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Perfume
Perfume
Perfume
(UK: /ˈpɜːrfjuːm/ US: /pərˈfjuːm/; French: parfum) is a mixture of fragrant essential oils or aroma compounds, fixatives and solvents, used to give the human body, animals, food, objects, and living-spaces an agreeable scent.[1] It is usually in liquid form and used to give a pleasant scent to a person's body. Ancient texts and archaeological excavations show the use of perfumes in some of the earliest human civilizations
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Hungarians
Hungarians, also known as Magyars
Magyars
(Hungarian: magyarok), are a nation and ethnic group native to Hungary
Hungary
(Hungarian: Magyarország) and historical Hungarian lands who share a common culture, history and speak the Hungarian language. There are an estimated 13.1–14.7 million ethnic Hungarians
Hungarians
and their descendants worldwide, of whom 8.5–9.8 million live in today's Hungary
Hungary
(as of 2011).[25] About 2.2 million Hungarians
Hungarians
live in areas that were part of the Kingdom of Hungary
Hungary
before the 1918–1920 dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy and the Treaty of Trianon, and are now parts of Hungary's seven neighbouring countries, especially Romania, Austria, Slovakia, Serbia
Serbia
and Ukraine
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Al-Kindi
Abu Yūsuf Yaʻqūb ibn ʼIsḥāq aṣ-Ṣabbāḥ al-Kindī (Arabic: أبو يوسف يعقوب بن إسحاق الصبّاح الكندي‎; Latin: Alkindus; c. 801–873 AD) was an Arab[2][3][4][5][6][7] Muslim
Muslim
philosopher, polymath, mathematician, physician and musician. Al-Kindi
Al-Kindi
was the first of the Muslim peripatetic philosophers, and is unanimously hailed as the "father of Arab philosophy"[8][9][10] for his synthesis, adaptation and promotion of Greek and Hellenistic philosophy
Hellenistic philosophy
in the Muslim
Muslim
world.[11] Al-Kindi
Al-Kindi
was born in Basra
Basra
and educated in Baghdad.[12] He became a prominent figure in the House of Wisdom, and a number of Abbasid Caliphs appointed him to oversee the translation of Greek scientific and philosophical texts into the Arabic language
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Cyprus
Cyprus,[f] officially the Republic of Cyprus,[g] is an island country in the Eastern Mediterranean and the third largest and third most populous island in the Mediterranean. Cyprus
Cyprus
is located south of Turkey, west of Syria
Syria
and Lebanon, northwest of Israel, north of Egypt, and southeast of Greece. The earliest known human activity on the island dates to around the 10th millennium BC. Archaeological remains from this period include the well-preserved Neolithic
Neolithic
village of Khirokitia, and Cyprus
Cyprus
is home to some of the oldest water wells in the world.[9] Cyprus
Cyprus
was settled by Mycenaean Greeks in two waves in the 2nd millennium BC
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Herb
In general use, herbs are plants with savory or aromatic properties that are used for flavoring food, in medicine, or as fragrances. Culinary use typically distinguishes herbs from spices. Herbs refer to the leafy green or flowering parts of a plant (either fresh or dried), while spices are usually dried and produced from other parts of the plant, including seeds, berries, bark, roots and fruits. Herbs have a variety of uses including culinary, medicinal, and, in some cases, spiritual. General usage of the term "herb" differs between culinary herbs and medicinal herbs; in medicinal or spiritual use, any parts of the plant might be considered as "herbs", including leaves, roots, flowers, seeds, root bark, inner bark (and cambium), resin and pericarp. The word "herb" is pronounced /hɜːrb/ in the Commonwealth,[1] but /ɜːrb/ is common among North American speakers and those from other regions where h-dropping occurs
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Almond
The almond ( Prunus
Prunus
dulcis, syn. Prunus
Prunus
amygdalus) is a species of tree native to the Middle East, the Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
and North Africa. Almond
Almond
is also the name of the edible and widely cultivated seed of this tree. Within the genus Prunus, it is classified with the peach in the subgenus Amygdalus, distinguished from the other subgenera by corrugations on the shell (endocarp) surrounding the seed. The fruit of the almond is a drupe, consisting of an outer hull and a hard shell with the seed, which is not a true nut, inside. Shelling almonds refers to removing the shell to reveal the seed. Almonds are sold shelled or unshelled
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Coriander
Coriander
Coriander
(UK: /ˌkɒriˈændər/;[1] US: /ˈkɔːriˌændər/ or /ˌkɔːriˈændər/;[2] Coriandrum sativum), also known as cilantro (/sɪˈlɑːntroʊ/)[3] or Chinese parsley, is an annual herb in the family Apiaceae
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Myrtus Communis
Myrtus
Myrtus
communis, the common myrtle, is a species of flowering plant in the myrtle family Myrtaceae
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Conifer
Cordaitales
Cordaitales
† Pinales   Pinaceae   Araucariaceae   Podocarpaceae   Sciadopityaceae   Cupressaceae   Cephalotaxaceae   Taxaceae Vojnovskyales † Voltziales †SynonymsConiferophyta ConiferaeThe Pinophyta, also known as Coniferophyta or Coniferae, or commonly as conifers, are a division of vascular land plants containing a single extant class, Pinopsida. They are gymnosperms, cone-bearing seed plants. All extant conifers are perennial woody plants with secondary growth. The great majority are trees, though a few are shrubs
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Flowers
A flower, sometimes known as a bloom or blossom, is the reproductive structure found in flowering plants (plants of the division Magnoliophyta, also called angiosperms). The biological function of a flower is to effect reproduction, usually by providing a mechanism for the union of sperm with eggs. Flowers may facilitate outcrossing (fusion of sperm and eggs from different individuals in a population) or allow selfing (fusion of sperm and egg from the same flower). Some flowers produce diaspores without fertilization (parthenocarpy). Flowers contain sporangia and are the site where gametophytes develop. Many flowers have evolved to be attractive to animals, so as to cause them to be vectors for the transfer of pollen
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Etruscan Art
Etruscan art
Etruscan art
was produced by the Etruscan civilization
Etruscan civilization
in central Italy between the 9th and 2nd centuries BC. From around 600 BC it was heavily influenced by Greek art, which was imported by the Etruscans, but always retained distinct characteristics. Particularly strong in this tradition were figurative sculpture in terracotta (especially life-size on sarcophagi or temples), wall-painting and metalworking especially in bronze. Jewellery and engraved gems of high quality were produced.[2] Etruscan sculpture in cast bronze was famous and widely exported, but relatively few large examples have survived (the material was too valuable, and recycled later)
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Alchemy And Chemistry In Islam
Alchemy
Alchemy
and chemistry in Islam
Islam
refers to the study of both traditional alchemy and early practical chemistry (the early chemical investigation of nature in general) by scholars in the medieval Islamic world. The word alchemy was derived from the Arabic
Arabic
word كيمياء or kīmiyāʾ.[1][2] and may ultimately derive from the ancient Egyptian word kemi, meaning black.[2] After the fall of the Western Roman Empire, the focus of alchemical development moved to the Caliphate
Caliphate
and the Islamic civilization
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Oils
An oil is any nonpolar chemical substance that is a viscous liquid at ambient temperatures and is both hydrophobic (immiscible with water, literally "water fearing") and lipophilic (miscible with other oils, literally "fat loving"). Oils have a high carbon and hydrogen content and are usually flammable and surface active. The general definition of oil includes classes of chemical compounds that may be otherwise unrelated in structure, properties, and uses. Oils may be animal, vegetable, or petrochemical in origin, and may be volatile or non-volatile.[1] They are used for food (e.g., olive oil), fuel (e.g., heating oil), medical purposes (e.g., mineral oil), lubrication (e.g. motor oil), and the manufacture of many types of paints, plastics, and other materials
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Sushruta Samhita
DivisionsSamhita Brahmana Aranyaka UpanishadsUpanishads Rig vedicAitareya KaushitakiSama vedicChandogya KenaYajur vedicBrihadaranyaka Isha Taittiriya Katha Shvetashvatara MaitriAtharva vedicMundaka Mandukya PrashnaOther scripturesBhagavad Gita AgamasRelated Hindu textsVedangasShiksha Chandas Vyakarana Nirukta Kalpa JyotishaPuranas Brahma
Brahma
puranasBrahma Brahmānda Brahmavaivarta Markandeya BhavishyaVaishnava puranasVishnu Bhagavata Naradiya Garuda Padma Vamana Kurma MatsyaShaiv
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Alembic
An alembic (from Arabic الإنبيق (al-anbīḳ); from Greek ἄμβιξ (ambix), meaning 'cup, beaker')[1][2][3] is an alchemical still consisting of two vessels connected by a tube, used for distilling chemicals.Contents1 Description 2 History 3 See also 4 References 5 External linksDescription[edit] The complete distilling apparatus consists of three parts: the "cucurbit" (Arabic ḳarʿa, Greek βίκος, bikos), the still pot containing the liquid to be distilled, which is heated by a flame; the "head" or "cap" (Arabic anbiḳ, Greek ἄμβιξ, ambix) which fits over the mouth of the cucurbit to receive the vapors, with an attached downward-sloping "tube" (Greek σωλήν, sōlēn), leading to the "receiver" (Arabic ḳābila, Greek ἄγγος, angos, or φιάλη, phialē) container. In the case of another distilling vessel, the retort, the "cap" and the "cucurbit" have been combined to form a single vessel
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Greek Language
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά [eliniˈka], elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα [eliniˈci ˈɣlosa] ( listen), ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece
Greece
and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean
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