA. Hybridized sequences with a high degree of similarity will bind more firmly, and require more energy to separate them: i.e
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Human Blood Group Systems
The term HUMAN BLOOD GROUP SYSTEMS is defined by International Society of Blood Transfusion as systems in the human species where cell-surface antigens —in particular, those on blood cells—are "controlled at a single gene locus or by two or more very closely linked homologous genes with little or no observable recombination between them", and include the common ABO and Rh- (Rhesus) antigen systems, as well as many others; thirty-five major human systems are identified as of November 2014. In addition to the ABO and Rh systems, the antigens expressed on blood cell membrane surfaces include 346 red blood cell antigens and 33 platelet antigens, as defined serologically. The genetic basis for most of these antigens lie in 45 red blood cell and 6 platelet genes
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Inflorescence
An INFLORESCENCE is a group or cluster of flowers arranged on a stem that is composed of a main branch or a complicated arrangement of branches. Morphologically , it is the modified part of the shoot of seed plants where flowers are formed. The modifications can involve the length and the nature of the internodes and the phyllotaxis , as well as variations in the proportions, compressions, swellings, adnations , connations and reduction of main and secondary axes. Inflorescence
Inflorescence
can also be defined as the reproductive portion of a plant that bears a cluster of flowers in a specific pattern. The stem holding the whole inflorescence is called a peduncle and the major axis (incorrectly referred to as the main stem) holding the flowers or more branches within the inflorescence is called the RACHIS . The stalk of each single flower is called a pedicel
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Dune
In physical geography , a DUNE is a hill of loose sand built by wind or the flow of water. Dunes occur in different shapes and sizes, formed by interaction with the flow of air or water. Most kinds of dunes are longer on the windward side where the sand is pushed up the dune and have a shorter "slip face" in the lee of the wind. The valley or trough between dunes is called a slack. A "dune field" is an area covered by extensive sand dunes. Dunes occur, for example, in some deserts and along some coasts. Some coastal areas have one or more sets of dunes running parallel to the shoreline directly inland from the beach . In most cases, the dunes are important in protecting the land against potential ravages by storm waves from the sea . Although the most widely distributed dunes are those associated with coastal regions, the largest complexes of dunes are found inland in dry regions and associated with ancient lake or sea beds
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