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Phaedrus (Plato)
The Phaedrus (/ˈfiːdrəs/; Ancient Greek: Φαῖδρος, lit. 'Phaidros'), written by Plato, is a dialogue between Plato's protagonist, Socrates, and Phaedrus, an interlocutor in several dialogues
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Halcyon (dialogue)
Halcyon (Greek: Ἀλκυών) is a short dialogue with the distinction of being attributed in the manuscripts to both Plato
Plato
and Lucian, although the work is not by either writer.[1] Favorinus, writing in the early 2nd century, attributes it to a certain Leon.[2] In the dialogue, Socrates
Socrates
relates to Chaerephon the ancient myth of Halcyon, a woman who was transformed by the gods into a bird in order to be able to search the seas for her husband Ceyx, who was lost at sea. Skeptical of this account, Chaerephon questions the possibility that humans can be transformed into birds. In response, Socrates cautions that there are many amazing things unknown, or at least not fully understood by humans, and advocates epistemological humility for mortals in light of the gods' abilities—or, more generally, in light of that which humans do not now know
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Critias (dialogue)
Critias (/ˈkrɪtiəs/; Greek: Κριτίας), one of Plato's late dialogues, recounts the story of the mighty island kingdom Atlantis and its attempt to conquer Athens, which failed due to the ordered society of the Athenians. Critias is the second of a projected trilogy of dialogues, preceded by Timaeus and followed by Hermocrates.[1] The latter was possibly never written and Critias was left incomplete. Because of their resemblance (e.g. in terms of persons appearing), modern classicists occasionally combine both Timaeus and Critias as Timaeus-Critias.[2]Contents1 Protagonists 2 Content 3 See also 4 Citations 5 References 6 External linksProtagonists[edit]TimaeusUnlike the other speakers of the Critias, it is unclear whether Timaeus is a historical figure or not
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Euthydemus (dialogue)
Euthydemus (Greek: Εὐθύδημος, Euthydemos), written c. 384 BC, is a dialogue by Plato
Plato
which satirizes what Plato
Plato
presents as the logical fallacies of the Sophists.[1] In it, Socrates
Socrates
describes to his friend Crito
Crito
a visit he and various youths paid to two brothers, Euthydemus and Dionysodorus, both of whom were prominent Sophists from Chios
Chios
and Thurii. The Euthydemus contrasts Socratic argumentation and education with the methods of Sophism, to the detriment of the latter
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Gorgias (dialogue)
Gorgias
Gorgias
(/ˈɡɔːrdʒiəs/;[1] Greek: Γοργίας, Ancient Greek: [ɡorɡíaːs]) is a Socratic dialogue
Socratic dialogue
written by Plato (Steph. 447a - 527) around 380 BC. The dialogue depicts a conversation between Socrates
Socrates
and a small group of sophists (and other guests) at a dinner gathering. Socrates
Socrates
debates with the sophist seeking the true definition of rhetoric, attempting to pinpoint the essence of rhetoric and unveil the flaws of the sophistic oratory popular in Athens
Athens
at the time. The art of persuasion was widely considered necessary for political and legal advantage in classical Athens, and rhetoricians promoted themselves as teachers of this fundamental skill. Some, like Gorgias, were foreigners attracted to Athens
Athens
because of its reputation for intellectual and cultural sophistication
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Menexenus (dialogue)
The Menexenus
Menexenus
(/ˌməˈnɛksənəs/; Greek: Μενέξενος) is a Socratic dialogue
Socratic dialogue
of Plato, traditionally included in the seventh tetralogy along with the Greater and Lesser Hippias and the Ion. The speakers are Socrates
Socrates
and Menexenus, who is not to be confused with Socrates' son Menexenus. The Menexenus
Menexenus
of Plato's dialogue appears also in the Lysis, where he is identified as the "son of Demophon",[1] as well as the Phaedo. The Menexenus
Menexenus
consists mainly of a lengthy funeral oration, referencing the one given by Pericles
Pericles
in Thucydides' account of the Peloponnesian War
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Meno
Meno
Meno
(/ˈmiːnoʊ/; Greek: Μένων) is a Socratic dialogue
Socratic dialogue
written by Plato
Plato
(Steph. 70–100). It appears to attempt to determine the definition of virtue, or arete, meaning virtue in general, rather than particular virtues, such as justice or temperance. The first part of the work is written in the Socratic dialectical style and Meno
Meno
is reduced to confusion or aporia
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Phaedo
Phædo or Phaedo
Phaedo
(/ˈfiːdoʊ/; Greek: Φαίδων, Phaidōn, Greek pronunciation: [pʰaídɔːn]), also known to ancient readers as On The Soul,[1] is one of the best-known dialogues of Plato's middle period, along with the Republic and the Symposium. The philosophical subject of the dialogue is the immortality of the soul. It is set in the last hours prior to the death of Socrates, and is Plato's fourth and last dialogue to detail the philosopher's final days, following Euthyphro, Apology, and Crito. In the dialogue, Socrates
Socrates
discusses the nature of the afterlife on his last day before being executed by drinking hemlock. Socrates
Socrates
has been imprisoned and sentenced to death by an Athenian jury for not believing in the gods of the state (though some scholars think it was more for his support of "philosopher kings" as opposed to democracy)[2] and for corrupting the youth of the city
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Protagoras (dialogue)
Protagoras
Protagoras
(/proʊˈtæɡərəs/; Greek: Πρωταγόρας) is a dialogue by Plato. The traditional subtitle (which may or may not be Plato's) is "or the Sophists". The main argument is between the elderly Protagoras, a celebrated Sophist, and Socrates. The discussion takes place at the home of Callias, who is host to Protagoras
Protagoras
while he is in town, and concerns the nature of Sophists, the unity and the teachability of virtue. A total of twenty-one people are named as present.Contents1 The characters 2 Summary2.1 Introduction 2.2 Prodicus is wrestled out of bed 2.3 Protagoras' great speech 2.4 Socrates' complaint 2.5 Conclusion3 Notes 4 Texts and translations 5 External linksThe characters[edit] Of the twenty-one people who are specifically said to be present, three are known Sophists
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Parmenides (dialogue)
Parmenides
Parmenides
(Greek: Παρμενίδης) is one of the dialogues of Plato. It is widely considered to be one of the more, if not the most, challenging and enigmatic of Plato's dialogues.[1][2][3] The Parmenides
Parmenides
purports to be an account of a meeting between the two great philosophers of the Eleatic school, Parmenides
Parmenides
and Zeno of Elea, and a young Socrates
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Republic (Plato)
A republic (Latin: res publica) is a form of government in which the country is considered a "public matter", not the private concern or property of the rulers. The primary positions of power within a republic are not inherited. It is a form of government under which the head of state is not a monarch.[1][2][3] In American English, the definition of a republic refers specifically to a form of government in which elected individuals represent the citizen body[2] and exercise power according to the rule of law under a constitution, including separation of powers with an elected head of state, referred to as a constitutional republic[4][5][6][7] or representative democracy. [8] As of 2017[update], 159 of the world's 206 sovereign states use the word "republic" as part of their official names – not all of these are republics in the sense of having elected governments, nor is the word "republic" used in the names of all nations with elected governments
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Theaetetus (dialogue)
The Theaetetus (/ˌθiːɪˈtiːtəs/; Greek: Θεαίτητος) is one of Plato's dialogues concerning the nature of knowledge, written circa 369 BC. In this dialogue, Socrates
Socrates
and Theaetetus discuss three definitions of knowledge: knowledge as nothing but perception, knowledge as true judgment, and, finally, knowledge as a true judgment with an account. Each of these definitions is shown to be unsatisfactory. Socrates
Socrates
declares Theaetetus will have benefited from discovering what he does not know, and that he may be better able to approach the topic in the future
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Laws (dialogue)
The Laws (Greek: Νόμοι, Nómoi; Latin: De Legibus[1]) is Plato's last and longest dialogue. The conversation depicted in the work's twelve books begins with the question of who is given the credit for establishing a civilization's laws. Its musings on the ethics of government and law have established it as a classic of political philosophy[citation needed] alongside Plato's more widely read Republic. Scholars generally agree that Plato
Plato
wrote this dialogue as an older man, having failed in his effort in Syracuse on the island of Sicily to guide a tyrant's rule, instead having been thrown in prison. These events are alluded to in the Seventh Letter
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Lysis (dialogue)
Lysis (/ˈlaɪsɪs/; Greek: Λύσις) is a dialogue of Plato
Plato
which discusses the nature of friendship. It is generally classified as an early dialogue. The main characters are Socrates, the boys Lysis and Menexenus
Menexenus
who are friends, as well as Hippothales, who is in unrequited love with Lysis and therefore, after the initial conversation, hides himself behind the surrounding listeners
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Philebus
The Philebus
Philebus
(/fɪˈliːbəs/; occasionally given as Philebos; Greek: Φίληβος), is one of the surviving Socratic dialogues written in the 4th century BC by the ancient Greek philosopher Plato. Apart from Socrates, the primary speaker in Philebus, the other speakers are Philebus
Philebus
and Protarchus. But Philebus, who wants to defend the life of pleasure, hedonism, which Socrates
Socrates
describes as the life of an oyster, hardly participates, and his position has to be defended by Protarchus, who has learnt argumentation from Sophists. Manuscripts of the work give it the subtitle "peri hēdonēs, ēthikos" indicating that it is "concerning pleasure", and that it is a work about "ethics", or in other words the question of the best way of life
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Sophist (dialogue)
The Sophist (Greek: Σοφιστής; Latin: Sophista[1]) is a Platonic dialogue from the philosopher's late period, most likely written in 360 BC. Its main theme is to identify what a sophist is and how a sophist differs from a philosopher and statesman. Because each seems distinguished by a particular form of knowledge, the dialogue continues some of the lines of inquiry pursued in the epistemological dialogue, Theaetetus, which is said to have taken place the day before. Because the Sophist treats these matters, it is often taken to shed light on Plato's Theory of Forms
Theory of Forms
and is compared with the Parmenides, which criticized what is often taken to be the theory of forms. The dialogue is unusual in being one of three that do not feature Socrates, although as in its sequel, the Statesman, he is present to play a minor role (the other dialogue is the Laws). Instead, the Eleatic Stranger takes the lead in the discussion
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