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Pei Xiu
PEI XIU (224–271), courtesy name JIYAN, was a minister, geographer , and cartographer of the state of Cao Wei
Cao Wei
during the Three Kingdoms period of Chinese history , as well as the subsequent Jin Dynasty . Pei Xiu
Pei Xiu
was very much trusted by Sima Zhao , and participated in the suppression of Zhuge Dan 's coup. Following Sima Yan taking the throne of the newly established Jin Dynasty, he and Jia Chong had Cao Huan deprived of his position to accord to the will of heaven. In the year 267, Pei was appointed as the Minister of Works for the Jin Dynasty. Pei Xiu
Pei Xiu
outlined and analyzed the advancements of cartography , surveying , and mathematics up until his time
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Jin Dynasty (265-420)
The JIN DYNASTY, distinguished as the SIMA JIN and LIANG JIN, was a Chinese dynasty , empire , and era traditionally dated from AD 265 to 420. It was founded by Sima Yan , son of Sima Zhao who was made Prince of Jin and posthumously declared the founder of the dynasty. It followed the Three Kingdoms
Three Kingdoms
period (220-280 AD), which ended with the conquest of Eastern Wu
Eastern Wu
by the Jin. There are two main divisions in the history of the dynasty
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Silk
SILK is a natural protein fiber , some forms of which can be woven into textiles . The protein fiber of silk is composed mainly of fibroin and is produced by certain insect larvae to form cocoons. The best-known silk is obtained from the cocoons of the larvae of the mulberry silkworm Bombyx mori reared in captivity (sericulture ). The shimmering appearance of silk is due to the triangular prism -like structure of the silk fibre, which allows silk cloth to refract incoming light at different angles , thus producing different colors. Silk
Silk
is produced by several insects, but generally only the silk of moth caterpillars has been used for textile manufacturing. There has been some research into other types of silk, which differ at the molecular level
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Mawangdui
MAWANGDUI (simplified Chinese : 马王堆; traditional Chinese : 馬王堆; pinyin : Mǎwángduī; literally: "King Ma's Mound") is an archaeological site located in Changsha , China
China
. The site consists of two saddle-shaped hills and contained the tombs of three people from the western Han dynasty (206 BC – 9 AD): Marquis Li Cang, his wife, and a male believed to have been their son. The site was excavated from 1972 to 1974. Most of the artifacts from Mawangdui
Mawangdui
are displayed at the Hunan Provincial Museum . It was called "King Ma's Mound" because it was initially (erroneously) thought to be the tomb of Ma Yin (853–930), a ruler of the Chu kingdom during the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period
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Chinese Mathematics
MATHEMATICS IN CHINA emerged independently by the 11th century BC. The Chinese independently developed very large and negative numbers , decimals , a place value decimal system, a binary system , algebra , geometry , and trigonometry . Ancient Chinese mathematicians made advances in algorithm development and algebra. While the Greek mathematics declined in the west during the mediaeval times, the achievement of Chinese algebra reached its zenith in the 13th century, when Zhu Shijie
Zhu Shijie
invented the method of four unknowns
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Surveying
SURVEYING or LAND SURVEYING is the technique, profession, and science of determining the terrestrial or three-dimensional position of points and the distances and angles between them. A land surveying professional is called a LAND SURVEYOR. These points are usually on the surface of the Earth, and they are often used to establish maps and boundaries for ownership , locations like building corners or the surface location of subsurface features, or other purposes required by government or civil law, such as property sales. Surveyors work with elements of geometry , trigonometry , regression analysis , physics , engineering , metrology , programming languages and the law . They use equipment like total stations , robotic total stations, GPS
GPS
receivers, retroreflectors , 3D scanners , radios, handheld tablets, digital levels, subsurface locators, drones, GIS and surveying software
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Xian
XI\'AN (Chinese : 西安; pinyin : Xī'ān listen (help ·info )) is the capital of Shaanxi
Shaanxi
Province , People\'s Republic of China
China
. It is a sub-provincial city located in the center of the Guanzhong Plain in Northwestern China. One of the oldest cities in China
China
, Xi'an is the oldest of the Four Great Ancient Capitals , having held the position under several of the most important dynasties in Chinese history , including Western Zhou
Western Zhou
, Qin , Western Han
Western Han
, Sui , and Tang . Xi'an is the starting point of the Silk Road
Silk Road
and home to the Terracotta Army
Terracotta Army
of Emperor Qin Shi Huang
Emperor Qin Shi Huang

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Stele Forest
The STELE FOREST, or BEILIN MUSEUM (碑林; pinyin: Bēilín), is a museum for steles and stone sculptures in Xi\'an , China
China
. The museum, which is housed in a former Confucian Temple , has housed a growing collection of Steles since 1087. By 1944 it was the principal museum for Shaanxi province . Due to the large number of steles, it was officially renamed the Forest of Stone Steles in 1992. Altogether, there are 3,000 steles in the museum, which is divided into seven exhibitions halls, which mainly display works of calligraphy, painting and historical records
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Cartography
CARTOGRAPHY (from Greek χάρτης khartēs, "papyrus, sheet of paper, map"; and γράφειν graphein, "write") is the study and practice of making maps . Combining science , aesthetics , and technique, cartography builds on the premise that reality can be modeled in ways that communicate spatial information effectively. The fundamental problems of traditional cartography are to: * Set the map's agenda and select traits of the object to be mapped. This is the concern of map editing. Traits may be physical, such as roads or land masses, or may be abstract, such as toponyms or political boundaries. * Represent the terrain of the mapped object on flat media. This is the concern of map projections . * Eliminate characteristics of the mapped object that are not relevant to the map's purpose
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Changsha
CHANGSHA (TSã13 Sɔ33 Sɿ21; simplified Chinese : 长沙; traditional Chinese : 長沙; pinyin : CHáNGSHā; literally: "Long sandbar") is the capital of Hunan province , south central China
China
. It covers 11,819 km2 (4,563 sq mi) and is bordered by Yueyang and Yiyang to the north, Loudi
Loudi
to the west, Xiangtan
Xiangtan
and Zhuzhou to the south, Yichun and Pingxiang of Jiangxi province to the east. According to 2010 Census, Changsha
Changsha
has 7,044,118 residents, constituting 10.72% of the province's population. Changsha
Changsha
is located in the Xiang River valley plain, bordering on Luoxiao Mountains on the east, Wuling Mountains on the west, edging in Dongting Lake on the north and bounded on the south by Hengshan Mountains
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Nanyue
NANYUE (Chinese : 南越) or Zhuang : NAMZYIED, or NAM VIET (Vietnamese : Nam Việt ) was an ancient kingdom that covered parts of northern Vietnam
Vietnam
and the modern Chinese provinces of Guangdong
Guangdong
, Guangxi
Guangxi
, and Yunnan
Yunnan
. Nanyue
Nanyue
was established in 204 BC at the collapse of the Qin dynasty
Qin dynasty
by Zhao Tuo , then Commander of Nanhai. At first, it consisted of the commanderies Nanhai, Guilin, and Xiang. In 196 BC, Zhao Tuo paid obeisance to the Emperor
Emperor
Gaozu of Han , and Nanyue
Nanyue
was referred to by Han leaders as a "foreign servant", synecdoche for a vassal state
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Twenty-four Histories
The TWENTY-FOUR HISTORIES (Chinese : 二十四史; pinyin : Èrshísì Shǐ; Wade–Giles : Erh-shih-szu shih), also known as the ORTHODOX HISTORIES (Chinese : 正史; pinyin : Zhèngshǐ) are the Chinese official historical books covering a period from 3000 BC to the Ming dynasty
Ming dynasty
in the 17th century. The Han dynasty
Han dynasty
official Sima Qian established many of the conventions of the genre, but the form was not fixed until much later. Starting with the Tang dynasty
Tang dynasty
, each dynasty established an official office to write the history of its predecessor using official court records. As fixed and edited in the Qing dynasty
Qing dynasty
, the whole set contains 3213 volumes and about 40 million words. It is considered one of the most important sources on Chinese history
Chinese history
and culture
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Qin (state)
QIN (Chinese : 秦; Wade–Giles : CH\'IN; Old Chinese : *i) was an ancient Chinese state during the Zhou dynasty . It took its origin in a reconquest of western lands previously lost to the Rong ; its position at the western edge of Chinese civilization permitted expansion and development that was unavailable to its rivals in the North China Plain . Following extensive "Legalist" reform in the 3rd century BC, Qin emerged as one of the dominant powers of the Seven Warring States and unified China in 221 BC under Shi Huangdi . The empire it established was short-lived but greatly influential on later Chinese history
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Gansu
GANSU (Chinese : 甘肃) is a province of the People\'s Republic of China
China
, located in the northwest of the country. It lies between the Tibetan and Loess plateaus, and borders Mongolia , Inner Mongolia
Mongolia
, and Ningxia to the north, Xinjiang
Xinjiang
and Qinghai
Qinghai
to the west, Sichuan
Sichuan
to the south, and Shaanxi to the east. The Yellow River passes through the southern part of the province. Gansu
Gansu
has a population of 26 million (as of 2009) and covers an area of 425,800 square kilometres (164,400 sq mi). The capital is Lanzhou
Lanzhou
, located in the southeast part of the province. The State of Qin
State of Qin
originated in what is now southeastern Gansu, and went on to form the first dynasty of Imperial China
Imperial China

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Jin Dynasty (265–420)
The JIN DYNASTY, distinguished as the SIMA JIN and LIANG JIN, was a Chinese dynasty , empire , and era traditionally dated from AD 265 to 420. It was founded by Sima Yan , son of Sima Zhao who was made Prince of Jin and posthumously declared the founder of the dynasty. It followed the Three Kingdoms period (220-280 AD), which ended with the conquest of Eastern Wu
Eastern Wu
by the Jin. There are two main divisions in the history of the dynasty
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Roman Greece
ROMAN GREECE as described here is the period of Greek history affecting its subsequent constituent Roman provinces that followed the Roman victory over the Corinthians , at the Battle of Corinth
Corinth
(146 BC) , until the adoption of the city of Byzantium
Byzantium
by the Emperor Constantine the Great
Constantine the Great
as the capital of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
(as Nova Roma, later Constantinople
Constantinople
) in AD 330
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