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Pelvic Inflammatory Disease
Pelvic inflammatory disease
Pelvic inflammatory disease
or pelvic inflammatory disorder (PID) is an infection of the upper part of the female reproductive system namely the uterus, fallopian tubes, and ovaries, and inside of the pelvis.[5][2] Often there may be no symptoms.[1] Signs and symptoms, when present may include lower abdominal pain, vaginal discharge, fever, burning with urination, pain with sex, or irregular menstruation.[1] Untreated PID can result in long term complications including infertility, ectopic pregnancy, chronic pelvic pain, and cance
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Specialty (medicine)
A specialty, or speciality, in medicine is a branch of medical practice. After completing medical school, physicians or surgeons usually further their medical education in a specific specialty of medicine by completing a multiple year residency to become a medical specialist.[1]Contents1 History of medical specialization 2 Classification of medical specialization 3 Specialties that are common worldwide 4 List of specialties recognized in the European Union and European Economic Area 5 List of North American medical specialties and others 6 Physician
Physician
compensation 7 Specialties by country7.1 Australia and New Zealand 7.2 Canada 7.3 Germany 7.4 India 7.5 United States 7.6 Specialty and Physician
Physician
Location8 Other uses 9 Training 10 Satisfaction 11 See also 12 ReferencesHistory of medical specialization[edit] To a certain extent, medical practitioners have always been specialized
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Laparoscopic Surgery
Laparoscopy
Laparoscopy
(from Ancient Greek λαπάρα (lapara), meaning 'flank, side', and σκοπέω (skopeo), meaning 'to see') is an operation performed in the abdomen or pelvis through small incisions (usually 0.5–1.5 cm) with the aid of a camera. The laparoscope aids diagnosis or therapeutic interventions with a few small cuts in the abdomen.[1] There are a number of advantages to the patient with laparoscopic surgery versus an open procedure. These include reduced pain due to smaller incisions and hemorrhaging, and shorter recovery time. Laparoscopic surgery, also called minimally invasive surgery (MIS), bandaid surgery, or keyhole surgery, is a modern surgical technique in which operations are performed through small incisions (usually 0.5–1.5 cm) elsewhere in the body. There are a number of advantages to the patient with laparoscopic surgery versus the more common, open procedure
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Adnexa Of Uterus
The uterine appendages (or adnexa of uterus) are the structures most closely related structurally and functionally to the uterus.Contents1 Terminology 2 Clinical significance 3 Additional images 4 References 5 See alsoTerminology[edit] They can be defined in slightly different ways:Some sources define the adnexa as the fallopian tubes and ovaries.[1] Others include the supporting tissues".[2] Another source defines the appendages as the "regions of the true pelvis posterior to the broad ligaments".[3] One dictionary includes the fallopian tubes, ovaries, and ligaments (without specifying precisely which ligaments are included).[4]Clinical significance[edit] The term "adnexitis" is sometimes used to describe an inflammation of the uterine appendages (adnexa).[5] In this context, it replaces the terms oophoritis and salpingitis. The term adnexal mass is sometimes used when the location of a uterine mass is not yet more precisely known. 63% of ectopic pr
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Laproscopic Surgery
Laparoscopy (from Ancient Greek λαπάρα (lapara), meaning 'flank, side', and σκοπέω (skopeo), meaning 'to see') is an operation performed in the abdomen or pelvis through small incisions (usually 0.5–1.5 cm) with the aid of a camera. The laparoscope aids diagnosis or therapeutic interventions with a few small cuts in the abdomen.[1] There are a number of advantages to the patient with laparoscopic surgery versus an open procedure. These include reduced pain due to smaller incisions and hemorrhaging, and shorter recovery time. Laparoscopic surgery, also called minimally invasive surgery (MIS), bandaid surgery, or keyhole surgery, is a modern surgical technique in which operations are performed through small incisions (usually 0.5–1.5 cm) elsewhere in the body. There are a number of advantages to the patient with laparoscopic surgery versus the more common, open procedure
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Pus
Pus
Pus
is an exudate, typically white-yellow, yellow, or yellow-brown, formed at the site of inflammation during bacterial or fungal infection.[1][2] An accumulation of pus in an enclosed tissue space is known as an abscess, whereas a visible collection of pus within or beneath the epidermis is known as a pustule, pimple, or spot. Pus
Pus
consists of a thin, protein-rich fluid, known as liquor puris, and dead leukocytes from the body's immune response (mostly neutrophils).[citation needed] During infection, macrophages release cytokines which trigger neutrophils to seek the site of infection by chemotaxis. There, the neutrophils release granules which destroy the bacteria
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Substance Abuse
Substance abuse, also known as drug abuse, is a patterned use of a drug in which the user consumes the substance in amounts or with methods which are harmful to themselves or others, and is a form of substance-related disorder. Widely differing definitions of drug abuse are used in public health, medical and criminal justice contexts. In some cases criminal or anti-social behavior occurs when the person is under the influence of a drug, and long term personality changes in individuals may occur as well.[5] In addition to possible physical, social, and psychological harm, use of some drugs may also lead to criminal penalties, although these vary widely depending on the local jurisdiction.[6] Drugs most often associated with this term include: alcohol, cannabis, barbiturates, benzodiazepines, cocaine, methaqualone, opioids and some substituted amphetamines
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Promiscuity
Promiscuity
Promiscuity
is the practice of having casual sex frequently with different partners or being indiscriminate in the choice of sexual partners.[1] The term can carry a moral judgment if the social ideal for sexual activity is monogamous relationships. A common example of behavior viewed as promiscuous by many cultures is the one-night stand, and its frequency is used by researchers as a marker for promiscuity.[2] What sexual behavior is considered promiscuous varies between cultures, as does the prevalence of promiscuity. Different standards are often applied to different genders and civil statuses. Feminists have traditionally argued a significant double standard exists between how men and women are judged for promiscuity
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Pelvis
The pelvis (plural pelves or pelvises) is either the lower part of the trunk of the human body[1] between the abdomen and the thighs (sometimes also called pelvic region of the trunk) or the skeleton embedded in it[2] (sometimes also called bony pelvis, or pelvic skeleton). The pelvic region of the trunk includes the bony pelvis, the pelvic cavity (the space enclosed by the bony pelvis), the pelvic floor, below the pelvic cavity, and the perineum, below the pelvic floor.[1] The pelvic skeleton is formed in the area of the back, by the sacrum and the coccyx and anteriorly and to the left and right sides, by a pair of hip bones. The two hip bones connect the spine with the lower limbs. They are attached to the sacrum posteriorly, connected to each other anteriorly, and joined with the two femurs at the hip joints
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Gynecology
Gynaecology
Gynaecology
or gynecology (see spelling differences) is the medical practice dealing with the health of the female reproductive systems (vagina, uterus, and ovaries) and the breasts. Outside medicine, the term means "the science of women". Its counterpart is andrology, which deals with medical issues specific to the male reproductive system. Almost all modern gynaecologists are also obstetricians (see obstetrics and gynaecology)
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Uterus
The uterus (from Latin
Latin
"uterus", plural uteri) or womb is a major female hormone-responsive secondary sex organ of the reproductive system in humans and most other mammals. In the human, the lower end of the uterus, the cervix, opens into the vagina, while the upper end, the fundus, is connected to the fallopian tubes. It is within the uterus that the fetus develops during gestation. In the human embryo, the uterus develops from the paramesonephric ducts which fuse into the single organ known as a simplex uterus
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Female Reproductive System
The female reproductive system (or female genital system) is made up of the internal and external sex organs that function in reproduction of new offspring. In the human the female reproductive system is immature at birth and develops to maturity at puberty to be able to produce gametes, and to carry a fetus to full term. The internal sex organs are the uterus and Fallopian tubes, and the ovaries. The uterus or womb accommodates the embryo which develops into the fetus. The uterus also produces vaginal and uterine secretions which help the transit of sperm to the Fallopian tubes. The ovaries produce the ova (egg cells). The external sex organs are also known as the genitals and these are the organs of the vulva including the labia, clitoris and vaginal opening. The vagina is connected to the uterus at the cervix.[1] At certain intervals, the ovaries release an ovum, which passes through the Fallopian tube
Fallopian tube
into the uterus
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Infection
Infection
Infection
is the invasion of an organism's body tissues by disease-causing agents, their multiplication, and the reaction of host tissues to the infectious agents and the toxins they produce.[1][2] Infectious disease, also known as transmissible disease or communicable disease, is illness resulting from an infection. Infections are caused by infectious agents including viruses, viroids, prions, bacteria, nematodes such as parasitic roundworms and pinworms, arthropods such as ticks, mites, fleas, and lice, fungi such as ringworm, and other macroparasites such as tapeworms and other helminths. Hosts can fight infections using their immune system
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Antibiotic
Antibiotics
Antibiotics
(from ancient Greek αντιβιοτικά, antibiotiká), also called antibacterials, are a type of antimicrobial[1] drug used in the treatment and prevention of bacterial infections.[2][3] They may either kill or inhibit the growth of bacteria
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Condom
A condom is a sheath-shaped barrier device, used during sexual intercourse to reduce the probability of pregnancy or a sexually transmitted infection (STIs).[1] There are both male and female condoms.[5] With proper use—and use at every act of intercourse—women whose partners use male condoms experience a 2% per-year pregnancy rate.[1] With typical use the rate of pregnancy is 18% per-year.[6] Their use greatly decreases the risk of gonorrhea, chlamydia, trichomoniasis, hepatitis B, and HIV/AIDS.[1] They also to a lesser extent protect against genital herpes, human papillomavirus (HPV), and syphilis.[1] The male condom should be rolled onto an erect penis before intercourse and works by blocking semen from entering the body of a sexual partner.[1][7] Male condoms are typically made from latex and less commonly from polyurethane or lamb intestine.[1] Male condoms have the advantages of ease of use, easy to access, and few side effects.[1] In those with a latex allergy a polyurethane
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Abstinence
Abstinence
Abstinence
is a self-enforced restraint from indulging in bodily activities that are widely experienced as giving pleasure. Most frequently, the term refers to sexual abstinence, or abstinence from alcohol or food. The practice can arise from religious prohibitions and practical considerations. Abstinence
Abstinence
may also refer to drugs. For example, one can abstain from smoking. Abstinence
Abstinence
has diverse forms. Commonly it refers to a temporary or partial abstinence from food, as in fasting. In the twelve-step program of Overeaters Anonymous abstinence is the term for refraining from compulsive eating, akin in meaning to sobriety for alcoholics. Because the regimen is intended to be a conscious act, freely chosen to enhance life, abstinence is sometimes distinguished from the psychological mechanism of repression. The latter is an unconscious state, having unhealthy consequences
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