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Percutaneous Coronary Intervention
Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is a non-surgical procedure used to treat narrowing (stenosis) of the coronary arteries of the heart found in coronary artery disease. After accessing the blood stream through the femoral or radial artery, the procedure uses coronary catheterization to visualise the blood vessels on X-ray imaging. After this, an interventional cardiologist can perform a coronary angioplasty, using a balloon catheter in which a deflated balloon is advanced into the obstructed artery and inflated to relieve the narrowing; certain devices such as stents can be deployed to keep the blood vessel open. Various other procedures can also be performed. Primary PCI is the very urgent use of PCI in people with acute myocardial infarction (heart attack), especially where there is evidence of severe heart damage on the electrocardiogram (ST elevation MI)
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Paclitaxel
Paclitaxel
Paclitaxel
(PTX), sold under the brand name Taxol among others, is a chemotherapy medication used to treat a number of types of cancer.[2] This includes ovarian cancer, breast cancer, lung cancer, Kaposi sarcoma, cervical cancer, and pancreatic cancer.[2] It is given by injection into a vein.[2] There is also an albumin bound formulation.[2] Common side effects include hair loss, bone marrow suppression, numbness, allergic reactions, muscle pains, and diarrhea.[2] Other serious side effects include heart problems, increased risk of infection, and lung inflammation.[2] There are concerns that use during pregnan
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Troponin T
Troponin
Troponin
T is a part of the troponin complex expressed in skeletal and cardiac myocytes. The troponin complex is responsible for coupling the sarcomere contraction cycle to variations in intracellular calcium concentration. Especially the cardiac subtype of troponin T is useful in the laboratory diagnosis of heart attack because it is released into the blood-stream when damage to heart muscle occurs
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Hematoma
A hematoma (US spelling) or haematoma (UK spelling) is a localized collection of blood outside the blood vessels, due to either disease or trauma including injury or surgery[1] and may involve blood continuing to seep from broken capillaries. A hematoma is initially in liquid form spread among the tissues including in sacs between tissues where it may coagulate and solidify before blood is reabsorbed into blood vessels. An ecchymosis is a hematoma of the skin larger than 10mm.[2] They may occur among/within many areas such as skin and other organs, connective tissues, bone, joints and muscle. A collection of blood (or even a hemorrhage) may be aggravated by anticoagulant medication (blood thinner)
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Dissection
Dissection
Dissection
(from Latin
Latin
dissecare "to cut to pieces"; also called anatomization) is the dismembering of the body of a deceased animal or plant to study its anatomical structure. Autopsy
Autopsy
is used in pathology and forensic medicine to determine the cause of death in humans. It is carried out by or demonstrated to biology and anatomy students in high school and medical school. Less advanced courses typically focus on smaller subjects, such as small formaldehyde-preserved animals, while the more advanced courses normally use cadavers. Consequently, dissection is typically conducted in a morgue or in an anatomy lab. Dissection
Dissection
has been used for centuries to explore anatomy
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Allergic Reaction
Allergies, also known as allergic diseases, are a number of conditions caused by hypersensitivity of the immune system to something in the environment that usually causes little or no problem in most people.[10] These diseases include hay fever, food allergies, atopic dermatitis, allergic asthma, and anaphylaxis.[2] Symptoms may include red eyes, an itchy rash, sneezing, a runny nose, shortness of breath, or swelling.[1] Food intolerances and food poisoning are separate conditions.[5][4] Common allergens include pollen and certain food.[10] Metals and other substances may also cause problems.[10] Food, insect stings, and medications are common causes of severe reactions.[3] Their development is due to both genetic and environmental factors.[3] The underlying mechanism involves immunoglobulin E antibod
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Stroke
Stroke
Stroke
is a medical condition in which poor blood flow to the brain results in cell death.[4] There are two main types of stroke: ischemic, due to lack of blood flow, and hemorrhagic, due to bleeding.[4] They result in part of the brain not functioning properly.[4] Signs and symptoms of a stroke may include an inability to move or feel on one side of the body, problems understanding or speaking, feeling like the world is spinning, or loss of vision to one side.[1][2] Signs and symptoms often appear soon after the stroke has occurred.[2] If symptoms last less than one or two hours it is known as a trans
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Ventricular Fibrillation
Ventricular fibrillation
Ventricular fibrillation
(V-fib or VF) is when the heart quivers instead of pumping due to disorganized electrical activity in the ventricles.[2] It is a type of cardiac arrhythmia.[2] Ventricular fibrillation results in cardiac arrest with loss of consciousness and no pulse.[1] This is followed by death in the absence of treatment.[2]
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Ventricular Tachycardia
Ventricular tachycardia
Ventricular tachycardia
(V-tach or VT) is a type of regular and fast heart rate that arises from improper electrical activity in the ventricles of the heart.[2] Although a few seconds may not result in problems, longer periods are dangerous.[2] Short periods may occur without symptoms or present with lightheadedness, palpitations, or chest pain.[1]
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Aortic Dissection
Aortic dissection
Aortic dissection
(AD) occurs when an injury to the innermost layer of the aorta allows blood to flow between the layers of the aortic wall, forcing the layers apart.[3] In most cases this is associated with a sudden onset of severe chest or back pain, often described as "tearing" in character.[1][2] Also, vomiting, sweating, and lightheadedness may occur.[2] Other symptoms may result from decreased blood supply to other organs such as stroke or mesenteric ischemia.[2]
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CK-MB
The CPK-MB test
CPK-MB test
is a cardiac marker[1] used to assist diagnoses of an acute myocardial infarction. It measures the blood level of CK-MB (creatine kinase-muscle/brain), the bound combination of two variants (isoenzymes CKM and CKB) of the enzyme phosphocreatine kinase. In some locations, the test has been superseded by the troponin test. However, recently, there have been improvements to the test that involve measuring the ratio of the CK-MB1 and CK-MB2 isoforms.[2] The newer test detects different isoforms of the B subunit specific to the myocardium whereas the older test detected the presence of cardiac-related isoenzyme dimers. Many cases of CK-MB levels exceeding the blood level of total CK have been reported, especially in newborns with cardiac malformations, especially ventricular septal defects. This reversal of ratios is in favor of pulmonary emboli or vasculitis
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Troponin I
Troponin
Troponin
I is a cardiac and skeletal muscle protein useful in the laboratory diagnosis of heart attack.[1] It occurs in different plasma concentration but the same circumstances as troponin T - either test can be performed for confirmation of cardiac muscle damage and laboratories usually offer one test or the other.[2] Troponin
Troponin
I is a part of the troponin protein complex, where it binds to actin in thin myofilaments to hold the actin-tropomyosin complex in place. Because of it, myosin cannot bind actin in relaxed muscle. When calcium binds to the troponin C it causes conformational changes which lead to dislocation of troponin I and finally tropomyosin leaves the binding site for myosin on actin leading to contraction of muscle
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Atherectomy
Atherectomy
Atherectomy
is a minimally invasive endovascular surgery technique for removing atherosclerosis from blood vessels within the body. It is an alternative to angioplasty for the treatment of peripheral artery disease, but the studies that exist are not adequate to determine if it is superior to angioplasty.[1] It has also been used to treat coronary artery disease, albeit ineffectively.[2]Contents1 Uses 2 Technique 3 See also 4 ReferencesUses[edit] Atherectomy
Atherectomy
is used to treat narrowing in arteries caused by peripheral artery disease. Technique[edit] Unlike angioplasty and stents, which push plaque into the vessel wall, atherectomy cuts plaque from the wall of the artery
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Synonym
A synonym is a word or phrase that means exactly or nearly the same as another word or phrase in the same language. Words that are synonyms are said to be synonymous, and the state of being a synonym is called synonymy. For example, the words begin, start, commence, and initiate are all synonyms of one another. Words are typically synonymous in one particular sense: for example, long and extended in the context long time or extended time are synonymous, but long cannot be used in the phrase extended family. Synonyms with the exact same meaning share a seme or denotational sememe, whereas those with inexactly similar meanings share a broader denotational or connotational sememe and thus overlap within a semantic field
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Brachytherapy
Brachytherapy
Brachytherapy
is a form of radiotherapy where a sealed radiation source is placed inside or next to the area requiring treatment. Brachytherapy
Brachytherapy
is commonly used as an effective treatment for cervical, prostate, breast, and skin cancer and can also be used to treat tumours in many other body sites.[1] Treatment results have demonstrated that the cancer-cure rates of brachytherapy are either comparable to surgery and external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) or are improved when used in combination with these techniques.[2][3][4] Brachytherapy
Brachytherapy
can be used alone or in combination with other therapies such as surgery, EBRT and chemotherapy. Brachytherapy
Brachytherapy
contrasts with unsealed source radiotherapy, in which a therapeutic radionuclide (radioisotope) is injected into the body to chemically localize to the tissue requiring destruction
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Physician Assistants
Any of the following:Master of Physician
Physician
Assistant Studies (MPAS) Master of Health Science (MHS) Master of Medical Science (MMS) Bachelor of Science in Physician
Physician
Assistant Studies (BS) Associate of Science in Physician
Physician
Assistant Studies (AS)Fields of employmentHospitals and ClinicsRelated jobsPhysicianA physician assistant (US/CANADA) or physician associate (UK) is a healthcare professional who practices medicine as a part of a healthcare team with collaborating physicians and other providers. In the United States, PAs are nationally certified and state licensed to practice medicine. A certified PA may add "C" at the end of his/her postnominal credentials. PAs are trained with the medical model and complete these qualifications in less time than a traditional medical degree
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