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Perfume
PERFUME (UK : /ˈpɜːr.fjuːm/ US : /pərˈfjuːm/ ; French : parfum) is a mixture of fragrant essential oils or aroma compounds , fixatives and solvents , used to give the human body, animals, food, objects, and living-spaces "a pleasant scent ". Ancient texts and archaeological excavations show the use of perfumes in some of the earliest human civilizations. Modern perfumery began in the late 19th century with the commercial synthesis of aroma compounds such as vanillin or coumarin , which allowed for the composition of perfumes with smells previously unattainable solely from natural aromatics alone
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Conifer
Cordaitales Pinales Pinaceae
Pinaceae
Araucariaceae Podocarpaceae Sciadopityaceae Cupressaceae
Cupressaceae
Cephalotaxaceae
Cephalotaxaceae
Taxaceae Vojnovskyales † Voltziales † SYNONYMS * Coniferophyta * ConiferaeThe PINOPHYTA, also known as CONIFEROPHYTA or CONIFERAE, or commonly as CONIFERS, are a division of vascular land plants containing a single class , Pinopsida. They are gymnosperms , cone-bearing seed plants . All extant conifers are perennial woody plants with secondary growth . The great majority are trees , though a few are shrubs . Examples include cedars , Douglas firs , cypresses , firs , junipers , kauri , larches , pines , hemlocks , redwoods , spruces , and yews
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Flowers
A FLOWER, sometimes known as a bloom or blossom , is the reproductive structure found in plants that are floral (plants of the division Magnoliophyta , also called angiosperms). The biological function of a flower is to effect reproduction, usually by providing a mechanism for the union of sperm with eggs. Flowers may facilitate outcrossing (fusion of sperm and eggs from different individuals in a population) or allow selfing (fusion of sperm and egg from the same flower). Some flowers produce diaspores without fertilization (parthenocarpy ). Flowers contain sporangia and are the site where gametophytes develop. Many flowers have evolved to be attractive to animals, so as to cause them to be vectors for the transfer of pollen . After fertilization, the ovary of the flower develops into fruit containing seeds
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Etruscan Art
ETRUSCAN ART was produced by the Etruscan civilization in central Italy between the 9th and 2nd centuries BC. From around 600 BC it was heavily influenced by Greek art , which was imported by the Etruscans, but always retained distinct characteristics. Particularly strong in this tradition were figurative sculpture in terracotta (especially life-size on sarcophagi or temples), wall-painting and metalworking especially in bronze. Jewellery and engraved gems of high quality were produced. Etruscan sculpture in cast bronze was famous and widely exported, but relatively few large examples have survived (the material was too valuable, and recycled later). In contrast to terracotta and bronze, there was relatively little Etruscan sculpture in stone, despite the Etruscans controlling fine sources of marble, including Carrara marble , which seems not to have been exploited until the Romans
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Alchemy And Chemistry In Islam
ALCHEMY AND CHEMISTRY IN ISLAM refers to the study of both traditional alchemy and early practical chemistry (the early chemical investigation of nature in general) by scholars in the medieval Islamic world
Islamic world
. The word alchemy was derived from the Arabic
Arabic
word كيمياء or kīmiyāʾ. and may ultimately derive from the ancient Egyptian word kemi, meaning black. After the fall of the Western Roman Empire
Western Roman Empire
, the focus of alchemical development moved to the Caliphate
Caliphate
and the Islamic civilization . Much more is known about Islamic alchemy as it was better documented; most of the earlier writings that have come down through the years were preserved as Arabic
Arabic
translations
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Myrtus Communis
MYRTUS COMMUNIS, the COMMON MYRTLE, is a species of flowering plant in the myrtle family Myrtaceae . It is an evergreen shrub native to southern Europe, north Africa, western Asia, Macaronesia , and the Indian Subcontinent, and also cultivated. It is one of the Four Species used by Jews in their religious rituals on the festival of Sukkot . DESCRIPTIONThe plant is an evergreen shrub or small tree , growing to 5 metres (16 ft) tall. The leaves are 2–5 centimetres (0.79–1.97 in) long, with a fragrant essential oil . The flowers are white or tinged with pink, with five petals and many stamens that protrude from the flower. The fruit is a berry , blue-black when ripe
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Coriander
CORIANDER (UK : /ˌkɒrɪˈændər/ ; US : /ˈkɔːriˌændər/ or /ˌkɔːriˈændər/ ; Coriandrum sativum), also known as CILANTRO (/sɪˈlɑːntroʊ/ ) or CHINESE PARSLEY, is an annual herb in the family Apiaceae
Apiaceae
. All parts of the plant are edible, but the fresh leaves and the dried seeds are the parts most traditionally used in cooking. CONTENTS * 1 Botanical description * 2 Etymology * 3 History * 4 Uses * 4.1 Leaves * 4.2 Fruits * 4.3 Roots * 4.4 Food applications * 5 Flavor and aroma * 6 Nutrition * 7 Research * 8 Pests * 9 Similar plants * 10 Allergy * 11 References * 12 Further reading * 13 External links BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION Coriander
Coriander
is native to regions spanning from southern Europe and northern Africa to southwestern Asia . It is a soft plant growing to 50 cm (20 in) tall
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Sushruta Samhita
DIVISIONS * Samhita * Brahmana
Brahmana
* Aranyaka * Upanishads
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Cyprus
CYPRUS, officially the REPUBLIC OF CYPRUS, is an island country in the Eastern Mediterranean and the third largest and third most populous island in the Mediterranean . Cyprus
Cyprus
is located south of Turkey
Turkey
, west of Syria
Syria
and Lebanon
Lebanon
, northwest of Israel
Israel
, north of Egypt
Egypt
, and southeast of Greece
Greece
. The earliest known human activity on the island dates to around the 10th millennium BC. Archaeological remains from this period include the well-preserved Neolithic
Neolithic
village of Khirokitia , and Cyprus
Cyprus
is home to some of the oldest water wells in the world
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Herb
In general use, HERBS are any plants used for food, flavoring, medicine, or fragrances for their savory or aromatic properties. Culinary use typically distinguishes herbs from spices . Herbs refers to the leafy green or flowering parts of a plant (either fresh or dried), while spices are produced from other parts of the plant (usually dried), including seeds , berries , bark , roots and fruits . In botanical English, the word "herb" is also used as a synonym of "herbaceous plant ". Herbs have a variety of uses including culinary, medicinal, and in some cases, spiritual. General usage of the term "herb" differs between culinary herbs and medicinal herbs . In medicinal or spiritual use any of the parts of the plant might be considered "herbs", including leaves, roots, flowers, seeds, root bark, inner bark (and cambium ), resin and pericarp
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Almond
The ALMOND ( Prunus
Prunus
dulcis, syn. Prunus
Prunus
amygdalus) is a species of tree native to the Middle East
Middle East
, the Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
and North Africa . "Almond" is also the name of the edible and widely cultivated seed of this tree. Within the genus Prunus
Prunus
, it is classified with the peach in the subgenus Amygdalus, distinguished from the other subgenera by corrugations on the shell (endocarp ) surrounding the seed. The fruit of the almond is a drupe , consisting of an outer hull and a hard shell with the seed, which is not a true nut , inside. Shelling almonds refers to removing the shell to reveal the seed. Almonds are sold shelled or unshelled. Blanched almonds are shelled almonds that have been treated with hot water to soften the seedcoat , which is then removed to reveal the white embryo
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Al-Kindi
ABU YūSUF YAʻQūB IBN ʼISḥāQ Aṣ-ṢABBāḥ AL-KINDī (Arabic : أبو يوسف يعقوب بن إسحاق الصبّاح الكندي‎‎, Latin
Latin
: Alkindus) (c. 801–873 AD), known as "the Philosopher
Philosopher
of the Islamic empire ( Abbasid
Abbasid
Caliphate)", was a Muslim Arab philosopher , polymath , mathematician , physician and musician . Al-Kindi
Al-Kindi
was the first of the Muslim peripatetic philosophers, and is unanimously hailed as the "father of Islamic philosophy " for his synthesis, adaptation and promotion of Greek and Hellenistic philosophy in the Muslim world . Al-Kindi
Al-Kindi
was a descendant of the Kinda tribe. He was born in Basra and educated in Baghdad
Baghdad

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Oils
An OIL is any neutral, nonpolar chemical substance that is a viscous liquid at ambient temperatures and is both hydrophobic (immiscible with water , literally "water fearing") and lipophilic (miscible with other oils, literally "fat loving"). Oils have a high carbon and hydrogen content and are usually flammable and surface active . The general definition of oil includes classes of chemical compounds that may be otherwise unrelated in structure, properties, and uses. Oils may be animal , vegetable , or petrochemical in origin, and may be volatile or non-volatile. They are used for food (e.g., olive oil ), fuel (e.g., heating oil ), medical purposes (e.g., mineral oil ), lubrication (e.g. motor oil ), and the manufacture of many types of paints, plastics, and other materials. Specially prepared oils are used in some religious ceremonies and rituals as purifying agents
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Monk
A MONK (/mʌŋk/ , from Greek : μοναχός, monachos, "single, solitary" and Latin
Latin
monachus ) is a person who practices religious asceticism by monastic living, either alone or with any number of other monks. A monk may be a person who decided to dedicate his life to serving all other living beings, or to be an ascetic who voluntarily chooses to leave mainstream society and live his or her life in prayer and contemplation. The concept is ancient and can be seen in many religions and in philosophy. In the Greek language
Greek language
the term can apply to women, but in modern English it is mainly in use for men. The word nun is typically used for female monastics. Although the term monachos is of Christian
Christian
origin, in the English language "monk" tends to be used loosely also for both male and female ascetics from other religious or philosophical backgrounds
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Santa Maria Novella
SANTA MARIA NOVELLA is a church in Florence
Florence
, Italy, situated just across from the main railway station named after it. Chronologically, it is the first great basilica in Florence, and is the city's principal Dominican church. The church, the adjoining cloister, and chapter house contain a multiplicity of art treasures and funerary monuments. Especially famous are frescoes by masters of Gothic and early Renaissance . They were financed by the most important Florentine families, who ensured themselves funerary chapels on consecrated ground
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Florence
FLORENCE (/ˈflɒrəns/ FLOR-əns ; Italian : Firenze ( listen )) is the capital city of the Italian region of Tuscany
Tuscany
. It is the most populous city in Tuscany, with 383,083 inhabitants in 2013, and over 1,520,000 in its metropolitan area. Florence
Florence
was a centre of medieval European trade and finance and one of the wealthiest cities of that era. It is considered the birthplace of the Renaissance
Renaissance
, and has been called "the Athens
Athens
of the Middle Ages ". A turbulent political history includes periods of rule by the powerful Medici family and numerous religious and republican revolutions. From 1865 to 1871 the city was the capital of the recently established Kingdom of Italy
Italy

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