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Perfume
PERFUME (UK : /ˈpɜːr.fjuːm/ US : /pərˈfjuːm/ ; French : parfum) is a mixture of fragrant essential oils or aroma compounds , fixatives and solvents , used to give the human body, animals, food, objects, and living-spaces "a pleasant scent ". Ancient texts and archaeological excavations show the use of perfumes in some of the earliest human civilizations. Modern perfumery began in the late 19th century with the commercial synthesis of aroma compounds such as vanillin or coumarin , which allowed for the composition of perfumes with smells previously unattainable solely from natural aromatics alone
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Perfume (other)
PERFUME is a mixture of fragrant essential oils and aroma compounds, fixatives, and solvents used to give a pleasant smell
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British English
BRITISH ENGLISH is the English language as spoken and written in the United Kingdom . Variations exist in formal, written English in the United Kingdom. For example, the adjective _wee_ is almost exclusively used in parts of Scotland and Ireland , and occasionally Yorkshire , whereas _little_ is predominant elsewhere. Nevertheless, there is a meaningful degree of uniformity in written English within the United Kingdom, and this could be described by the term British English. The forms of spoken English, however, vary considerably more than in most other areas of the world where English is spoken, so a uniform concept of British English is more difficult to apply to the spoken language
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American English
AMERICAN ENGLISH (AME, AE, AMENG, USENG, EN-US ), sometimes called UNITED STATES ENGLISH or U.S. ENGLISH, is the set of varieties of the English language native to the United States . English is the most widely spoken language in the United States and is the common language used by the federal government, considered the _de facto _ language of the country because of its widespread use. English has been given official status by 32 of the 50 state governments. As an example, while both Spanish and English have equivalent status in the local courts of Puerto Rico , under federal law, English is the official language for any matters being referred to the United States district court for the territory. The use of English in the United States is a result of British colonization of the Americas
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French Language
Phonological history * Oaths of Strasbourg * Ordinance of Villers-Cotterêts * Anglo-Norman GRAMMAR * Adverbs * Articles and determiners * Pronouns (personal )* Verbs * (conjugation * morphology ) ORTHOGRAPHY * Alphabet * Reforms * Circumflex * Braille PHONOLOGY * Elision * Liaison * Aspirated h * Help:IPA for French * v * t * e FRENCH (_le français_ (_ listen ) or la langue française_ ) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family . It descended from the Vulgar Latin of the Roman Empire , as did all Romance languages. French has evolved from Gallo-Romance, the spoken Latin in Gaul, and more specifically in Northern Gaul. Its closest relatives are the other langues d\'oïl —languages historically spoken in northern France and in southern Belgium, which French ( Francien ) has largely supplanted
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Essential Oil
An ESSENTIAL OIL is a concentrated hydrophobic liquid containing volatile aroma compounds from plants. Essential oils are also known as VOLATILE OILS, ETHEREAL OILS, AETHEROLEA, or simply as the OIL OF THE PLANT from which they were extracted, such as oil of clove . An oil is "essential" in the sense that it contains the "essence of" the plant's fragrance—the characteristic fragrance of the plant from which it is derived. The term essential used here does not mean indispensable as with the terms essential amino acid or essential fatty acid which are so called since they are nutritionally required by a given living organism. Essential oils are generally extracted by distillation , often by using steam . Other processes include expression , solvent extraction , absolute oil extraction, resin tapping, and cold pressing. They are used in perfumes , cosmetics , soaps and other products, for flavoring food and drink, and for adding scents to incense and household cleaning products
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Aroma Compound
An AROMA COMPOUND, also known as an ODORANT, AROMA, FRAGRANCE, or FLAVOR , is a chemical compound that has a smell or odor . A chemical compound has a smell or odor when it is sufficiently volatile to be transported to the olfactory system in the upper part of the nose
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Fixative (perfumery)
A FIXATIVE is used to equalize the vapor pressures , and thus the volatilities , of the raw materials in a perfume oil, as well as to increase the tenacity. Natural fixatives are resinoids (benzoin , labdanum , myrrh , olibanum , storax , tolu balsam ) and animal products (ambergris , castoreum , musk , and civet ). Synthetic fixatives include substances of low volatility (diphenylmethane , cyclopentadecanolide , ambroxide , benzyl salicylate ) and virtually odorless solvents with very low vapor pressures (benzyl benzoate , diethyl phthalate , triethyl citrate ). REFERENCES * ^ A B Wolfgang Sturm; Klaus Peters (2007), "Perfumes", Ullmann\'s Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry
Chemistry
(7th ed.), Wiley, pp. 2–3 * ^ New Perfume
Perfume
Fixatives - Chemical right: 15px; display: none;"> * v * t * e Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Fixative_(perfumery) additional terms may apply
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Solvent
A SOLVENT (from the Latin _solvō_, "loosen, untie, solve") is a substance that dissolves a solute (a chemically distinct liquid, solid or gas), resulting in a solution . A solvent is usually a liquid but can also be a solid, a gas, or a supercritical fluid . The quantity of solute that can dissolve in a specific volume of solvent varies with temperature . Common uses for organic solvents are in dry cleaning (e.g. tetrachloroethylene ), as paint thinners (e.g. toluene , turpentine ), as nail polish removers and glue solvents (acetone , methyl acetate , ethyl acetate ), in spot removers (e.g. hexane , petrol ether), in detergents (citrus terpenes ) and in perfumes (ethanol ). Water is a solvent for polar molecules and the most common solvent used by living things; all the ions and proteins in a cell are dissolved in water within a cell. Solvents find various applications in chemical, pharmaceutical , oil, and gas industries, including in chemical syntheses and purification processes
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Odor
An ODOR or ODOUR or FRAGRANCE is caused by one or more volatilized chemical compounds , generally at a very low concentration, that humans or other animals perceive by the sense of olfaction . Odors are also commonly called SCENTS, which can refer to both pleasant and unpleasant odors. The terms FRAGRANCE and AROMA are used primarily by the food and cosmetic industry to describe a pleasant odor, and are sometimes used to refer to perfumes , and to describe floral scent . In contrast, MALODOR, STENCH, REEK, and STINK are used specifically to describe unpleasant odor. The term SMELL (in its noun form) is used for both pleasant and unpleasant odors. In the United Kingdom, _odour_ refers to scents in general. In the United States and for many non-native English speakers around the world, _odor_ generally has a negative connotation, as a synonym for _stink_; on the other hand, _scent_ or _aroma_ are used by those people to indicate "pleasant smells"
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Vanillin
VANILLIN is a phenolic aldehyde , which is an organic compound with the molecular formula C8H8O3. Its functional groups include aldehyde , hydroxyl , and ether . It is the primary component of the extract of the vanilla bean . Synthetic vanillin is now used more often than natural vanilla extract as a flavoring agent in foods, beverages, and pharmaceuticals. Vanillin
Vanillin
and ethylvanillin are used by the food industry; ethylvanillin is more expensive, but has a stronger note. It differs from vanillin by having an ethoxy group (–O–CH2CH3) instead of a methoxy group (–O–CH3). Natural "vanilla extract " is a mixture of several hundred different compounds in addition to vanillin. Artificial vanilla flavoring is often a solution of pure vanillin, usually of synthetic origin. Because of the scarcity and expense of natural vanilla extract, synthetic preparation of its predominant component has long been of interest
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Coumarin
COUMARIN (/ˈkuːmərɪn/ ; 2H-chromen-2-one) is a fragrant organic chemical compound in the benzopyrone chemical class, which is a colorless crystalline substance in its standard state . It is a natural substance found in many plants. The name comes from a French term for the tonka bean , coumarou, one of the sources from which coumarin was first isolated as a natural product in 1820. It has a sweet odor, readily recognised as the scent of newly-mown hay , and has been used in perfumes since 1882. Sweet woodruff , meadowsweet , sweet grass and sweet-clover in particular are named for their sweet (i.e., pleasant) smell, which in turn is related to their high coumarin content. When it occurs in high concentrations in forage plants, coumarin is a somewhat bitter-tasting appetite suppressant, and is presumed to be produced by plants as a defense chemical to discourage predation
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History Of Perfume
The word perfume is used today to describe scented mixtures and is derived from the Latin word, "per fumus," meaning through smoke. The word Perfumery refers to the art of making perfumes. Perfume was further refined by the Romans , the Persians and the Arabs . Although perfume and perfumery also existed in East Asia, much of its fragrances are incense based. The basic ingredients and methods of making perfumes are described by Pliny the Elder in his Naturalis Historia
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Mesopotamia
MESOPOTAMIA (/ˌmɛsəpəˈteɪmiə/ , Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
: Μεσοποταμία " between rivers"; Arabic
Arabic
: بلاد الرافدين‎‎ _bilād ar-rāfidayn_; Kurdish : میزۆپۆتامیا‎; Persian : میان‌رودان‎‎ _miyān rudān_; Syriac : ܒܝܬ ܢܗܪܝܢ‎ _ Beth Nahrain _ "land of rivers") was a historical region situated within the Tigris–Euphrates river system , in modern days roughly corresponding to most of Iraq
Iraq
plus Kuwait
Kuwait
, the eastern parts of Syria
Syria
, Southeastern Turkey
Turkey
, and regions along the Turkish-Syrian and Iran– Iraq
Iraq
borders . The Sumerians and Akkadians (including Assyrians and Babylonians) dominated Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
from the beginning of written history (c
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Ancient Egypt
arsenical bronze writing , literature sword , chariot ↓ Iron Age ANCIENT EGYPT was a civilization of ancient Northeastern Africa , concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River in the place that is now the country Egypt . It is one of six historic civilizations to arise independently. Egyptian civilization followed prehistoric Egypt and coalesced around 3150 BC (according to conventional Egyptian chronology ) with the political unification of Upper and Lower Egypt under Menes (often identified with Narmer ). The history of ancient Egypt occurred as a series of stable kingdoms, separated by periods of relative instability known as Intermediate Periods: the Old Kingdom of the Early Bronze Age , the Middle Kingdom of the Middle Bronze Age and the New Kingdom of the Late Bronze Age
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Ancient Rome
ANCIENT ROME was originally an Italic settlement dating from the 8th century BC that grew into the city of Rome and which subsequently gave its name to the empire over which it ruled and to the widespread civilisation the empire developed. The Roman empire expanded to become one of the largest empires in the ancient world , though still ruled from the city, with an estimated 50 to 90 million inhabitants (roughly 20% of the world's population ) and covering 5.0 million square kilometres at its height in AD 117. In its many centuries of existence, the Roman state evolved from a monarchy to a classical republic and then to an increasingly autocratic empire . Through conquest and assimilation , it eventually dominated the Mediterranean region, Western Europe , Asia Minor , North Africa , and parts of Northern and Eastern