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Pei Xiu
Pei Xiu
Pei Xiu
(224–271), courtesy name Jiyan, was a Chinese politician, geographer, writer, and cartographer of the state of Cao Wei
Cao Wei
in the late Three Kingdoms
Three Kingdoms
period and Jin dynasty of China. He was very much trusted by Sima Zhao, and participated in the suppression of Zhuge Dan's rebellion. Following Sima Yan taking the throne of the newly established Jin dynasty, he and Jia Chong had Cao Huan deprived of his position to accord to the will of heaven
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Jin Dynasty (265–420)
The Jin dynasty or the Jin Empire
Empire
(/dʒɪn/;[2] Chinese: 晉朝; pinyin: Jìn Cháo, sometimes distinguished as the Sima Jin or Liang Jin) was a Chinese dynasty traditionally dated from AD 265 to 420. It was founded by Sima Yan, son of Sima Zhao who was made Prince of Jin and posthumously declared the founder of the dynasty. It followed the Three Kingdoms
Three Kingdoms
period (220-280 AD), which ended with the conquest of Eastern Wu
Eastern Wu
by the Jin. There are two main divisions in the history of the dynasty
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Qing Dynasty
Tael
Tael
(liǎng)Preceded by Succeeded byLater JinShunSouthern MingDzungarRepublic of ChinaMongoliaThe Qing dynasty, also known as the Qing Empire, officially the Great Qing (English: /tʃɪŋ/), was the last imperial dynasty of China, established in 1636 and ruling China from 1644 to 1912. It was preceded by the Ming dynasty
Ming dynasty
and succeeded by the Republic of China. The Qing multi-cultural empire lasted almost three centuries and formed the territorial base for the modern Chinese state. It was the fourth largest empire in world history. The dynasty was founded by the Jurchen Aisin Gioro
Aisin Gioro
clan in Manchuria. In the late sixteenth century, Nurhaci, originally a Ming vassal, began organizing "Banners", military-social units that included Jurchen, Han Chinese, and Mongol elements
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Silk
Silk
Silk
is a natural protein fiber, some forms of which can be woven into textiles. The protein fiber of silk is composed mainly of fibroin and is produced by certain insect larvae to form cocoons.[1] The best-known silk is obtained from the cocoons of the larvae of the mulberry silkworm Bombyx mori
Bombyx mori
reared in captivity (sericulture). The shimmering appearance of silk is due to the triangular prism-like structure of the silk fibre, which allows silk cloth to refract incoming light at different angles, thus producing different colors. Silk
Silk
is produced by several insects, like silk worms but generally only the silk of moth caterpillars has been used for textile manufacturing
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Mawangdui
Mawangdui
Mawangdui
(simplified Chinese: 马王堆; traditional Chinese: 馬王堆; pinyin: Mǎwángduī; literally: "King Ma's Mound") is an archaeological site located in Changsha, China. The site consists of two saddle-shaped hills and contained the tombs of three people from the western Han dynasty
Han dynasty
(206 BC – 9 AD): Marquis Li Cang, his wife, and a male believed to have been their son. The site was excavated from 1972 to 1974
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Changsha
Changsha
Changsha
(Chinese: 长沙) is the capital and most populous city of Hunan
Hunan
province in south central China. It covers 11,819 km2 (4,563 sq mi) and is bordered by Yueyang
Yueyang
and Yiyang
Yiyang
to the north, Loudi
Loudi
to the west, Xiangtan
Xiangtan
and Zhuzhou
Zhuzhou
to the south, Yichun and Pingxiang
Pingxiang
of Jiangxi
Jiangxi
province to the east
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Nanyue
Nanyue
Nanyue
(Chinese: 南越) or Zhuang: Namzyied, or Nam Viet
Nam Viet
(Vietnamese: Nam Việt[1]) was an ancient kingdom that covered parts of northern Vietnam
Vietnam
and the modern Chinese provinces
Chinese provinces
of Guangdong, Guangxi, and Yunnan. Nanyue
Nanyue
was established in 204 BC at the collapse of the Qin dynasty by Zhao Tuo, then Commander of Nanhai. At first, it consisted of the commanderies Nanhai, Guilin, and Xiang. In 196 BC, Zhao Tuo
Zhao Tuo
paid obeisance to the Emperor
Emperor
Gaozu of Han, and Nanyue
Nanyue
was referred to by Han leaders as a "foreign servant", synecdoche for a vassal state
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Book Of Later Han
The Book of the Later Han, also known as the History of the Later Han and by its Chinese name Hou Hanshu, is a Chinese court document covering the history of the Han dynasty
Han dynasty
from 6 to 189 CE, a period known as the Later or Eastern Han
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Twenty-Four Histories
The Twenty-Four Histories (Chinese: 二十四史; pinyin: Èrshísì Shǐ; Wade–Giles: Erh-shih-szu shih), also known as the Orthodox Histories (Chinese: 正史; pinyin: Zhèngshǐ) are the Chinese official historical books covering a period from 3000 BC to the Ming dynasty in the 17th century. The Han dynasty
Han dynasty
official Sima Qian established many of the conventions of the genre, but the form was not fixed until much later. Starting with the Tang dynasty, each dynasty established an official office to write the history of its predecessor using official court records. As fixed and edited in the Qing dynasty, the whole set contains 3213 volumes and about 40 million words. It is considered one of the most important sources on Chinese history
Chinese history
and culture.[1] The title "Twenty-Four Histories" dates from 1775 which was the 40th year in the reign of the Qianlong Emperor
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Qin (state)
Qin (Chinese: 秦; Wade–Giles: Ch'in; Old Chinese: *[dz]i[n]) was an ancient Chinese state during the Zhou dynasty. It took its origin in a reconquest of western lands previously lost to the Rong; its position at the western edge of Chinese civilization permitted expansion and development that was unavailable to its rivals in the North China Plain. Following extensive "Legalist" reform in the 3rd century BC, Qin emerged as one of the dominant powers of the Seven Warring States and unified China in 221 BC under Shi Huangdi
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Gansu
Gansu
Gansu
(Chinese: 甘肃, Tibetan: ཀན་སུའུ་ Kan su'u[4]) is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the northwest of the country. It lies between the Tibetan and Loess plateaus, and borders Mongolia, Inner Mongolia, and Ningxia
Ningxia
to the north, Xinjiang
Xinjiang
and Qinghai
Qinghai
to the west, Sichuan
Sichuan
to the south, and Shaanxi
Shaanxi
to the east. The Yellow River passes through the southern part of the province. Gansu
Gansu
has a population of 26 million (as of 2009) and covers an area of 425,800 square kilometres (164,400 sq mi). The capital is Lanzhou, located in the southeast part of the province. The State of Qin
State of Qin
originated in what is now southeastern Gansu, and went on to form the first dynasty of Imperial China
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Stele Forest
The Stele
Stele
Forest or Beilin Museum is a museum for steles and stone sculptures in Xi'an, China. The museum, which is housed in a former Confucian Temple, has housed a growing collection of Steles since 1087. By 1944 it was the principal museum for Shaanxi
Shaanxi
province. Due to the large number of steles, it was officially renamed the Forest of Stone Steles in 1992
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Cartography
Cartography
Cartography
(from Greek χάρτης khartēs, "papyrus, sheet of paper, map"; and γράφειν graphein, "write") is the study and practice of making maps. Combining science, aesthetics, and technique, cartography builds on the premise that reality can be modeled in ways that communicate spatial information effectively. The fundamental problems of traditional cartography are to:Set the map's agenda and select traits of the object to be mapped. This is the concern of map editing. Traits may be physical, such as roads or land masses, or may be abstract, such as toponyms or political boundaries. Represent the terrain of the mapped object on flat media. This is the concern of map projections. Eliminate characteristics of the mapped object that are not relevant to the map's purpose. This is the concern of generalization. Reduce the complexity of the characteristics that will be mapped
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Xi'an
Xi'an
Xi'an
is the capital of Shaanxi
Shaanxi
Province, People's Republic of China. It is a sub-provincial city located in the center of the Guanzhong Plain in Northwestern China.[3] One of the oldest cities in China,
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Li (unit)
The li (Chinese: 里, lǐ, or 市里, shìlǐ), also known as the Chinese mile, is a traditional Chinese unit of distance. The li has varied considerably over time but was usually about a third as long as the English mile and now has a standardized length of a half-kilometer (500 meters or 1,640 feet). This is then divided into 1,500 chi or "Chinese feet". The character 里 combines the characters for "field" (田, tián) and "earth" (土, tǔ), since it was considered to be about the length of a single village. As late as the 1940s, a "li" did not represent a fixed measure but could be longer or shorter depending on the effort required to cover the distance.[1] There is also another li (Traditional: 釐, Simplified: 厘, lí) that indicates a unit of length ​1⁄1000 of a chi, but it is used much less commonly
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Yu The Great
Yu the Great
Yu the Great
(c. 2200 – 2100 BC)[1] was a legendary ruler in ancient China famed for his introduction of flood control, inaugurating dynastic rule in China by establishing the Xia Dynasty, and for his upright moral character.[2][3] The dates proposed for Yu's reign predate the oldest known written records in China, the oracle bones of the late Shang dynasty, by nearly a millennium.[4] No inscriptions on artifacts from the proposed era of Yu, nor the later oracle bones, make any mention of Yu; he does not appear in inscriptions until vessels dating to the Western Zhou period (c. 1045–771 BC). The lack of anything remotely close to contemporary documentary evidence has led to some controversy over the historicity of Yu
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