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Petrol Engine
A petrol engine (known as a gasoline engine in American English) is an internal combustion engine with spark-ignition, designed to run on petrol (gasoline) and similar volatile fuels. In most petrol engines, the fuel and air are usually mixed after compression (although some modern petrol engines now use cylinder-direct petrol injection). The pre-mixing was formerly done in a carburetor, but now it is done by electronically controlled fuel injection, except in small engines where the cost/complication of electronics does not justify the added engine efficiency. The process differs from a diesel engine in the method of mixing the fuel and air, and in using spark plugs to initiate the combustion process
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W16 Engine
A W16 engine
W16 engine
is a sixteen cylinder piston internal combustion engine in a four-bank W configuration. The most common layout for W16 engines consists of two 'offset double-row' banks of eight cylinders,[1] coupled to a single crankshaft. Other layouts, though, have been used before as well. Volkswagen Group
Volkswagen Group
is the only automotive manufacturer currently producing W16 engines. These engines are most notably used in the Bugatti Veyron
Bugatti Veyron
and Bugatti Chiron.[2] French car maker Jimenez also used a custom 4.1L W16 made from four Yamaha motorcycle engines in the 1995 Jimenez Novia, a one-off French supercar.[3] The Volkswagen W16 engine was introduced with the mid-engined Bentley Hunaudieres concept car ( Bentley
Bentley
Motors Limited has been a Volkswagen Group
Volkswagen Group
holding since 1998)
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Petrol
Gasoline
Gasoline
(American English), or petrol (British English), is a transparent, petroleum-derived liquid that is used primarily as a fuel in spark-ignited internal combustion engines. It consists mostly of organic compounds obtained by the fractional distillation of petroleum, enhanced with a variety of additives. On average, a 42-gallon barrel of crude oil (159 L) yields about 19 US gallons (72 L) of gasoline when processed in an oil refinery, though this varies based on the crude oil source's assay. The characteristic of a particular gasoline blend to resist igniting too early (which causes knocking and reduces efficiency in reciprocating engines) is measured by its octane rating. Gasoline
Gasoline
is produced in several grades of octane rating
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Air-cooled Engine
Air-cooled engines rely on the circulation of air directly over hot parts of the engine to cool them.A cylinder from an air-cooled aviation engine, a Continental C85. Notice the rows of fins on both the steel cylinder barrel and the aluminum cylinder head. The fins provide additional surface area for air to pass over the cylinder and absorb heat.Contents1 Introduction 2 Applications2.1 Road vehicles 2.2 Aviation 2.3 Diesel engines 2.4 Stationary or portable engines3 References 4 Bibliography4.1 Cited sources 4.2 Further readingIntroduction[edit] Most modern internal combustion engines are cooled by a closed circuit carrying liquid coolant through channels in the engine block and cylinder head, where the coolant absorbs heat, to a heat exchanger or radiator where the coolant releases heat into the air (or raw water, in the case of marine engines)
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Radial Engine
The radial engine is a reciprocating type internal combustion engine configuration in which the cylinders "radiate" outward from a central crankcase like the spokes of a wheel. It resembles a stylized star when viewed from the front, and is called a "star engine" (German Sternmotor, French moteur en étoile, Japanese hoshigata enjin, Italian Motore Stellare) in some languages
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Subaru
Coordinates: 36°17′51″N 139°22′05″E / 36.2975685°N 139.368058°E / 36.2975685; 139.368058SubaruConfidence in Motion Subaru
Subaru
corporate headquarters buildingNative nameスバルIndustry Automobile
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Porsche
Dr. Ing. h.c. F. Porsche
Porsche
AG, usually shortened to Porsche
Porsche
AG (German pronunciation: [ˈpɔʁʃə] ( listen)), is a German automobile manufacturer specializing in high-performance sports cars, SUVs
SUVs
and sedans. Porsche
Porsche
AG is headquartered in Stuttgart, and is owned by Volkswagen
Volkswagen
AG, which is itself majority-owned by Porsche Automobil Holding SE
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Flat-6
A flat-six or horizontally opposed-six is a flat engine with six cylinders arranged horizontally in two banks of three cylinders on each side of a central crankcase. This should not be confused with the Opposed-piston engine. The pistons are mounted to the crankshaft such that opposing pistons move back and forth in opposite directions at the same time, somewhat like a boxing competitor punching their gloves together before a fight, which has led to it being referred to as a boxer engine. The configuration results in inherently good balance of the reciprocating parts, a low center of gravity, and a very short engine length. The layout also lends itself to effective air cooling. The shape of the engine suits it better for rear engine and mid-engine designs, where the low center of gravity is an advantage; in front engine designs the width interferes with the ability of the front wheels to steer
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GE 57-ton Gas-electric Boxcab
Before Diesel engines
Diesel engines
had been developed for locomotive power in the 1920s and 1930s, many companies chose to use the gasoline engine for rail motive power. The first GE Locomotive was a series of four-axle (B-B) boxcab gasoline-electric machines closely related to the "doodlebugs", self-propelled passenger cars built in the early Twentieth Century. One of their first major customers was the Minneapolis, St. Paul, Rochester & Dubuque Electric Traction Company, better known as the Dan Patch Electric Lines
Dan Patch Electric Lines
after the owner's prize horse of the same name. Founded on the principle of not using steam power if they could avoid it, they asked GE to make them a series of locomotives with internal combustion-electric drive, rather than the mechanical drive systems that were proving unsatisfactory for rail propulsion
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Truck
A truck or lorry is a motor vehicle designed to transport cargo. Trucks vary greatly in size, power, and configuration; smaller varieties may be mechanically similar to some automobiles. Commercial trucks can be very large and powerful, and may be configured to mount specialized equipment, such as in the case of fire trucks and concrete mixers and suction excavators. Modern trucks are largely powered by diesel engines, although small to medium size trucks with gasoline engines exist in the US, Canada, and Mexico
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Bus
A bus (archaically also omnibus,[1] multibus, motorbus, autobus) is a road vehicle designed to carry many passengers. Buses can have a capacity as high as 300 passengers.[2] The most common type of bus is the single-decker rigid bus, with larger loads carried by double-decker and articulated buses, and smaller loads carried by midibuses and minibuses; coaches are used for longer-distance services. Many types of buses, such as city transit buses and inter-city coaches, charge a fare. Other types, such as elementary or secondary school buses or shuttle buses within a post-secondary education campus do not charge a fare
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Engine-generator
An engine-generator or portable generator is the combination of an electrical generator and an engine (prime mover) mounted together to form a single piece of equipment. This combination is also called an engine-generator set or a gen-set. In many contexts, the engine is taken for granted and the combined unit is simply called a generator.Contents1 Components 2 Types2.1 Mid-size stationary engine-generator 2.2 Large scale generator sets3 Applications 4 Safety 5 See also 6 References 7 External linksComponents[edit] In addition to the engine and generator, engine-generators generally include a fuel supply, a constant engine speed regulator (governor) and a generator voltage regulator, cooling and exhaust systems, and lubrication system
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Chainsaw
A chainsaw is a portable, mechanical saw which cuts with a set of teeth attached to a rotating chain that runs along a guide bar. It is used in activities such as tree felling, limbing, bucking, pruning, cutting firebreaks in wildland fire suppression and harvesting of firewood. Chainsaws with specially designed bar and chain combinations have been developed as tools for use in chainsaw art and chainsaw mills. Specialized chainsaws are used for cutting concrete. Chainsaws are sometimes used for cutting ice, for example for ice sculpture and in Finland for winter swimming
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Lawn Mower
A lawn mower (mower) is a machine utilizing one or more revolving blades to cut a grass surface to an even height. The height of the cut grass may be fixed by the design of the mower, but generally is adjustable by the operator, typically by a single master lever, or by a lever or nut and bolt on each of the machine's wheels. The blades may be powered by muscle, with wheels mechanically connected to the cutting blades so that when the mower is pushed forward, the blades spin, or the machine may have a battery-powered or plug-in electric motor. The most common power source for lawn mowers is a small (typically one cylinder) internal combustion engine. Smaller mowers often lack any form of propulsion, requiring human power to move over a surface; "walk-behind" mowers are self-propelled, requiring a human only to walk behind and guide them
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Small Engine
A small engine is the general term for a wide range of small-displacement, low-powered internal combustion engines used to power lawn mowers, generators, concrete mixers and many other machines that require independent power sources.[1] Most small engines are single-cylinder, with a few V-twin units. Although much less common, there have been small Wankel (rotary) engines manufactured for use on lawn mowers and other such equipment.[2] Small engines are also used for wide ranges of low-displacement motor vehicles, mainly motorcycles, scooters, ATVs, and go-karts.Contents1 Power range 2 Working cycles 3 Design3.1 Valves 3.2 Ignition 3.3 Starting 3.4 Fuel system 3.5 Governor 3.6 Crankshaft4 History 5 See also 6 ReferencesPower range[edit] The engines, which may be of two or four-stroke design, are small in both physical dimensions and power output, relative to larger automobile engines. Power output ranges from less than 1 to about 15 horsepower
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Aircraft
An aircraft is a machine that is able to fly by gaining support from the air. It counters the force of gravity by using either static lift or by using the dynamic lift of an airfoil,[1] or in a few cases the downward thrust from jet engines. Common examples of aircraft include airplanes, helicopters, airships (including blimps), gliders, and hot air balloons.[2] The human activity that surrounds aircraft is called aviation
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