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Peel (fruit)
PEEL, also known as RIND or SKIN, is the outer protective layer of a fruit or vegetable which can be peeled off. The rind is usually the botanical exocarp , but the term exocarp also includes the hard cases of nuts , which are not named peels since they are not peeled off by hand or peeler, but rather shells because of their hardness. A fruit with a thick peel, such as a citrus fruit, is called a hesperidium . In hesperidiums, the inner layer (also called albedo or, among non-botanists, pith) is peeled off together with the outer layer (called flavedo ), and together they are called the peel. The flavedo and albedo, respectively, are the exocarp and the mesocarp . The juicy layer inside the peel (containing the seeds) is the endocarp . CONTENTS * 1 Uses * 2 Allergy * 3 See also * 4 References USESDepending on the thickness and taste, fruit peel is sometimes eaten as part of the fruit, such as with apples
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Orange (fruit)
The ORANGE is the fruit of the citrus species Citrus
Citrus
× sinensis in the family Rutaceae . It is also called SWEET ORANGE, to distinguish it from the related Citrus
Citrus
× aurantium, referred to as bitter orange . The sweet orange reproduces asexually (apomixis through nucellar embryony ); varieties of sweet orange arise through mutations. The orange is a hybrid between pomelo ( Citrus
Citrus
maxima) and mandarin ( Citrus
Citrus
reticulata). It has genes that are ~25% pomelo and ~75% mandarin; however, it is not a simple backcrossed BC1 hybrid, but hybridized over multiple generations. The chloroplast genes, and therefore the maternal line, seem to be pomelo. The sweet orange has had its full genome sequenced. Earlier estimates of the percentage of pomelo genes varying from ~50% to 6% have been reported
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Flavedo
FRUIT ANATOMY is the internal structure of fruits . Fruits are the mature ovary or ovaries of one or more flowers . In fleshy fruits, the outer layer (which is often edible) is the pericarp, which is the tissue that develops from the ovary wall of the flower and surrounds the seeds . But in some seemingly pericarp fruits, the edible portion is not derived from the ovary. For example, in the fruit of the ackee tree the edible portion is an aril , and in the pineapple several tissues from the flower and stem are involved. The outer covering of a seed is tough because the parent plant needs to protect the plant growing
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Albedo
ALBEDO (/ælˈbiːdoʊ/ ) is a measure for reflectance or optical brightness ( Latin _albedo,_ Arabic _albayad,_ "whiteness") of a surface. It is dimensionless and measured on a scale from zero (corresponding to a black body that absorbs all incident radiation) to one (corresponding to a white body that reflects all incident radiation). Surface albedo is defined as the ratio of irradiance reflected to the irradiance received by a surface. The proportion reflected is not only determined by properties of the surface itself, but also by the spectral and angular distribution of solar radiation reaching the Earth's surface. These factors vary with atmospheric composition, geographic location and time (see Position of the Sun ). While bi-hemispherical reflectance is calculated for a single angle of incidence (i.e., for a given position of the sun), albedo is the directional integration of reflectance over all solar angles in a given period
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Chocolate
CHOCOLATE /ˈtʃɒklᵻt, -kəlᵻt/ (_ listen ) is a typically sweet, usually brown food preparation of Theobroma cacao _ seeds, roasted and ground. It is made in the form of a liquid, paste, or in a block, or used as a flavoring ingredient in other foods. Cacao has been cultivated by many cultures for at least three millennia in Mesoamerica . The earliest evidence of use traces to the Mokaya (Mexico and Guatemala ), with evidence of chocolate beverages dating back to 1900 BCE. In fact, the majority of Mesoamerican people made chocolate beverages, including the Maya and Aztecs , who made it into a beverage known as _xocolātl _ Nahuatl pronunciation: , a Nahuatl word meaning "bitter water". The seeds of the cacao tree have an intense bitter taste and must be fermented to develop the flavor. After fermentation, the beans are dried, cleaned, and roasted
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Citrus
Important species: _ Citrus maxima_ – Pomelo _ Citrus medica_ – Citron _ Citrus micrantha_ – Papeda _ Citrus reticulata_ – Mandarin orange -------------------------Important hybrids: _ Citrus × aurantiifolia_ – Key lime _ Citrus × aurantium_ – Bitter orange _ Citrus × latifolia_ – Persian lime _ Citrus × limon_ – Lemon _ Citrus × limonia_ – Rangpur _ Citrus × paradisi_ – Grapefruit _ Citrus × sinensis_ – Sweet orange _ Citrus × tangerina_ – Tangerine See also below for other species and hybrids. SYNONYMS _Eremocitrus_ _Microcitrus_ and see text _CITRUS_ is a genus of flowering trees and shrubs in the rue family, Rutaceae
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Banana
The BANANA is an edible fruit – botanically a berry – produced by several kinds of large herbaceous flowering plants in the genus _Musa _. In some countries, bananas used for cooking may be called plantains , in contrast to DESSERT BANANAS. The fruit is variable in size, color and firmness, but is usually elongated and curved, with soft flesh rich in starch covered with a rind which may be green, yellow, red, purple, or brown when ripe. The fruits grow in clusters hanging from the top of the plant. Almost all modern edible parthenocarpic (seedless) bananas come from two wild species – _Musa acuminata _ and _ Musa balbisiana _. The scientific names of most cultivated bananas are _Musa acuminata_, _Musa balbisiana_, and _Musa_ × _paradisiaca_ for the hybrid _Musa acuminata_ × _M. balbisiana_, depending on their genomic constitution. The old scientific name _Musa sapientum_ is no longer used
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Fruit
In botany , a FRUIT is the seed -bearing structure in flowering plants (also known as angiosperms) formed from the ovary after flowering . Fruits are the means by which angiosperms disseminate seeds . Edible fruits, in particular, have propagated with the movements of humans and animals in a symbiotic relationship as a means for seed dispersal and nutrition ; in fact, humans and many animals have become dependent on fruits as a source of food. Accordingly, fruits account for a substantial fraction of the world's agricultural output, and some (such as the apple and the pomegranate ) have acquired extensive cultural and symbolic meanings. In common language usage, "fruit" normally means the fleshy seed-associated structures of a plant that are sweet or sour, and edible in the raw state, such as apples , bananas , grapes , lemons , oranges , and strawberries
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Vegetable
In everyday usage, a VEGETABLE is any part of a plant that is consumed by humans as food as part of a meal. The term _vegetable_ is somewhat arbitrary, and largely defined through culinary and cultural tradition. It normally excludes other food derived from plants such as fruits , nuts , and cereal grains, but includes seeds such as pulses . The original meaning of the word _vegetable_, still used in biology, was to describe all types of plant, as in the terms "vegetable kingdom" and "vegetable matter". Originally, vegetables were collected from the wild by hunter-gatherers and entered cultivation in several parts of the world, probably during the period 10,000 BC to 7,000 BC, when a new agricultural way of life developed. At first, plants which grew locally would have been cultivated, but as time went on, trade brought exotic crops from elsewhere to add to domestic types
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Botany
BOTANY, also called PLANT SCIENCE(S), PLANT BIOLOGY or PHYTOLOGY, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology . A BOTANIST or PLANT SCIENTIST is a scientist who specialises in this field. The term "botany" comes from the Ancient Greek word βοτάνη (_botanē_) meaning "pasture ", "grass", or "fodder "; βοτάνη is in turn derived from βόσκειν (_boskein_), "to feed" or "to graze". Traditionally, botany has also included the study of fungi and algae by mycologists and phycologists respectively, with the study of these three groups of organisms remaining within the sphere of interest of the International Botanical Congress . Nowadays, botanists (in the strict sense) study approximately 410,000 species of land plants of which some 391,000 species are vascular plants (including ca 369,000 species of flowering plants ), and ca 20,000 are bryophytes
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Exocarp
FRUIT ANATOMY is the internal structure of fruits . Fruits are the mature ovary or ovaries of one or more flowers . In fleshy fruits, the outer layer (which is often edible) is the pericarp, which is the tissue that develops from the ovary wall of the flower and surrounds the seeds . But in some seemingly pericarp fruits, the edible portion is not derived from the ovary. For example, in the fruit of the ackee tree the edible portion is an aril , and in the pineapple several tissues from the flower and stem are involved. The outer covering of a seed is tough because the parent plant needs to protect the plant growing
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Nut (fruit)
A NUT is a fruit composed of an inedible hard shell and a seed , which is generally edible. In general usage, a wide variety of dried seeds are called nuts, but in a botanical context "nut" implies that the shell does not open to release the seed (indehiscent ). The translation of "nut" in certain languages frequently requires paraphrases, as the word is ambiguous . Most seeds come from fruits that naturally free themselves from the shell, unlike nuts such as hazelnuts , chestnuts , and acorns , which have hard shell walls and originate from a compound ovary. The general and original usage of the term is less restrictive, and many nuts (in the culinary sense), such as almonds , pecans , pistachios , walnuts , and Brazil nuts , are not nuts in a botanical sense. Common usage of the term often refers to any hard-walled, edible kernel as a nut
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Hesperidium
A HESPERIDIUM (plural HESPERIDIA) is a modified berry with a tough, leathery rind. The peel contains volatile oil glands in pits. The fleshy interior is composed of separate sections, called carpels , filled with fluid-filled vesicles that are specialized hair cells. The outer ovary wall becomes the thick spongy layer of the rind, while the inner ovary wall becomes very juicy with several seeds. Oranges and other citrus fruits are common examples in cultivation. Unlike most other berries , the rind of cultivated hesperidia is generally not eaten with the fruit because it is tough and bitter. A common exception is the kumquat , which is consumed entirely. The outermost, pigmented layer of rind contains essential oils and is known as the flavedo. When scraped off and used as a culinary ingredient it is called zest . A confection called succade can also be produced by candying the inner rind (known as pith or albedo) of the citron or lemon
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Mesocarp
FRUIT ANATOMY is the internal structure of fruits . Fruits are the mature ovary or ovaries of one or more flowers . In fleshy fruits, the outer layer (which is often edible) is the pericarp, which is the tissue that develops from the ovary wall of the flower and surrounds the seeds . But in some seemingly pericarp fruits, the edible portion is not derived from the ovary. For example, in the fruit of the ackee tree the edible portion is an aril , and in the pineapple several tissues from the flower and stem are involved. The outer covering of a seed is tough because the parent plant needs to protect the plant growing
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Endocarp
FRUIT ANATOMY is the internal structure of fruits . Fruits are the mature ovary or ovaries of one or more flowers . In fleshy fruits, the outer layer (which is often edible) is the pericarp, which is the tissue that develops from the ovary wall of the flower and surrounds the seeds . But in some seemingly pericarp fruits, the edible portion is not derived from the ovary. For example, in the fruit of the ackee tree the edible portion is an aril , and in the pineapple several tissues from the flower and stem are involved. The outer covering of a seed is tough because the parent plant needs to protect the plant growing
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Apple
The APPLE TREE (_ Malus
Malus
pumila_, commonly and erroneously called _ Malus
Malus
domestica_) is a deciduous tree in the rose family best known for its sweet, pomaceous fruit , the APPLE. It is cultivated worldwide as a fruit tree , and is the most widely grown species in the genus _ Malus
Malus
._ The tree originated in Central Asia , where its wild ancestor, _ Malus
Malus
sieversii _, is still found today. Apples have been grown for thousands of years in Asia and Europe, and were brought to North America by European colonists . Apples have religious and mythological significance in many cultures, including Norse , Greek and European Christian traditions . Apple
Apple
trees are large if grown from seed. Generally apple cultivars are propagated by grafting onto rootstocks, which control the size of the resulting tree
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