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Peninsular Arabic
PENINSULAR ARABIC, or SOUTHERN ARABIC, is the varieties of Arabic spoken throughout the Arabian Peninsula
Arabian Peninsula
. This includes the countries of Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
, Yemen
Yemen
, Oman
Oman
, United Arab Emirates
United Arab Emirates
, Kuwait
Kuwait
, Bahrain
Bahrain
, Qatar
Qatar
, Southern Iraq
Iraq
and the tribal people of Jordan
Jordan
(the native Jordanians)
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Arabian Peninsula
The ARABIAN PENINSULA, simplified ARABIA (Arabic : شبه الجزيرة العربية‎ Shibhu al-jazīrati al-ʿarabiyya, ‘ARABIAN ISLAND’ or Arabic : جزيرة العرب‎ Jazīratu Al-ʿArab, ‘ISLAND OF THE ARABS’), is a peninsula of Western Asia situated northeast of Africa
Africa
on the Arabian plate
Arabian plate
. From a geological perspective, it is considered a subcontinent of Asia
Asia
. It is the largest peninsula in the world, at 3,237,500 km2 (1,250,000 sq mi)
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Hejaz
THE HEJAZ, also AL-HIJAZ ( Arabic
Arabic
: اَلْـحِـجَـاز‎‎, al-Ḥiǧāz, literally "the Barrier"), is a region in the west of present-day Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
. The region is so called as it separates the land of the Najd in the east from the land of Tihamah
Tihamah
in the west. It is also known as the "Western Province." It is bordered on the west by the Red Sea
Red Sea
, on the north by Jordan
Jordan
, on the east by the Najd, and on the south by \ 'Asir Region
'Asir Region
. Its main city is Jeddah
Jeddah
, but it is probably better known for the Islamic holy cities of Mecca
Mecca
and Medina
Medina

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Bedouin
The BEDOUIN (/ˈbɛdu.ɪn/ ; Arabic
Arabic
: بَدَوِي badawī) is a grouping of nomadic Arab peoples who have historically inhabited the desert regions in North Africa, the Arabian Peninsula, Iraq, and the Levant
Levant
. The English word bedouin comes from the Arabic
Arabic
badawī, which means "desert dweller" and is traditionally contrasted with ḥāḍir, the term for sedentary people. Bedouin
Bedouin
territory stretches from the vast deserts of North Africa
North Africa
to the rocky sands of the Middle East
Middle East
. They are traditionally divided into tribes, or clans (known in Arabic
Arabic
as ʿašāʾir; عَشَائِر) and share a common culture of herding camels and goats
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Mecca
MECCA (/ˈmɛkə/ ) or MAKKAH ( Arabic
Arabic
: مكة‎ Makkah ) is a city in the Tihamah plain in Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
and is also the capital and administrative headquarters of the Makkah Region . The city is located 70 km (43 mi) inland from Jeddah
Jeddah
in a narrow valley at a height of 277 m (909 ft) above sea level, and 340 kilometres (210 mi) south of Medina
Medina
. Its resident population in 2012 was roughly 2 million, although visitors more than triple this number every year during the hajj ("pilgrimage") period held in the twelfth Muslim
Muslim
lunar month of Dhu al-Hijjah
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Red Sea
The RED SEA (also the ERYTHRAEAN SEA) is a seawater inlet of the Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
, lying between Africa
Africa
and Asia
Asia
. The connection to the ocean is in the south through the Bab el Mandeb strait and the Gulf of Aden
Aden
. To the north lie the Sinai Peninsula
Sinai Peninsula
, the Gulf of Aqaba , and the Gulf of Suez (leading to the Suez Canal
Suez Canal
). The Red Sea
Red Sea
is a Global 200 ecoregion . The sea is underlain by the Red Sea Rift which is part of the Great Rift Valley . The Red Sea
Red Sea
has a surface area of roughly 438,000 km2 (169,100 mi2), is about 2250 km (1398 mi) long and, at its widest point, 355 km (220.6 mi) wide
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Aden
ADEN (UK : /ˈeɪdən/ AY-duhn , US : /ˈɑːdɛn/ AH-den ; Arabic : عدن‎‎ ʻAdin/ʻAdan Yemeni pronunciation: ) is a port city in Yemen
Yemen
, located by the eastern approach to the Red Sea
Red Sea
(the Gulf of Aden
Aden
), some 170 km (110 mi) east of Bab-el-Mandeb . Its population is approximately 800,000 people. Aden's ancient, natural harbour lies in the crater of a dormant volcano which now forms a peninsula , joined to the mainland by a low isthmus . This harbour, Front Bay, was first used by the ancient Kingdom of Awsan between the 5th and 7th centuries BC. The modern harbor is on the other side of the peninsula. Aden gives its name to the Gulf of Aden
Gulf of Aden

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Voiced Velar Stop
The VOICED VELAR STOP is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages . The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨ɡ⟩, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is g. Strictly, the IPA symbol is the so-called single-story G , but the double-story G is considered an acceptable alternative. The Unicode
Unicode
character "LATIN SMALL LETTER G" (U+0067) renders as either a single-storey G or a double-storey G depending on font while the character "Latin small letter script G" (U+0261) is always a single-story G, but it is generally available only in fonts with the IPA Extensions Unicode
Unicode
character block
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Yanbu
YANBU\' AL BAHR (Arabic : ينبع البحر‎‎, Yanbuʿ al-Baḥr, "spring by the sea"), also known simply as YANBU, YAMBO or YENBO, is a major Red Sea
Red Sea
port in the Al Madinah province of western Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
. It is approximately 300 kilometers northwest of Jeddah (at 24°05′N 38°00′E / 24.083°N 38.000°E / 24.083; 38.000 ). The population is 188,430 (2004 census). A large number of the residents are foreign expatriates working in the oil refineries and petrochemical industry, mostly from Asia, but there are also large numbers from the Middle East, Europe, and North America
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Voiced Alveolar Sibilant Affricate
CONTENTS* 1 Voiced alveolar sibilant affricate
Voiced alveolar sibilant affricate
* 1.1 Features * 1.2 Occurrence * 1.2.1 Dentalized laminal alveolar * 1.2.2 Non-retracted alveolar * 1.2.3 Variable * 2 Voiced alveolar non-sibilant affricate * 2.1 Features * 2.2 Occurrence * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 Bibliography VOICED ALVEOLAR SIBILANT AFFRICATE VOICED ALVEOLAR SIBILANT AFFRICATE D͡Z D͜Z IPA NUMBER 104 133 ENCODING ENTITY (DECIMAL) UNICODE (HEX) U+02A3 X-SAMPA
X-SAMPA
dz KIRSHENBAUM dz LISTEN source · help The VOICED ALVEOLAR SIBILANT AFFRICATE is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages . The sound is transcribed in the International Phonetic Alphabet
International Phonetic Alphabet
with ⟨d͡z⟩ or ⟨d͜z⟩ (formerly ⟨ʣ⟩)
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Perso-Arabic Alphabet
ا ب پ ت ث ج
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Ancient South Arabian Script
The ancient YEMENI alphabet ( Old South Arabian
Old South Arabian
ms3nd; modern Arabic : المُسنَد‎‎ musnad) branched from the Proto-Sinaitic script in about the 9th century BC
9th century BC
. It was used for writing the Old South Arabian languages of the Sabaic , Qatabanic , Hadramautic , Minaean , Himyaritic , and Ge\'ez in Dʿmt
Dʿmt
. The earliest inscriptions in the alphabet date to the 9th century BC
9th century BC
in the Northern Red Sea Region
Northern Red Sea Region
, Eritrea
Eritrea
. There are no vowels, instead using the mater lectionis to mark them. Its mature form was reached around 500 BC , and its use continued until the 6th century , including Ancient North Arabian inscriptions in variants of the alphabet, when it was displaced by the Arabic alphabet
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Nabataean Alphabet
U+10880–U+108AF Final Accepted Script Proposal History of the alphabet ------------------------- Egyptian hieroglyphs
Egyptian hieroglyphs
32 c. BCE * Hieratic
Hieratic
32 c. BCE * Demotic 7 c. BCE * Meroitic 3 c. BCE* Proto-Sinaitic 19 c. BCE * Ugaritic 15 c. BCE* Epigraphic South Arabian 9 c. BCE * Ge’ez 5–6 c. BCE* Phoenician 12 c. BCE * Paleo-Hebrew 10 c. BCE * Samaritan 6 c. BCE* Libyco-Berber
Libyco-Berber
3 c. BCE * Tifinagh * Paleohispanic (semi-syllabic) 7 c. BCE* Aramaic 8 c. BCE * Kharoṣṭhī 4 c. BCE* Brāhmī 4 c. BCE * Brahmic family
Brahmic family
(see) * E.g. Tibetan 7 c. CE * Hangul
Hangul
(core letters only) 1443* Devanagari
Devanagari
13 c. CE * Canadian syllabics 1840 * Hebrew 3 c. BCE* Pahlavi 3 c
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Syrian Desert
The SYRIAN DESERT ( Arabic
Arabic
: بادية الشام, bādiyat ash-shām‎‎), also known as the Hamad, is a combination of steppe and true desert covering 500,000 square kilometers (200,000 square miles) of the Middle East
Middle East
, including parts of south-eastern Syria
Syria
, northeastern Jordan
Jordan
, northern Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
, and western Iraq
Iraq
. To the south it borders and merges into the Arabian Desert
Desert
. The land is open, gravely desert pavement , cut with occasional wadis
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Voiceless Alveolar Sibilant Affricate
A VOICELESS ALVEOLAR AFFRICATE is a type of affricate consonant pronounced with the tip or blade of the tongue against the alveolar ridge (gum line) just behind the teeth. This refers to a class of sounds, not a single sound. There are several types with significant perceptual differences: * The voiceless alveolar sibilant is the most common type and has an abrupt hissing sound, as the ts in English cats. * The voiceless alveolar retracted sibilant , also called apico-alveolar or grave, has a weak hushing sound reminiscent of retroflex affricates. It is found e.g. in Basque , where it contrasts with a more conventional non-retracted laminal alveolar affricate. * The voiceless alveolar non-sibilant affricate or , using the alveolar diacritic from the Extended IPA, is somewhat similar to the th in some pronunciations of English eighth
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Persian Gulf
The PERSIAN GULF (Persian : خلیج فارس‎, translit. Xalij-e Fârs, lit. 'Gulf of Fars') is a mediterranean sea in Western Asia . The body of water is an extension of the Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
( Gulf of Oman ) through the Strait of Hormuz
Strait of Hormuz
and lies between Iran
Iran
to the northeast and the Arabian Peninsula to the southwest. The Shatt al-Arab river delta forms the northwest shoreline. The Persian Gulf
Persian Gulf
was a battlefield of the 1980–1988 Iran– Iraq
Iraq
War , in which each side attacked the other's oil tankers . It is the namesake of the 1991 Gulf War , the largely air- and land-based conflict that followed Iraq
Iraq
's invasion of Kuwait
Kuwait

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