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Periapsis
An APSIS (Greek : ἁψίς; plural APSIDES /ˈæpsᵻdiːz/ , Greek: ἁψῖδες) is an extreme point in an object's orbit . The word comes via Latin from Greek and is cognate with apse . For elliptic orbits about a larger body, there are two apsides, named with the prefixes peri- (from περί (peri), meaning 'near') and ap-, or apo- (from ἀπ(ό) (ap(ó)), meaning 'away from') added to a reference to the thing being orbited. * For a body orbiting the Sun
Sun
, the point of least distance is the PERIHELION (/ˌpɛrᵻˈhiːliən/ ), and the point of greatest distance is the APHELION (/æpˈhiːliən/ )
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Perigee
An APSIS (Greek : ἁψίς; plural APSIDES /ˈæpsɪdiːz/ , Greek: ἁψῖδες) is an extreme point in an object's orbit . The word comes via Latin from Greek and is cognate with apse . For elliptic orbits about a larger body, there are two apsides, named with the prefixes peri- (from περί (peri), meaning 'near') and ap-, or apo- (from ἀπ(ό) (ap(ó)), meaning 'away from') added to a reference to the thing being orbited. * For a body orbiting the Sun
Sun
, the point of least distance is the PERIHELION (/ˌpɛrɪˈhiːliən/ ), and the point of greatest distance is the APHELION (/æpˈhiːliən/ )
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Apse
In architecture , an APSE (from Latin _absis_: "arch, vault" from Greek ἀψίς _apsis_ "arch"; sometimes written APSIS; plural APSIDES) is a semicircular recess covered with a hemispherical vault or semi-dome , also known as an _ Exedra _. In Byzantine , Romanesque , and Gothic Christian church (including cathedral and abbey ) architecture , the term is applied to a semi-circular or polygonal termination of the main building at the liturgical east end (where the altar is), regardless of the shape of the roof, which may be flat, sloping, domed, or hemispherical. Smaller apses may also be in other locations, especially shrines
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Aspis
An ASPIS ( Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
: ἀσπίς, plural aspides, ἀσπίδες), sometimes also referred to as a HOPLON, was the heavy wooden shield used by the infantry in various periods of ancient Greece . CONTENTS * 1 Construction * 2 See also * 3 References * 4 External links CONSTRUCTIONAn aspis was deeply dished and made primarily of wood. Some had a thin sheet of bronze on the outer face, often just around the rim. In some periods, the convention was to decorate the shield; in others, it was usually left plain. Probably the most famous aspis decoration is that of Sparta
Sparta
(Lacedaemon): a capital lambda (Λ), for Lacedaemon (Λακεδαίμων). From the late 5th century BCE, Athenian hoplites commonly used the little owl , while the shields of Theban hoplites were sometimes decorated with a sphinx , or the club of Heracles
Heracles

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Primary (astronomy)
A PRIMARY (or GRAVITATIONAL PRIMARY, PRIMARY BODY or CENTRAL BODY) is the main physical body of a gravitationally bound , multi-object system. This body contributes most of the mass of that system and will generally be located near its center of mass . In the Solar System
Solar System
, the Sun
Sun
is the primary for all objects that orbit around it. In the same way, the primary of all satellites (be they natural satellites (moons) or artificial satellites ) is the planet they orbit. The word PRIMARY is often used to avoid specifying whether the object near the center of mass is a planet, a star or any other astronomical object . In this sense, PRIMARY is always used as a noun . Motion of the Solar System's barycenter relative to the Sun
Sun
. The center of mass is the average position of all the objects weighed by mass
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Aphelion
The PERIHELION is the point in the orbit of a celestial body where it is nearest to its orbital focus, generally a star. It is the opposite of APHELION, which is the point in the orbit where the celestial body is farthest from its focus. The word "perihelion" stems from the Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
words "peri", meaning "around" or "surrounding", and "helios ", meaning "the Sun". "Aphelion" derives from the preposition "apo", meaning "away, off, apart". (The similar words "perigee " and "apogee " refer to the nearest and furthest points in some object's orbit around the Earth.) According to Kepler\'s first law of planetary motion , all planets, comets, and asteroids in the Solar System
Solar System
have approximately elliptical orbits around the Sun
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Sun
The SUN is the star at the center of the Solar System
Solar System
. It is a nearly perfect sphere of hot plasma , with internal convective motion that generates a magnetic field via a dynamo process . It is by far the most important source of energy for life on Earth
Earth
. Its diameter is about 109 times that of Earth, and its mass is about 330,000 times that of Earth, accounting for about 99.86% of the total mass of the Solar System. About three quarters of the Sun's mass consists of hydrogen (~73%); the rest is mostly helium (~25%), with much smaller quantities of heavier elements, including oxygen , carbon , neon , and iron . The Sun
Sun
is a G-type main-sequence star (G2V) based on its spectral class . As such, it is informally referred to as a yellow dwarf. It formed approximately 4.6 billion years ago from the gravitational collapse of matter within a region of a large molecular cloud
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Perihelion
The PERIHELION is the point in the orbit of a celestial body where it is nearest to its orbital focus, generally a star. It is the opposite of APHELION, which is the point in the orbit where the celestial body is farthest from its focus. The word "perihelion" stems from the Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
words "peri", meaning "around" or "surrounding", and "helios ", meaning "the Sun". "Aphelion" derives from the preposition "apo", meaning "away, off, apart". (The similar words "perigee " and "apogee " refer to the nearest and furthest points in some object's orbit around the Earth.) According to Kepler\'s first law of planetary motion , all planets, comets, and asteroids in the Solar System
Solar System
have approximately elliptical orbits around the Sun
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Star
A STAR is a luminous sphere of plasma held together by its own gravity . The nearest star to Earth is the Sun
Sun
. Many other stars are visible to the naked eye from Earth during the night, appearing as a multitude of fixed luminous points in the sky due to their immense distance from Earth. Historically, the most prominent stars were grouped into constellations and asterisms , the brightest of which gained proper names. Astronomers have assembled star catalogues that identify the known stars and provide standardized stellar designations . However, most of the stars in the Universe , including all stars outside our galaxy , the Milky Way , are invisible to the naked eye from Earth. Indeed, most are invisible from Earth even through the most powerful telescopes
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Earth
EARTH is the third planet from the Sun and the only object in the Universe known to harbor life . According to radiometric dating and other sources of evidence, Earth formed over 4 billion years ago . Earth\'s gravity interacts with other objects in space, especially the Sun and the Moon , Earth's only natural satellite . During one orbit around the Sun , Earth rotates about its axis about 365.26 times; thus, an Earth year is about 365.26 days long. Earth's axis of rotation is tilted, producing seasonal variations on the planet's surface. The gravitational interaction between the Earth and Moon causes ocean tides , stabilizes the Earth's orientation on its axis, and gradually slows its rotation. Earth is the densest planet in the Solar System and the largest of the four terrestrial planets
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Greek Language
GREEK ( Modern Greek
Modern Greek
: ελληνικά , _elliniká_, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα (_ listen ), ellinikí glóssa_, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece
Greece
and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean . It has the longest documented history of any living Indo-European language, spanning 34 centuries of written records. Its writing system has been the Greek alphabet
Greek alphabet
for the major part of its history; other systems, such as Linear B
Linear B
and the Cypriot syllabary
Cypriot syllabary
, were used previously. The alphabet arose from the Phoenician script and was in turn the basis of the Latin
Latin
, Cyrillic
Cyrillic
, Armenian , Coptic , Gothic and many other writing systems
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Orbit
In physics , an ORBIT is the gravitationally curved trajectory of an object around a point in space, for example the orbit of a planet about a star or a natural satellite around a planet. Normally, orbit refers to a regularly repeating path around a body, although it may occasionally be used for a non-recurring trajectory around a point in space. To a close approximation, planets and satellites follow elliptic orbits , with the central mass being orbited at a focal point of the ellipse, as described by Kepler\'s laws of planetary motion . Current understanding of the mechanics of orbital motion is based on Albert Einstein
Albert Einstein
's general theory of relativity , which accounts for gravity as due to curvature of spacetime , with orbits following geodesics
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Cognate
In linguistics , COGNATES are words that have a common etymological origin. In etymology , the _cognate_ category excludes doublets and loanwords . The word _cognate_ derives from the Latin noun _cognatus_, which means "blood relative". CONTENTS * 1 Characteristics * 2 Across languages * 3 Within the same language * 4 False cognates * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 Further reading * 8 External links CHARACTERISTICSCognates do not need to have the same meaning, which may have changed as the languages developed separately. For example English _starve_ and Dutch _sterven_ or German _sterben_ ("to die") all derive from the same Proto-Germanic root, _*sterbaną_ ("die"). English _dish_ and German _Tisch_ ("table"), with their flat surfaces, both come from Latin _discus_, but their later meanings are different
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