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Perception
PERCEPTION (from the Latin
Latin
_perceptio_) is the organization, identification, and interpretation of sensory information in order to represent and understand the environment. All perception involves signals in the nervous system , which in turn result from physical or chemical stimulation of the sense organs. For example, vision involves light striking the retina of the eye, smell is mediated by odor molecules , and hearing involves pressure waves . Perception
Perception
is not the passive receipt of these signals, but is shaped by learning , memory , expectation , and attention . Perception
Perception
can be split into two processes. Firstly, processing sensory input, which transforms these low-level information to higher-level information (e.g., extracts shapes for object recognition). Secondly, processing which is connected with a person's concepts and expectations (knowledge) and selective mechanisms (attention ) that influence perception. Perception
Perception
depends on complex functions of the nervous system, but subjectively seems mostly effortless because this processing happens outside conscious awareness. Since the rise of experimental psychology in the 19th Century, psychology\'s understanding of perception has progressed by combining a variety of techniques
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Perceptual (album)
PERCEPTUAL is an album by Brian Blade Fellowship
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Perception (other)
PERCEPTION is the process of attaining awareness or understanding of sensory information. It can also be explained as how a person feels towards something PERCEPTION or PERCEPTIONS may also refer to: MUSIC * Perception
Perception
(Art Farmer album) , a 1961 jazz album * Perception
Perception
(Blessid Union of Souls album) , a 2005 alternative rock album * Perception
Perception
(Connie Crothers album) , a 1974 jazz album * Perception
Perception
(The Doors album) , a 2006 box set * Perceptions (Dizzy Gillespie album) , a 1962 jazz album * Perceptions (EP) , an experimental album by VersaEmerge * Perceptions (This Beautiful Republic album) , a 2008 Christian rock albumTELEVISION * Perception
Perception
(UK TV series) , an early evening quiz programme * Perception
Perception
(U.S. TV series) , an American crime drama starring Eric McCormackOTHER * Perception
Perception
(journal) , a UK scientific journal investigating perception * Perception
Perception
(company) , a media entertainment company * Perception
Perception
(video game) , a 2017 adventure video game This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title PERCEPTION. If an internal link led you here, you may wish to change the link to point directly to the intended article
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Percept (other)
PERCEPT may refer to: * Percept (psychology) - a stimulus of perception. * Percept (artificial intelligence) - the input that an intelligent agent is perceiving at any given moment. * Percept (information technology) - a term used in the pricing of data transfer.SEE ALSO * Perception (other) This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title PERCEPT. If an internal link led you here, you may wish to change the link to point directly to the intended article. Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Percept_(other) additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy .® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc
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Necker Cube
The NECKER CUBE is an optical illusion first published as a rhomboid in 1832 by Swiss crystallographer Louis Albert Necker . It is a simple wire-frame drawing of a cube with no visual cues as to its orientation, so it can be interpreted to have either the lower-left or the upper-right square as its front side. Necker cube
Necker cube
is used in studies of human's visual perception. CONTENTS * 1 Ambiguity * 2 Apparent viewpoint * 3 References in popular culture * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links AMBIGUITY See also: Ambiguity § Visual art The Necker cube
Necker cube
is an ambiguous line drawing. Necker cube
Necker cube
on the left, impossible cube on the right. One possible interpretation of the Necker cube, often claimed to be the most common interpretation Another possible interpretation The effect is interesting because each part of the picture is ambiguous by itself, yet the human visual system picks an interpretation of each part that makes the whole consistent. The Necker cube
Necker cube
is sometimes used to test computer models of the human visual system to see whether they can arrive at consistent interpretations of the image the same way humans do
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Rubin Vase
RUBIN\'S VASE (sometimes known as the RUBIN FACE or the FIGURE–GROUND VASE) is a famous set of ambiguous or bi-stable (i.e., reversing) two-dimensional forms developed around 1915 by the Danish psychologist Edgar Rubin . They were first introduced at large in Rubin's two-volume work, the Danish-language Synsoplevede Figurer ("Visual Figures"), which was very well received; Rubin included a number of examples, such as a Maltese cross figure in black and white, but the one that became the most famous was his vase example, perhaps because the Maltese cross could also be easily interpreted as a black and white beachball . Rubin presented in his doctoral thesis (1915) a detailed description of the visual figure-ground relationship, an outgrowth of the visual perception and memory work in the laboratory of his mentor, Georg Elias Müller. One element of Rubin's research may be summarized in the fundamental principle, "When two fields have a common border, and one is seen as figure and the other as ground, the immediate perceptual experience is characterized by a shaping effect which emerges from the common border of the fields and which operates only on one field or operates more strongly on one than on the other"
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Psychology
PSYCHOLOGY is the science of behavior and mind , embracing all aspects of conscious and unconscious experience as well as thought . It is an academic discipline and a social science which seeks to understand individuals and groups by establishing general principles and researching specific cases. In this field, a professional practitioner or researcher is called a psychologist and can be classified as a social , behavioral , or cognitive scientist . Psychologists attempt to understand the role of mental functions in individual and social behavior , while also exploring the physiological and biological processes that underlie cognitive functions and behaviors. Psychologists explore behavior and mental processes, including perception , cognition , attention , emotion (affect ), intelligence , phenomenology , motivation (conation ), brain functioning , and personality . This extends to interaction between people, such as interpersonal relationships , including psychological resilience , family resilience , and other areas. Psychologists of diverse orientations also consider the unconscious mind . Psychologists employ empirical methods to infer causal and correlational relationships between psychosocial variables
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Outline Of Psychology
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to psychology: PSYCHOLOGY is the science of behavior and mental processes . Its immediate goal is to understand individuals and groups by both establishing general principles and researching specific cases
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History Of Psychology
Today, PSYCHOLOGY is defined as "the scientific study of behavior and mental processes." Philosophical interest in the mind and behavior dates back to the ancient civilizations of Egypt , Persia , Greece , China , and India . For a condensed overview, see the Timeline of Psychology
Psychology
article The history of psychology as a scholarly study of the mind and behavior dates back to the Ancient Greeks . There is also evidence of psychological thought in ancient Egypt. Psychology
Psychology
was a branch of philosophy until the 1870s, when it developed as an independent scientific discipline in Germany and the United States. Psychology
Psychology
borders on various other fields including physiology , neuroscience , artificial intelligence , sociology , anthropology , as well as philosophy and other components of the humanities . Psychology
Psychology
as a self-conscious field of experimental study began in 1879, when Wilhelm Wundt
Wilhelm Wundt
founded the first laboratory dedicated exclusively to psychological research in Leipzig
Leipzig
, Germany. Wundt
Wundt
was also the first person to refer to himself as a psychologist
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Subfields Of Psychology
Psychology encompasses a vast domain, and includes many different approaches to the study of mental processes and behavior. Below are the major areas of inquiry that taken together constitute psychology. A comprehensive list of the sub-fields and areas within psychology can be found at the list of psychology topics and list of psychology disciplines . CONTENTS* 1 Divisions * 1.1 Abnormal * 1.2 Anomalistic * 1.3 Behavioral Genetics * 1.4 Biological * 1.5 Clinical * 1.6 Cognitive * 1.7 Community * 1.8 Comparative * 1.9 Consulting * 1.10 Counseling * 1.11 Developmental * 1.12 Educational * 1.13 Environmental * 1.14 Evolutionary * 1.15 Forensic * 1.16 Health * 1.17 Industrial-Organizational * 1.18 Legal * 1.19 Media * 1.20 Occupational health * 1.21 Personality * 1.22 Quantitative * 1.23 Religion/spirituality * 1.24 School * 1.25 Social * 2 References DIVISIONSABNORMAL Main article: Abnormal psychology Abnormal psychology is the study of abnormal behavior in order to describe, predict, explain, and change abnormal patterns of functioning. Abnormal psychology studies the nature of psychopathology and its causes, and this knowledge is applied in clinical psychology to treat patients with psychological disorders . It can be difficult to draw the line between normal and abnormal behaviors
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Basic Science (psychology)
Some of the research that is conducted in the field of psychology is more "fundamental" than the research conducted in the applied psychological disciplines, and does not necessarily have a direct application. The subdisciplines within psychology that can be thought to reflect a basic-science orientation include biological psychology, cognitive psychology, neuropsychology, and so on. Research in these subdisciplines is characterized by methodological rigor. The concern of psychology as a basic science is in understanding the laws and processes that underlie behavior, cognition, and emotion. Psychology as a basic science provides a foundation for applied psychology . Applied psychology, by contrast, involves the application of psychological principles and theories yielded up by the basic psychological sciences; these applications are aimed at overcoming problems or promoting well-being in areas such as mental and physical health and education
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Abnormal Psychology
ABNORMAL PSYCHOLOGY is the branch of psychology that studies unusual patterns of behavior , emotion and thought , which may or may not be understood as precipitating a mental disorder . Although many behaviors could be considered as abnormal , this branch of psychology generally deals with behavior in a clinical context. There is a long history of attempts to understand and control behavior deemed to be aberrant or deviant (statistically, functionally, morally or in some other sense), and there is often cultural variation in the approach taken. The field of abnormal psychology identifies multiple causes for different conditions, employing diverse theories from the general field of psychology and elsewhere, and much still hinges on what exactly is meant by "abnormal". There has traditionally been a divide between psychological and biological explanations, reflecting a philosophical dualism in regard to the mind body problem . There have also been different approaches in trying to classify mental disorders . Abnormal includes three different categories; they are subnormal, supernormal and paranormal . The science of abnormal psychology studies two types of behaviors: adaptive and maladaptive behaviors . Behaviors that are maladaptive suggest that some problem(s) exist, and can also imply that the individual is vulnerable and cannot cope with environmental stress, which is leading them to have problems functioning in daily life
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Behavioural Genetics
BEHAVIOURAL GENETICS (Commonwealth English ) or BEHAVIORAL GENETICS ( American English ), also referred to as BEHAVIOUR GENETICS, is a field of scientific research that uses genetic methods to investigate the nature and origins of individual differences in behaviour . While the name "behavioural genetics" connotes a focus on genetic influences, the field broadly investigates genetic and environmental influences, using research designs that allow removal of the confounding of genes and environment. Behavioural genetics was founded as a scientific discipline by Francis Galton in the late 19th century, only to be discredited through association with eugenics movements before and during World War II . In the latter half of the 20th century, the field saw renewed prominence with research on inheritance of behaviour and mental illness in humans (typically using twin and family studies ), as well as research on genetically informative model organisms through selective breeding and crosses . In the late 20th and early 21st centuries, technological advances in molecular genetics made it possible to measure and modify the genome directly. This led to major advances in model organism research (e.g., knockout mice ) and in human studies (e.g., genome-wide association studies ), leading to new scientific discoveries
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Behavioral Neuroscience
BEHAVIORAL NEUROSCIENCE, also known as BIOLOGICAL PSYCHOLOGY, BIOPSYCHOLOGY, or PSYCHOBIOLOGY is the application of the principles of biology to the study of physiological , genetic , and developmental mechanisms of behavior in humans and other animals. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Relationship to other fields of psychology and biology * 3 Research methods * 3.1 Disabling or decreasing neural function * 3.2 Enhancing neural function * 3.3 Measuring neural activity * 3.4 Genetic techniques * 3.5 Limitations and advantages * 4 Topic areas * 5 Awards * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 External links HISTORY Behavioral neuroscience as a scientific discipline emerged from a variety of scientific and philosophical traditions in the 18th and 19th centuries. In philosophy, people like René Descartes proposed physical models to explain animal and human behavior. Descartes, for example, suggested that the pineal gland , a midline unpaired structure in the brain of many organisms, was the point of contact between mind and body. Descartes also elaborated on a theory in which the pneumatics of bodily fluids could explain reflexes and other motor behavior. This theory was inspired by moving statues in a garden in Paris. Other philosophers also helped give birth to psychology
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Cognitive Psychology
COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY is the study of mental processes such as "attention , language use, memory , perception , problem solving, creativity , and thinking ". Much of the work derived from cognitive psychology has been integrated into various other modern disciplines of psychological study, including educational psychology , social psychology , personality psychology , abnormal psychology , developmental psychology , and economics . CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Mental processes * 2.1 Attention * 2.2 Memory * 2.2.1 Working memory * 2.2.2 Long-term memory * 2.3 Perception * 2.4 Language * 2.5 Metacognition * 3 Modern * 4 Applications * 4.1 Abnormal psychology * 4.2 Social psychology * 4.3 Developmental psychology * 4.4 Educational psychology * 4.5 Personality psychology * 5 Cognitive psychology vs. cognitive science * 6 Criticisms * 7 Major research areas * 8 Influential cognitive psychologists * 9 See also * 10 References * 11 Further reading * 12 External links HISTORYPhilosophically, ruminations of the human mind and its processes have been around since the times of the ancient Greeks. In 387 BCE, Plato is known to have suggested that the brain was the seat of the mental processes
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Comparative Psychology
COMPARATIVE PSYCHOLOGY refers to the scientific study of the behavior and mental proce