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Peninsular Arabic
PENINSULAR ARABIC, or SOUTHERN ARABIC, is the varieties of Arabic spoken throughout the Arabian Peninsula . This includes the countries of Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
, Yemen
Yemen
, Oman
Oman
, United Arab Emirates
United Arab Emirates
, Kuwait
Kuwait
, Bahrain
Bahrain
, Qatar
Qatar
, Southern Iraq
Iraq
and the tribal people of Jordan
Jordan
(the native Jordanians). As this area is the homeland of the Arabic
Arabic
language, the language spoken there is closer to Classical Arabic
Classical Arabic
than elsewhere. Some of the local dialects have retained many archaic features lost in other dialects, such as the conservation of nunation for indeterminate noand . They retain most Classical syntax and vocabulary but still have some differences from Classical Arabic
Classical Arabic
like the other dialects. VARIETIES An overview of the different Arabic
Arabic
varieties The following varieties are usually noted: * Yemeni Arabic , displays a past conjugation with the very archaic -k suffix, as in southern Semitic languages
Semitic languages

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Arabian Peninsula
The ARABIAN PENINSULA, simplified ARABIA (Arabic : شبه الجزيرة العربية‎‎ _Shubh al-jazīra al-ʿarabiyya_, « Arabian island ») is a peninsula of Western Asia situated northeast of Africa on the Arabian plate . From a geological perspective, it is considered a subcontinent of Asia . It is the largest peninsula in the world, at 3,237,500 km2 (1,250,000 sq mi). The Arabian Peninsula consists of the countries Yemen , Oman , Qatar , Bahrain , Kuwait , Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates , and parts of Jordan and Iraq . The peninsula formed as a result of the rifting of the Red Sea between 56 and 23 million years ago, and is bordered by the Red Sea to the west and southwest, the Persian Gulf to the northeast, the Levant to the north and the Indian Ocean to the southeast. The Arabian Peninsula plays a critical geopolitical role in the Middle East and the Arab world due to its vast reserves of oil and natural gas . Before the modern era, it was divided into four distinct regions: Hejaz , Najd , Southern Arabia ( Hadhramaut ) and Eastern Arabia . Hejaz and Najd make up most of Saudi Arabia
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Language Family
A LANGUAGE FAMILY is a group of languages related through descent from a common _ancestral language_ or _parental language_, called the proto-language of that family. The term "family" reflects the tree model of language origination in historical linguistics , which makes use of a metaphor comparing languages to people in a biological family tree , or in a subsequent modification, to species in a phylogenetic tree of evolutionary taxonomy . Linguists therefore describe the _daughter languages_ within a language family as being _genetically related_. Estimates of the number of living languages vary from 5,000 to 8,000, depending on the precision of one's definition of "language", and in particular on how one classifies dialects . The 2013 edition of Ethnologue catalogs just over 7,000 living human languages. A "living language" is simply one that is used as the primary form of communication of a group of people. There are also many dead and extinct languages, as well as some that are still insufficiently studied to be classified, or are even unknown outside their respective speech communities. Membership of languages in a language family is established by comparative linguistics . Sister languages are said to have a "genetic" or "genealogical" relationship. The latter term is older
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Afroasiatic Languages
AFROASIATIC (AFRO-ASIATIC), also known as AFRASIAN and traditionally as HAMITO-SEMITIC (CHAMITO-SEMITIC), is a large language family of several hundred related languages and dialects. It comprises about 300 or so living languages and dialects, according to the 2009 Ethnologue estimate. It includes languages spoken predominantly in West Asia , North Africa
North Africa
, the Horn of Africa
Horn of Africa
, and parts of the Sahel
Sahel
. Afroasiatic languages
Afroasiatic languages
have over 350 million native speakers, the fourth largest number of any language family (after Indo-European , Sino-Tibetan and Niger–Congo ). The phylum has six branches: Berber , Chadic , Cushitic , Egyptian , Omotic and Semitic . By far the most widely spoken Afroasiatic language is Arabic
Arabic
. It is also the most widely spoken language within the Semitic branch, and includes Modern Standard Arabic
Arabic
and spoken colloquial varieties . Arabic
Arabic
has around 290 million native speakers, who are concentrated primarily in West Asia, North Africa, the Horn of Africa, and Malta
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Semitic Languages
The SEMITIC LANGUAGES are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East
Middle East
. Semitic languages
Semitic languages
are spoken by more than 330 million people across much of Western Asia
Western Asia
, North Africa and the Horn of Africa
Horn of Africa
, as well as in often large expatriate communities in North America
North America
and Europe
Europe
, with smaller communities in the Caucasus
Caucasus
and Central Asia
Central Asia
. The terminology was first used in the 1780s by members of the Göttingen School of History , who derived the name from Shem , one of the three sons of Noah in the Book of Genesis . The most widely spoken Semitic languages
Semitic languages
today are (numbers given are for native speakers only) Arabic
Arabic
(300 million), Amharic (22 million), Tigrinya (7 million), Hebrew
Hebrew
(unknown; 5 million native and non-native L1 speakers), Aramaic (575,000 to 1 million largely Assyrian fluent speakers) and Maltese (520,000 speakers)
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Central Semitic Languages
The CENTRAL SEMITIC LANGUAGES are a proposed intermediate group of Semitic languages
Semitic languages
, comprising the Late Iron Age, modern dialect of Arabic (prior to which Arabic was a Southern Semitic language), and older Bronze Age Northwest Semitic languages
Semitic languages
(which include Aramaic , Ugaritic , and the Canaanite languages of Hebrew and Phoenician ). In this reckoning, Central Semitic itself is one of three divisions of Semitic along with East Semitic ( Akkadian
Akkadian
and Eblaite ) and South Semitic (South Arabian and the Ethiopian Semitic languages
Semitic languages
)
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Arabic Languages
The ARABIC language family consists of all of the descendants of Proto-Arabic , including: * Old Arabic
Old Arabic
, the language of northwestern Arabia in the pre-Islamic period and its varieties: * Northern Old Arabic
Old Arabic
(including Safaitic and Hismaic) * Old Hejazi * Classical Arabic , the liturgical language of Islam which emerged in the 7th century AD,* Neo-Arabic, the descendants of spoken Old Arabic, including: * Maltese * Colloquial Arabic * Western Arabic * Eastern Arabic * Modern Standard Arabic , the standardized variety of Arabic used since the 19th century and modernized version of the liturgical language of IslamNOTES * ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin; Bank, Sebastian, eds. (2016). "Arabian". Glottolog 2.7 . Jena: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. LITERATURE * Cantineau, Jean (1955). "La dialectologie arabe", Orbis 4:149–169. * Fischer, Wolfdietrich, & Otto Jastrow (ed) (1980). Handbuch der arabischen Dialekte, Wiesbaden: Harrasowitz. * Kaye, Alan S., & Judith Rosenhouse (1997). "Arabic Dialects and Maltese", The Semitic Languages. Ed. Robert Hetzron. New York: Routledge. Pages 263–311. * Lozachmeur, H., (ed.), (1995)
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Glottolog
_GLOTTOLOG_ is a bibliographic database of the world's lesser-known languages, developed and formerly maintained at the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig , Germany. There are two components: _Languoid catalogue_, the catalog of the world's languages and language families; and _Langdoc_, the bibliography. It differs from the similar catalogue _ Ethnologue _ in several ways, in that it attempts only to accept languages which the editors have been able to confirm both exist and are distinct (varieties which have not been confirmed, but are inherited from another source, are tagged as "spurious" or "unattested"); it attempts only to classify languages into families which have been demonstrated to be valid; extensive bibliographic information is provided, especially for lesser-known languages; and, to a limited extent, alternative names are listed according to the sources which use them. In some cases, the language names used in the bibliographic entries in _Langdoc_ are identified by ISO or Glottolog code; this is an area of ongoing expansion. _Glottolog_ differs in several negative ways as well: Notably, apart from a single point-location on a map at its geographic center, no ethnographic or demographic information is provided. External links are provided to ISO, _Ethnologue_, and other online language databases
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Varieties Of Arabic
There are many varieties of Arabic
Arabic
(dialects or otherwise) in existence. Arabic
Arabic
is a Semitic language within the Afroasiatic family that originated on the Arabian Peninsula . The largest divisions occur between the spoken languages of different regions. Some VARIETIES OF ARABIC in North Africa
North Africa
, for example, are incomprehensible to an Arabic
Arabic
speaker from the Levant
Levant
or the Persian Gulf
Persian Gulf
. Within these broad regions further and considerable geographic distinctions exist, within countries, across country borders, even between cities and villages. Another major distinction is to be made between the widely diverging colloquial spoken varieties, used for nearly all everyday speaking situations, and the formal standardized language, found mostly in writing or in prepared speech. The regionally prevalent variety is learned as the speaker's first language while the formal language is subsequently learned in school. The formal language itself varies between its modern iteration, Modern Standard Arabic
Arabic
(often called MSA in English) and the Classical Arabic
Arabic
that serves as its basis, though Arabic
Arabic
speakers typically do not make this distinction
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Saudi Arabia
SAUDI ARABIA (/ˌsɔːdiː əˈreɪbiə/ ( listen ), /ˌsaʊ-/ ( listen )), officially the KINGDOM OF SAUDI ARABIA (KSA), is an Arab sovereign state in Western Asia constituting the bulk of the Arabian Peninsula . With a land area of approximately 2,150,000 km2 (830,000 sq mi), Saudi Arabia
Arabia
is geographically the fifth-largest state in Asia and second-largest state in the Arab
Arab
world after Algeria
Algeria
. Saudi Arabia
Arabia
is bordered by Jordan
Jordan
and Iraq
Iraq
to the north, Kuwait
Kuwait
to the northeast, Qatar
Qatar
, Bahrain
Bahrain
and the United Arab
Arab
Emirates to the east, Oman
Oman
to the southeast and Yemen
Yemen
to the south. It is separated from Israel
Israel
and Egypt
Egypt
by the Gulf of Aqaba . It is the only nation with both a Red Sea
Red Sea
coast and a Persian Gulf
Persian Gulf
coast and most of its terrain consists of arid desert and mountains
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Yemen
Coordinates : 15°N 48°E / 15°N 48°E / 15; 48 Republic of Yemen
Yemen
(Yemeni Republic) الجمهورية اليمنية ( Arabic
Arabic
) _al-Jumhūrīyah al-Yamanīyah_ Flag Emblem MOTTO: الله، الوَطَن، الثَورة، الوَحدة ( Arabic
Arabic
) "Allāh, al-Waṭan, ath-Thawrah, al-Waḥdah" "God, Country,
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Oman
Coordinates : 21°N 57°E / 21°N 57°E / 21; 57 Sultanate of Oman سلطنة عُمان ( Arabic ) _Salṭanat ʻUmān_ Flag National emblem ANTHEM: نشيد السلام السلطاني "as-Salām as-Sultānī " "Sultanic Salutation" Location of Oman in the Arabian Peninsula (Dark green) Capital and largest city Muscat 23°36′N 58°33′E / 23.600°N 58.550°E / 23.600; 58.550 OFFICIAL LANGUAGES Arabic RELIGION Islam DEMONYM Omani GOVERNMENT Unitary parliamentary absolute monarchy • SULTAN Qaboos bin Said al Said • PRIME MINIST
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United Arab Emirates
Coordinates : 24°N 54°E / 24°N 54°E / 24; 54 United Arab Emirates الإمارات العربية المتحدة ( Arabic
Arabic
) _Dawlat-al-Imārāt al-'Arabīyah al-Muttaḥidah_ Flag Emblem ANTHEM: عيشي بلادي "Īšiy Bilādī " "Long Live my Nation" Location of United Arab Emirates
United Arab Emirates
(green) in the Arabian Peninsula (white) CAPITAL
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Kuwait
Coordinates : 29°30′N 45°45′E / 29.500°N 45.750°E / 29.500; 45.750 State of Kuwait * دولة الكويت ( Arabic
Arabic
) * _Dawlat al-Kuwait_ Flag Emblem ANTHEM: * " Al-Nasheed Al-Watani
Al-Nasheed Al-Watani
" * "National Anthem" * Location of Kuwait
Kuwait
(green) Capital and largest city
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Bahrain
BAHRAIN (/bɑːˈreɪn/ (_ listen ); Arabic : البحرين‎‎ al-Baḥrayn_ ), officially the KINGDOM OF BAHRAIN (Arabic : مملكة البحرين‎‎ _ Mamlakat al-Baḥrayn _), is a small Arab
Arab
monarchy in the Persian Gulf
Persian Gulf
. It is an island country consisting of a small archipelago centered around Bahrain Island , situated between the Qatar
Qatar
peninsula and the north eastern coast of Saudi Arabia
Arabia
, to which it is connected by the 25 km (16 mi) King
King
Fahd Causeway
Causeway
. Bahrain's population is 1,234,571 (c. 2010), including 666,172 non-nationals. It is 780 km2 in size, making it the third smallest nation in Asia
Asia
after the Maldives
Maldives
and Singapore
Singapore
. Bahrain
Bahrain
is the site of the ancient Dilmun civilisation . It has been famed since antiquity for its pearl fisheries , which were considered the best in the world into the 19th century. Bahrain
Bahrain
was one of the earliest areas to convert to Islam
Islam
(AD 628)
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Qatar
Coordinates : 25°30′N 51°15′E / 25.500°N 51.250°E / 25.500; 51.250 State of Qatar دولة قطر ( Arabic
Arabic
) _Dawlat Qatar_ Flag Emblem ANTHEM: السلام الأميري _ As-Salam al-Amiri _ (transliteration ) _Amiri Salute_ Location and extent of Qatar
Qatar
(dark green) on the Arabian Peninsula
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