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Pentane Interference
Pentane interference
Pentane interference
or syn-pentane interaction is the steric hindrance that the two terminal methyl groups experience in one of the chemical conformations of n-pentane. The possible conformations are combinations of anti conformations and gauche conformations and are anti-anti, anti-gauche+, gauche+ - gauche+ and gauche+ - gauche− of which the last one is especially energetically unfavorable. In macromolecules such as polyethylene pentane interference occurs between every fifth carbon atom. This is not to be confused with the 1,3-diaxial interactions of cyclohexane derivatives (gauche interactions shared between substituents and the ring). A clear example of the syn-pentane interaction is apparent in the diaxial versus diequatorial heats of formation of cis 1,3-dialkyl cyclohexanes
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Steric Hindrance
Steric effects
Steric effects
are nonbonding interactions that influence the shape (conformation) and reactivity of ions and molecules. Steric effects complement electronic effects, which usually dictate shape and reactivity. Steric effects
Steric effects
result from repulsive forces between overlapping electron clouds. Steric effects
Steric effects
are widely exploited in applied and academic chemistry.Contents1 Steric hindrance 2 Measures of steric properties2.1 Rate data 2.2 A-values 2.3 Ceiling temperatures 2.4 Cone angles3 Significance and applications 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksSteric hindrance[edit]Regioselective dimethoxytritylation of the primary 5'-hydroxyl group of thymidine in the presence of a free secondary 3'-hydroxy group as a result of steric hindrance due to the dimethoxytrityl group and the ribose ring (Py = pyridine).[2]Steric hindrance is a consequence of steric effects
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Antiperiplanar
Anti-periplanar
Anti-periplanar
is a term used in organic chemistry to describe the A–B–C–D bond angle in a molecule. In this conformer, the dihedral angle of the A–B bond and the C–D bond is between +150° and −150°[1] (Figures 1 and 2). Anti-periplanar
Anti-periplanar
is often used in textbooks to mean strictly anti-coplanar,[2] with an A-B C-D dihehedral angle of 180° (Figure 3). In a Newman projection, the molecule will be in a staggered arrangement with the anti-periplanar functional groups pointing up and down, 180° away from each other (see Figure 4). Figure 5 shows 2-chloro-2,3-dimethylbutane in a sawhorse projection with chlorine and a hydrogen anti-periplanar to each other. Syn-periplanar is similar to anti-periplanar
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Special
Special
Special
or specials may refer to:Contents1 Music 2 Film and television 3 Other uses 4 See alsoMusic[edit] Special
Special
(album), a 1992 album by Vesta Williams "Special" (Garbage song), 1998 "Special
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Digital Object Identifier
In computing, a Digital Object Identifier or DOI is a persistent identifier or handle used to uniquely identify objects, standardized by the International Organization for Standardization
International Organization for Standardization
(ISO).[1] An implementation of the Handle System,[2][3] DOIs are in wide use mainly to identify academic, professional, and government information, such as journal articles, research reports and data sets, and official publications though they also have been used to identify other types of information resources, such as commercial videos. A DOI aims to be "resolvable", usually to some form of access to the information object to which the DOI refers. This is achieved by binding the DOI to metadata about the object, such as a URL, indicating where the object can be found. Thus, by being actionable and interoperable, a DOI differs from identifiers such as ISBNs and ISRCs which aim only to uniquely identify their referents
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J. Org. Chem.
The Journal of Organic Chemistry, colloquially known as JOC or J Org, is a peer-reviewed[1] scientific journal for original contributions of fundamental research in all branches of theory and practice[2] in organic and bioorganic chemistry. It is published by the publishing arm of the American Chemical Society, with 24 issues per year. According to the Journal Citation
Citation
Reports, the journal had a 2016 impact factor of 4.849[3] and it is the journal that received the most cites (99,193 in 2016) in the field of organic chemistry.[2] According to Web of Knowledge
Web of Knowledge
(and as December 2012), eleven papers from the journal have received more than 1,000 citations, with the most cited paper[4] having received 7,967 citations. The current Editor-in-Chief is Scott J. Miller from Yale University.[5] Indexing[edit] J. Org. Chem
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Methine
In chemistry, methine is a trivalent functional group =CH−, derived formally from methane. It consists of a carbon atom bound by two single bonds and one double bond, where one of the single bonds is to a hydrogen
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Dihedral Angle
A dihedral angle is the angle between two intersecting planes. In chemistry it is the angle between planes through two sets of three atoms, having two atoms in common. In solid geometry it is defined as the union of a line and two half-planes that have this line as a common edge
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Allylic Strain
Allylic strain
Allylic strain
(also known as A1,3 strain, 1,3-allylic strain, or A-strain) in organic chemistry is a type of strain energy resulting from the interaction between a substituent on one end of an olefin with an allylic substituent on the other end.[1] If the substituents (R and R') are large enough in size, they can sterically interfere with each other such that one conformer is greatly favored over the other.[2] Allyic strain was first recognized in the literature in 1965 by Johnson and Malhotra
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Solution
In chemistry, a solution is a homogeneous mixture composed of two or more substances. In such a mixture, a solute is a substance dissolved in another substance, known as a solvent. The mixing process of a solution happens at a scale where the effects of chemical polarity are involved, resulting in interactions that are specific to solvation. The solution assumes the phase of the solvent when the solvent is the larger fraction of the mixture, as is commonly the case
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X-ray Diffraction
X-ray
X-ray
crystallography is a technique used for determining the atomic and molecular structure of a crystal, in which the crystalline atoms cause a beam of incident X-rays
X-rays
to diffract into many specific directions. By measuring the angles and intensities of these diffracted beams, a crystallographer can produce a three-dimensional picture of the density of electrons within the crystal. From this electron density, the mean positions of the atoms in the crystal can be determined, as well as their chemical bonds, their disorder, and various other information. Since many materials can form crystals—such as salts, metals, minerals, semiconductors, as well as various inorganic, organic, and biological molecules— X-ray
X-ray
crystallography has been fundamental in the development of many scientific fields
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Crystal Lattice
In geometry and crystallography, a Bravais lattice, named after Auguste Bravais (1850),[1] is an infinite array of discrete points in three dimensional space generated by a set of discrete translation operations described by: R = n 1 a 1 + n 2 a 2 + n 3 a 3 displaystyle mathbf R =n_ 1 mathbf a _ 1 +n_ 2 mathbf a _ 2 +n_ 3 mathbf a _ 3 where ni are any integers and ai are known as the primitive vectors which lie in different directions and span the lattice
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Vicinal (chemistry)
In chemistry the descriptor vicinal (from Latin
Latin
vicinus = neighbor), abbreviated vic, describes any two functional groups bonded to two adjacent carbon atoms (i.e., in a 1,2-relationship). For example, the molecule 2,3-dibromobutane carries two vicinal bromine atoms and 1,3-dibromobutane does not. Mostly, the use of the term vicinal is restricted to two identical functional groups. Likewise in a gem-dibromide the prefix gem, an abbreviation of geminal, signals that both bromine atoms are bonded to the same atom (i.e., in a 1,1-relationship). For example, 1,1-dibromobutane is geminal
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Methyl
A methyl group is an alkyl derived from methane, containing one carbon atom bonded to three hydrogen atoms — CH3. In formulas, the group is often abbreviated Me. Such hydrocarbon groups occur in many organic compounds. It is a very stable group in most molecules. While the methyl group is usually part of a larger molecule, it can be found on its own in any of three forms: anion, cation or radical. The anion has eight valence electrons, the radical seven and the cation six. All three forms are highly reactive and rarely observed.[1]Contents1 Methyl cation, anion, and radical1.1 Methyl cation 1.2 Methyl anion 1.3 Methyl radical2 Reactivity2.1 Oxidation 2.2 Methylation 2.3 Deprotonation 2.4 Free radical reactions3 Chiral
Chiral
methyl 4 Etymology 5 See also 6 ReferencesMethyl cation, anion, and radical[edit] Methyl cation[edit] The methylium cation (CH3+) exists in the gas phase, but is otherwise not encountered
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Aryl
In the context of organic molecules, aryl is any functional group or substituent derived from an aromatic ring, usually an aromatic hydrocarbon, such as phenyl and naphthyl.[1] "Aryl" is used for the sake of abbreviation or generalization, and "Ar" is used as a placeholder for the aryl group in chemical structure diagrams. A simple aryl group is phenyl (with the chemical formula C6H5), a group derived from benzene
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Molecular Geometry
Molecular geometry
Molecular geometry
is the three-dimensional arrangement of the atoms that constitute a molecule. It includes the general shape of the molecule as well as bond lengths, bond angles, torsional angles and any other geometrical parameters that determine the position of each atom. Molecular geometry
Molecular geometry
influences several properties of a substance including its reactivity, polarity, phase of matter, color, magnetism and biological activity.[1][2][3] The angles between bonds that an atom forms depend only weakly on the rest of molecule, i.e
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