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Perushim
The Perushim
Perushim
(Hebrew: פרושים‬) were disciples of the Vilna Gaon, Rabbi
Rabbi
Elijah ben Solomon Zalman, who left Lithuania
Lithuania
at the beginning of the 19th century to settle in the Land of Israel, which was then part of Ottoman Syria
Ottoman Syria
under Ottoman rule. They were from the section of the community known as mitnagdim (opponents of the Chassidic movement) in Lithuania. The name Perushim
Perushim
comes from the פרש‬ parash, meaning "to separate". The group sought to separate themselves from what they saw as the impurities of the society around them in Europe, and the name literally means 'separated (individuals)'. Coincidentally this was the same name by which the Pharisees
Pharisees
of antiquity were known
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Constantinople
Κωνσταντινούπολις (in Greek) Constantinopolis (in Latin)Map of ConstantinopleShown within Asia
Asia
MinorAlternate name Byzantion (earlier Greek name), Miklagard/Miklagarth (Old Norse), Tsarigrad (Slavic), Basileuousa ("Queen of Cities"), Megalopolis ("the Great City")Location Istanbul, Istanbul
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Holocaust
The Holocaust, also referred to as the Shoah,[b] was a genocide during World War II
World War II
in which Adolf Hitler's Nazi Germany, aided by its collaborators, systematically murdered some six million European Jews, around two-thirds of the Jewish population of Europe, between 1941 and 1945.[c] Jews
Jews
were targeted for extermination as part of a larger event involving the persecution and murder of other groups, including in particular the Roma, ethnic Poles, and "incurably sick",[6] as well as political opponents, homosexuals, Jehovah's Witnesses, and Soviet prisoners of war.[7] Germany implemented the persecution in stages. Following Hitler's rise to power in 1933, the government passed laws to exclude Jews
Jews
from civil society, most prominently the Nuremberg Laws
Nuremberg Laws
in 1935
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Revival Of Tiberias (1563)
Tiberias
Tiberias
(/taɪˈbɪəriəs/; Hebrew: טְבֶרְיָה‬, Tverya,  (audio) (help·info); Arabic: طبرية‎, Ṭabariyyah) is an Israeli city on the western shore of the Sea of Galilee. Established around 20 CE, it was named in honour of the second emperor of the Roman Empire, Tiberius.[2] In 2016 it had a population of 43,148.[1] Tiberias
Tiberias
was held in great respect in Judaism
Judaism
from the middle of the 2nd century CE[3] and since the 16th century has been considered one of Judaism's Four Holy Cities, along with Jerusalem, Hebron
Hebron
and Safed.[4] In the 2nd–10th centuries, Tiberias
Tiberias
was the largest Jewish city in the Galilee
Galilee
and the political and religious hub of the Jews
Jews
of Israel
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Expulsion Of Jews And Muslims From Portugal
On 5 December 1496, King Manuel I of Portugal
Manuel I of Portugal
signed the decree of expulsion of Jews and Muslims to take effect by the end of October of the next year.[1]Contents1 Background 2 Expulsion of Jews2.1 Crypto-Jews3 Expulsion of Muslims 4 Return of some Jews to Portugal 5 See also 6 References 7 SourcesBackground[edit] Until the 15th century, some Jews occupied prominent places in Portuguese political and economic life. For example, Isaac Abrabanel was the treasurer of King Afonso V of Portugal. Many also had an active role in Portuguese culture, and they kept their reputation of diplomats and merchants
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Alhambra Decree
The Alhambra Decree
Alhambra Decree
(also known as the Edict of Expulsion; Spanish: Decreto de la Alhambra, Edicto de Granada) was an edict issued on 31 March 1492, by the joint Catholic Monarchs
Catholic Monarchs
of Spain
Spain
(Isabella I of Castile and Ferdinand II of Aragon) ordering the expulsion of practicing Jews
Jews
from the Kingdoms of Castile and Aragon and its territories and possessions by 31 July of that year.[1] The primary purpose was to eliminate their influence on Spain's large converso population and ensure they did not revert to Judaism. Over half of Spain's Jews
Jews
had converted as a result of the religious persecution and pogroms which occurred in 1391.[2] Due to continuing attacks around 50,000 more had converted by 1415.[3] A further number of those remaining chose to convert to avoid expulsion
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Moshava
A moshava (Hebrew: מושבה‬), plural: moshavot (מושבות‬), was a form of rural Jewish settlement in Ottoman Palestine, established by the members of the Old Yishuv
Old Yishuv
since late 1870s and during the first two waves of Jewish Zionist immigration - the First and Second Aliyah.Contents1 History 2 Old Yishuv
Old Yishuv
and First Aliyah
First Aliyah
moshavot 3 Second Aliyah
Second Aliyah
moshavot 4 References 5 Further readingHistory[edit] In a moshava, as opposed to later communal settlements like the kibbutz and the moshav, all the land and property are privately owned. The first moshavot were established by the members of the Jewish community and by pioneers of the First Aliyah
First Aliyah
arriving to Ottoman Palestine.[1] The economy of the early moshavot was based on agriculture and resembled the grain-growing villages of eastern Europe in layout
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Jews
Enlarged population (includes full or partial Jewish ancestry): 20.7 million[1] (2018, est.)Regions with significant populations Israel6,558,100–6,958,300[1] United States5,700,000–10,000,000[1] France453,000–600,000[1] Canada390,500–550,000[1] United Kingdom290,000–370,000[1] Argentina180,300–330,000[1] Russia172,000–440,000[1] Germany116,000–225,000[1] Australia113,400–140,000[1] Brazil93,200–150,000[1] South Africa69,000–80,000[1] Ukraine50,000–140,000[1] Hungary47,400–100,000[1] Mexico40,000–50,000[1] Netherlands29,800–52,000[1] Belgium29,200–40,000[1] Italy27,500–41,000[1]  Switzerland18,600–25,000[1] Chile18,300–26,000[1] Uruguay16,700–25,000[1] Turkey15,000–
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Ishtori Haparchi
Ishtori Haparchi
Ishtori Haparchi
(1280-1355) (also Estori Haparchi, Ashtori ha-Parhi) (Hebrew: אשתורי הפרחי‎) is the pen name of the 14th century Jewish physician, topographer, and traveler, Isaac Ha Kohen
Kohen
Ben Moses.[1]Contents1 Biography 2 Writings 3 Editions 4 ReferencesBiography[edit] Ishtori Haparchi
Ishtori Haparchi
was born in France
France
in 1280. Haparchi was descended from a line of sages and rabbis of fame. His Father was Rabbi Moshe HaParhi, a distinguished Talmudical scholar. His grandfather was, Rabbi Nathan of Trinquetaille, author of "Shaar HiTefisa"[2] His great grandfather was Meir ben Isaac of Carcassonne, author of the "Sefer ha-'Ezer". His family originally came from Florenzia, Spain.[2] The surname Haparchi means "the Florentine" in Hebrew (perach is Hebrew for flower)
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Napoleonic Wars
The Napoleonic Wars
Napoleonic Wars
(1803–1815) were a series of major conflicts pitting the French Empire and its allies, led by Napoleon
Napoleon
I, against a fluctuating array of European powers formed into various coalitions, financed and usually led by the United Kingdom. The wars stemmed from the unresolved disputes associated with the French Revolution
French Revolution
and its resultant conflict. The wars are often categorised into five conflicts, each termed after the coalition that fought Napoleon; the Third Coalition
Third Coalition
(1805), the Fourth (1806–07), Fifth (1809), Sixth (1813), and the Seventh and final (1815). Napoleon, upon ascending to First Consul of France
France
in 1799, had inherited a chaotic republic; he subsequently created a state with stable finances, a strong bureaucracy, and a well-trained army
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Akko
Acre (/ˈɑːkər/ or /ˈeɪkər/, Hebrew: עַכּוֹ‬, ʻAko, most commonly spelled as Akko; Arabic: عكّا‎, ʻAkkā)[2] is a city in the coastal plain region of Israel's Northern District at the extremity of Haifa
Haifa
Bay. The city occupies an important location, as it sits on the coast of the Mediterranean Sea, traditionally linking the waterways and commercial activity with the Levant.[3] The important land routes meeting here are the north–south one following the coast and the road cutting inland through the Plain of Esdraelon; Acre also benefits from one of the very rare natural harbours on the coast of the Land of Israel. This location helped it become one of the oldest cities in the world, continuously inhabited since the Middle Bronze Age, some 4,000 years ago. Acre is the holiest city of the Bahá'í Faith
Bahá'í Faith
and receives many Baha'i
Baha'i
pilgrims
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Torah
Outline of Bible-related topics   Bible
Bible
book    Bible
Bible
portalv t eThe Torah
Torah
(/ˈtɔːrəˌˈtoʊrə/; Hebrew: תּוֹרָה‬, "instruction, teaching") is the central reference of Judaism. It has a range of meanings. It can most specifically mean the first five books (Pentateuch) of the 24 books of the Tanakh, and is usually printed with the rabbinic commentaries (perushim)
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Zion
Zion
Zion
(Hebrew: צִיּוֹן‎ Ṣîyōn, modern Tsiyyon; also transliterated Sion, Sayon, Syon, Tzion, Tsion) is a placename often used as a synonym for Jerusalem[2][3] as well as for the biblical Land of Israel
Israel
as a whole. The word is first found in 2 Samuel 5:7 which dates from c. 630–540 BCE according to modern scholarship. It originally referred to a specific hill in Jerusalem
Jerusalem
(Mount Zion), located to the south of Mount Moriah
Mount Moriah
(the Temple Mount). Mount Zion held a Jebusite fortress of the same name that was conquered by David and was re-named the City of David; see Names of Jerusalem. That specific hill ("mount") is one of the many squat hills that form Jerusalem, which also includes Mount Moriah
Mount Moriah
(the Temple Mount). the Mount of Olives, etc
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Vilnius, Lithuania
Vilnius
Vilnius
(Lithuanian pronunciation: [ˈvʲɪlʲnʲʊs] ( listen), see also other names) is the capital of Lithuania
Lithuania
and its largest city, with a population of 574,221 as of 2017[update].[6] Vilnius
Vilnius
is in the southeast part of Lithuania
Lithuania
and is the second largest city in the Baltic states. Vilnius
Vilnius
is the seat of the main government institutions of Lithuania
Lithuania
and the Vilnius
Vilnius
District Municipality
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Australia
Coordinates: 25°S 133°E / 25°S 133°E / -25; 133Commonwealth of Australia Flag Coat of arms Anthem: Advance Australia
Australia
Fair[N 1] Commonwealth of Australia, including the Australian territorial claim in the AntarcticCapitalCanberra35°18′29″S 149°07′28″E / 35.30806°S 149.12444°E / -35.30806; 149.12444Largest citySydneyNational languageEnglish[N 2]Religion (2016)[3] Various 52%
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1834 Hebron Massacre
Egyptian victoryMassacre of inhabitants Conscription orders carried out Plunder of townBelligerents Egypt EyaletRebels of Hebron
Hebron
and Jabal NablusQasim and Barqawi clans of Jabal Nablus 'Amr tribe of Hebron
Hebron
HillsCommanders and leaders Ibrahim PashaQasim al-Ahmad Abd al-Rahman 'Amr 'Isa al-BarqawiStrength4,000 (infantry) 2,000 cavalry N/ACasualties and losses260 500 killed (rebels and civilians, including 12 Jews)v t ePeasants' revolt in PalestineSiege of Jerusalem Looting of Safed Battle of Deir al-Ghusun Battle of Hebron Siege of Al-KarakThe 1834 Hebron
Hebron
massacre occurred in early August 1834,[1] when the forces of Ibrahim Pasha launched an assault against Hebron
Hebron
to crush the last pocket of significant resistance in Palestine during the Peasants' revolt in Palestine
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