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Pentane
Pentane
Pentane
is an organic compound with the formula C5H12—that is, an alkane with five carbon atoms. The term may refer to any of three structural isomers, or to a mixture of them: in the IUPAC nomenclature, however, pentane means exclusively the n-pentane isomer; the other two are called isopentane (methylbutane) and neopentane (dimethylpropane). Cyclopentane
Cyclopentane
is not an isomer of pentane because it has only 10 hydrogen atoms where pentane has 12. Pentanes are components of some fuels and are employed as specialty solvents in the laboratory. Their properties are very similar to those of butanes and hexanes.Contents1 Industrial uses 2 Laboratory
Laboratory
use 3 Physical properties 4 Reactions 5 References 6 External linksIndustrial uses[edit] Pentanes are some of the primary blowing agents used in the production of polystyrene foam and other foams
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Preferred IUPAC Name
In chemical nomenclature, a preferred IUPAC
IUPAC
name (PIN) is a unique name, assigned to a chemical substance and preferred among the possible names generated by IUPAC
IUPAC
nomenclature. The "preferred IUPAC nomenclature" provides a set of rules for choosing between multiple possibilities in situations where it is important to decide on a unique name. It is intended for use in legal and regulatory situations.[1] Currently, preferred IUPAC
IUPAC
names are written only for part of the organic compounds (see below)
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Safety Data Sheet
A safety data sheet (SDS),[1] material safety data sheet (MSDS), or product safety data sheet (PSDS) is an important component of product stewardship, occupational safety and health, and spill-handling procedures. SDS formats can vary from source to source within a country depending on national requirements. SDSs are a widely used system for cataloging information on chemicals, chemical compounds, and chemical mixtures. SDS information may include instructions for the safe use and potential hazards associated with a particular material or product. The SDS should be available for reference in the area where the chemicals are being stored or in use. There is also a duty to properly label substances on the basis of physico-chemical, health or environmental risk
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Vapor Pressure
Vapor
Vapor
pressure or equilibrium vapor pressure is defined as the pressure exerted by a vapor in thermodynamic equilibrium with its condensed phases (solid or liquid) at a given temperature in a closed system. The equilibrium vapor pressure is an indication of a liquid's evaporation rate. It relates to the tendency of particles to escape from the liquid (or a solid). A substance with a high vapor pressure at normal temperatures is often referred to as volatile. The pressure exhibited by vapor present above a liquid surface is known as vapor pressure. As the temperature of a liquid increases, the kinetic energy of its molecules also increases. As the kinetic energy of the molecules increases, the number of molecules transitioning into a vapor also increases, thereby increasing the vapor pressure. The vapor pressure of any substance increases non-linearly with temperature according to the Clausius–Clapeyron relation
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Henry's Law
In chemistry, Henry's law is a gas law that states that the amount of dissolved gas is proportional to its partial pressure in the gas phase. The proportionality factor is called the Henry's law constant. It was formulated by the English chemist William Henry, who studied the topic in the early 19th century. In his publication about the quantity of gases absorbed by water,[1] he described the results of his experiments:..."water takes up, of gas condensed by one, two, or more additional atmospheres, a quantity which, ordinarily compressed, would be equal to twice, thrice, &c
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Acid Dissociation Constant
An acid dissociation constant, Ka, (also known as acidity constant, or acid-ionization constant) is a quantitative measure of the strength of an acid in solution. It is the equilibrium constant for a chemical reaction known as dissociation in the context of acid–base reactions.[note 1] In aqueous solution, the equilibrium of acid dissociation can be written symbolically as: HA + H 2 O ↽ − − ⇀ A − + H 3 O + displaystyle ce HA + H2O <=> A^- + H3O^+ where HA is a generic acid that dissociates into A−, known as the conjugate base of the acid and a hydrogen ion which combines with a water molecule to make a hydronium ion
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Ultraviolet–visible Spectroscopy
Ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy
Ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy
or ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry (UV-Vis or UV/Vis) refers to absorption spectroscopy or reflectance spectroscopy in the ultraviolet-visible spectral region. This means it uses light in the visible and adjacent ranges. The absorption or reflectance in the visible range directly affects the perceived color of the chemicals involved. In this region of the electromagnetic spectrum, atoms and molecules undergo electronic transitions
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Magnetic Susceptibility
In electromagnetism, the magnetic susceptibility (Latin: susceptibilis, "receptive"; denoted χ) is one measure of the magnetic properties of a material. The susceptibility indicates whether a material is attracted into or repelled out of a magnetic field, which in turn has implications for practical applications. Quantitative measures of the magnetic susceptibility also provide insights into the structure of materials, providing insight into bonding and energy levels. If the magnetic susceptibility is greater than zero, the substance is said to be "paramagnetic"; the magnetization of the substance is higher than that of empty space. If the magnetic susceptibility is less than zero, the substance is "diamagnetic"; it tends to exclude a magnetic field from its interior
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Refractive Index
In optics, the refractive index or index of refraction of a material is a dimensionless number that describes how light propagates through that medium. It is defined as n = c v , displaystyle n= frac c v , where c is the speed of light in vacuum and v is the phase velocity of light in the medium. For example, the refractive index of water is 1.333, meaning that light travels 1.333 times faster in vacuum than in the water. Refraction
Refraction
of a light rayThe refractive index determines how much the path of light is bent, or refracted, when entering a material. This is the first documented use of refractive indices and is described by Snell's law
Snell's law
of refraction, n1 sinθ1 = n2 sinθ2, where θ1 and θ2 are the angles of incidence and refraction, respectively, of a ray crossing the interface between two media with refractive indices n1 and n2
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Viscosity
The viscosity of a fluid is a measure of its resistance to gradual deformation by shear stress or tensile stress.[1] For liquids, it corresponds to the informal concept of "thickness"; for example, honey has higher viscosity than water.[2] Viscosity
Viscosity
is a property of the fluid which opposes the relative motion between the two surfaces of the fluid that are moving at different velocities. In simple terms, viscosity means friction between the molecules of fluid. When the fluid is forced through a tube, the particles which compose the fluid generally move more quickly near the tube's axis and more slowly near its walls; therefore some stress (such as a pressure difference between the two ends of the tube) is needed to overcome the friction between particle layers to keep the fluid moving
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Specific Heat Capacity
Heat
Heat
capacity or thermal capacity is a measurable physical quantity equal to the ratio of the heat added to (or removed from) an object to the resulting temperature change.[1] The unit of heat capacity is joule per kelvin J K displaystyle mathrm tfrac J K , or kilogram metre squared per kelvin second squared k g ⋅ m 2 K ⋅ s 2 displaystyle mathrm tfrac kgcdot m^ 2 Kcdot s^ 2 in the International System of Units
International System of Units
(SI). The dimensional form is L2MT−2Θ−1
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Standard Molar Entropy
In chemistry, the standard molar entropy is the entropy content of one mole of substance under a standard state (not STP). The standard molar entropy is usually given the symbol S°, and has units of joules per mole kelvin (J mol−1 K−1). Unlike standard enthalpies of formation, the value of S° is absolute. That is, an element in its standard state has a definite, nonzero value of S at room temperature. The entropy of a pure crystalline structure can be 0 J mol−1 K−1 only at 0 K, according to the third law of thermodynamics. However, this presupposes that the material forms a 'perfect crystal' without any frozen in entropy (defects, dislocations), which is never completely true because crystals always grow at a finite temperature
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GHS Hazard Pictograms
Hazard pictograms form part of the international Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS). Two sets of pictograms are included within the GHS: one for the labelling of containers and for workplace hazard warnings, and a second for use during the transport of dangerous goods. Either one or the other is chosen, depending on the target audience, but the two are not used together.[1] The two sets of pictograms use the same symbols for the same hazards, although certain symbols are not required for transport pictograms
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Aqueous Solution
An aqueous solution is a solution in which the solvent is water. It is usually shown in chemical equations by appending (aq) to the relevant chemical formula. For example, a solution of table salt, or sodium chloride (NaCl), in water would be represented as Na+(aq) + Cl−(aq). The word aqueous means pertaining to, related to, similar to, or dissolved in, water. As water is an excellent solvent and is also naturally abundant, it is a ubiquitous solvent in chemistry. Substances that are hydrophobic ('water-fearing') often do not dissolve well in water, whereas those that are hydrophilic ('water-friendly') do. An example of a hydrophilic substance is sodium chloride. Acids and bases are aqueous solutions, as part of their Arrhenius definitions. The ability of a substance to dissolve in water is determined by whether the substance can match or exceed the strong attractive forces that water molecules generate between themselves
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Globally Harmonized System Of Classification And Labelling Of Chemicals
The Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS) is an internationally agreed-upon standard managed by the United Nations
United Nations
that was set up to replace the assortment of hazardous material classification and labelling schemes previously used around the world. Core elements of the GHS include standardized hazard testing criteria, universal warning pictograms, and harmonized safety data sheets which provide users of dangerous goods with a host of information. The system acts as a complement to the UN Numbered system of regulated hazmat transport. Implementation is managed through the UN Secretariat
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GHS Hazard Statement
Hazard statements form part of the Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS). They are intended to form a set of standardized phrases about the hazards of chemical substances and mixtures that can be translated into different languages.[1][2] As such, they serve the same purpose as the well-known R-phrases, which they are intended to replace. Hazard statements are one of the key elements for the labelling of containers under the GHS, along with:[3]an identification of the product one or more hazard pictograms (where necessary) a signal word – either Danger or Warning – where necessary precautionary statements, indicating how the product should be handled to minimize risks to the user (as well as to other people and the general environment) the identity of the supplier (who might be a manufacturer or importer).Each hazard statement is designated a code, starting with the letter H and followed by three digits
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