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Perl
5.24.3[2] / September 22, 2017; 6 months ago (2017-09-22) 5.22.4[3] / July 15, 2017; 8 months ago (2017-07-15)Preview release5.27.7[4] / December 20, 2017; 3 months ago (2017-12-20)Typing discipline DynamicImplementation language COS Cross-platformLicense Artistic License 1.0[5][6] or GNU General Public License[7]Filename extensions .pl .pm .t .podWebsite www.perl.orgInfluenced byAWK, C, C++, Lisp, Pascal, sed, Smalltalk
Smalltalk
80, Unix
Unix
shellInfluencedCoffeeScript,[citation needed] ECMAScript, Falcon, Groovy,[citation needed] JavaScript, Julia, LPC, Perl
Perl
6, PHP, Python, Ruby, Windows PowerShell Perl
Perl
Programming at Wikibooks Perl
Perl
is a family of high-level, general-purpose, interpreted, dynamic programming languages
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Bourne Shell
The Bourne shell
Bourne shell
(sh) is a shell, or command-line interpreter, for computer operating systems. The Bourne shell
Bourne shell
was the default shell for Version 7 Unix. Most Unix-like
Unix-like
systems continue to have /bin/sh—which will be the Bourne shell, or a symbolic link or hard link to a compatible shell—even when other shells are used by most users. Developed by Stephen Bourne at Bell Labs, it was a replacement for the Thompson shell, whose executable file had the same name—sh. It was released in 1979 in the Version 7 Unix
Version 7 Unix
release distributed to colleges and universities
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Event-driven Programming
In computer programming, event-driven programming is a programming paradigm in which the flow of the program is determined by events such as user actions (mouse clicks, key presses), sensor outputs, or messages from other programs/threads. Event-driven programming is the dominant paradigm used in graphical user interfaces and other applications (e.g. JavaScript web applications) that are centered on performing certain actions in response to user input. This is also true of programming for device drivers (e.g. P in USB device driver stacks[1]). In an event-driven application, there is generally a main loop that listens for events, and then triggers a callback function when one of those events is detected
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Software License
A software license is a legal instrument (usually by way of contract law, with or without printed material) governing the use or redistribution of software. Under United States copyright law all software is copyright protected, in source code as also object code form.[2] The only exception is software in the public domain. A typical software license grants the licensee, typically an end-user, permission to use one or more copies of software in ways where such a use would otherwise potentially constitute copyright infringement of the software owner's exclusive rights under copyright law.Contents1 Software
Software
licenses and copyright law1.1 Ownership vs
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Operating System
An operating system (OS) is system software that manages computer hardware and software resources and provides common services for computer programs. Time-sharing
Time-sharing
operating systems schedule tasks for efficient use of the system and may also include accounting software for cost allocation of processor time, mass storage, printing, and other resources. For hardware functions such as input and output and memory allocation, the operating system acts as an intermediary between programs and the computer hardware,[1][2] although the application code is usually executed directly by the hardware and frequently makes system calls to an OS function or is interrupted by it
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Software Release Life Cycle
A software release life cycle is the sum of the stages of development and maturity for a piece of computer software: ranging from its initial development to its eventual release, and including updated versions of the released version to help improve software or fix software bugs still present in the software.Contents1 History 2 Stages of development2.1 Pre-alpha 2.2 Alpha 2.3 Beta2.3.1 Open and closed beta2.4 Release candidate3 Release3.1 Release to manufacturing (RTM) 3.2 General availability (GA) 3.3 Release to web (RTW)4 Support4.1 End-of-life5 See also 6 References 7 BibliographyHistory[edit] Usage of the "alpha/beta" test terminology originated at IBM. As long ago as the 1950s (and probably earlier), IBM used similar terminology for their hardware development. "A" test was the verification of a new product before public announcement. "B" test was the verification before releasing the product to be manufactured
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Software Developer
A software developer is a person concerned with facets of the software development process, including the research, design, programming, and testing of computer software. Other job titles which are often used with similar meanings are programmer, software analyst, and software engineer. According to developer Eric Sink, the differences between system design, software development, and programming are more apparent. Already in the current market place there can be found a segregation between programmers and developers, being that one who implements is not the same as the one who designs the class structure or hierarchy. Even more so that developers become software architects or systems architects, those who design the multi-leveled architecture or component interactions of a large software system.[1] In a large company, there may be employees whose sole responsibility consists of only one of the phases above
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Software Design
Software
Software
design is the process by which an agent creates a specification of a software artifact, intended to accomplish goals, using a set of primitive components and subject to constraints.[1] Software
Software
design may refer to either "all the activity involved in conceptualizing, framing, implementing, commissioning, and ultimately modifying complex systems" or "the activity following requirements specification and before programming, as ... [in] a stylized software engineering process."[2] Software
Software
design usually involves problem solving and planning a software solution
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Generic Programming
Generic programming is a style of computer programming in which algorithms are written in terms of types to-be-specified-later that are then instantiated when needed for specific types provided as parameters. This approach, pioneered by ML in 1973,[1][2] permits writing common functions or types that differ only in the set of types on which they operate when used, thus reducing duplication. Such software entities are known as generics in Ada, C#, Delphi, Eiffel, F#, Java, Rust, Swift, TypeScript
TypeScript
and Visual Basic .NET
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Unix Shell
A Unix shell
Unix shell
is a command-line interpreter or shell that provides a traditional Unix-like
Unix-like
command line user interface. Users direct the operation of the computer by entering commands as text for a command line interpreter to execute, or by creating text scripts of one or more such commands. Users typically interact with a Unix shell
Unix shell
using a terminal emulator, however, direct operation via serial hardware connections, or networking session, are common for server systems. All Unix shells provide filename wildcarding, piping, here documents, command substitution, variables and control structures for condition-testing and iteration.Contents1 Concept 2 Early shells2.1 Bourne shell 2.2 C shell3 Configuration files 4 Exotic shells 5 See also 6 ReferencesConcept[edit] The most generic sense of the term shell means any program that users employ to type commands
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Procedural Programming
Procedural programming is a programming paradigm, derived from structured programming, based upon the concept of the procedure call. Procedures, also known as routines, subroutines, or functions (not to be confused with mathematical functions, but similar to those used in functional programming), simply contain a series of computational steps to be carried out. Any given procedure might be called at any point during a program's execution, including by other procedures or itself. The first major procedural programming languages first appeared circa 1960, including Fortran, ALGOL, COBOL
COBOL
and BASIC.[1] Pascal and C were published closer to the 1970s, while Ada was released in 1980.[1] Go is an example of a more modern procedural language, first published in 2009. Computer processors provide hardware support for procedural programming through a stack register and instructions for calling procedures and returning from them
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Data Extraction
Data
Data
extraction is the act or process of retrieving data out of (usually unstructured or poorly structured) data sources for further data processing or data storage (data migration). The import into the intermediate extracting system is thus usually followed by data transformation and possibly the addition of metadata prior to export to another stage in the data workflow.[1] Usually, the term data extraction is applied when (experimental) data is first imported into a computer from primary sources, like measuring or recording devices. Today's electronic devices will usually present an electrical connector (e.g
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Class-based Programming
Class-based programming, or more commonly class-orientation, is a style of object-oriented programming (OOP) in which inheritance is achieved by defining classes of objects, as opposed to the objects themselves (compare prototype-based programming). The most popular and developed model of OOP is a class-based model, as opposed to an object-based model. In this model, objects are entities that combine state (i.e. data), behavior (i.e. procedures, or methods) and identity (unique existence among all other objects). The structure and behavior of an object are defined by a class, which is a definition, or blueprint, of all objects of a specific type. An object must be explicitly created based on a class and an object thus created is considered to be an instance of that class. An object is similar to a structure, with the addition of method pointers, member access control, and an implicit data member which locates instances of the class (i.e
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Unix
Unix
Unix
(/ˈjuːnɪks/; trademarked as UNIX) is a family of multitasking, multiuser computer operating systems that derive from the original AT&T Unix, development starting in the 1970s at the Bell Labs research center by Ken Thompson, Dennis Ritchie, and others.[3] Initially intended for use inside the Bell System, AT&T licensed Unix
Unix
to outside parties in the late 1970s, leading to a variety of both academic and commercial Unix
Unix
variants from vendors like the University of California, Berkeley
University of California, Berkeley
(BSD), Microsoft
Microsoft
(Xenix), IBM (AIX), and Sun Microsystems
Sun Microsystems
(Solaris)
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Backronym
A backronym, or bacronym, is a constructed phrase that purports to be the source of a word that is an acronym. Backronyms may be invented with serious or humorous intent, or may be a type of false etymology or folk etymology. An acronym is a word derived from the initial letters of the words of a phrase:[1] For example, the word radar comes from "RAdio Detection And Ranging".[2] By contrast, a backronym is constructed by creating a new phrase to fit an already existing word, name, or acronym
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ECMAScript
See alsoECMAScriptv t e ECMAScript (or ES)[1] is a trademarked[2] scripting-language specification standardized by Ecma International in ECMA-262 and ISO/IEC 16262. It was created to standardize JavaScript, so as to foster multiple independent implementations
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