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Paul Schrader
PAUL JOSEPH SCHRADER (born July 22, 1946) is an American screenwriter , film director , and film critic . Schrader wrote or co-wrote screenplays for four Martin Scorsese films: Taxi Driver (1976), Raging Bull (1980), The Last Temptation of Christ (1988), and Bringing Out the Dead (1999). Schrader has also directed 18 feature films, including his directing debut crime drama , Blue Collar (co-written with his brother, Leonard Schrader ), the crime drama Hardcore (a loosely autobiographical film also written by Schrader), his 1982 remake of the horror classic Cat People , the crime drama American Gigolo (1980), the biographical drama Mishima: A Life in Four Chapters (1985), the cult film Light Sleeper
Light Sleeper
(1992), the drama Affliction (1997), the biographical film Auto Focus
Auto Focus
(2002), and the erotic dramatic thriller The Canyons (2013)
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Paul W. Schroeder
PAUL W. SCHROEDER (born February 23, 1927) is an American historian and professor emeritus of history at the University of Illinois , specializing in late-sixteenth- to twentieth-century European international politics , Central Europe
Europe
, and the theory of history . Schroeder was born in Cleveland, Ohio , the son of Rupert H. Schroeder and Elfrieda Koch. He attended Concordia Seminary (graduated 1951), Texas Christian University , and the University of Texas at Austin , where he received his doctorate in 1958. He received the 1956 Beveridge Award for the best manuscript on American history submitted by a beginning historian. He was an associate professor of history at Concordia Senior College from 1958 to 1963, after which he was hired at the University of Illinois. In a 1972 essay entitled, "World War I as a Galloping Gertie", Schroeder contrary to established historical opinion and Article 231 of the Treaty of Versailles laid the blame for the First World War on Britain's doorstep. Schroeder characterized the political events leading up to the war as a "Galloping Gertie," a metaphor which described political events as escalating out of control, pulling and pushing all five Great Powers into an unwanted war Schroeder's research highlighted the fact that Britain was engaged in an “encirclement" policy directed at the Austria-Hungary empire
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Karlovy Vary International Film Festival
The KARLOVY VARY INTERNATIONAL FILM FESTIVAL (Czech : Mezinárodní filmový festival Karlovy Vary) is a film festival held annually in July in Karlovy Vary (Carlsbad), Czech Republic . The Karlovy Vary Festival is one of the oldest in the world and has become Central and Eastern Europe’s leading film event. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Program * 3 Awards * 4 Prominent foreign festival guests * 5 Crystal Globe Winners – Grand Prix * 6 External links * 7 References HISTORY The opening of the 50th festival in front of the Hotel Thermal The pre-war dream of many enthusiastic filmmakers materialized in 1946 when a non-competition festival of films from seven countries took place in Mariánské Lázně
Mariánské Lázně
and Karlovy Vary . Above all it was intended to screen the results of the recently nationalized Czechoslovak film industry . After the first two years the festival moved permanently to Karlovy Vary. The Karlovy Vary IFF first held an international film competition in 1948. Since 1951, an international jury has evaluated the films. The Karlovy Vary competition quickly found a place among other developing festivals and by 1956 FIAPF had already classified Karlovy Vary as a category A festival
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Grand Rapids, Michigan
GRAND RAPIDS is the second-largest city in Michigan
Michigan
, and the largest city in West Michigan
Michigan
. It is on the Grand River about 30 miles (48 km) east of Lake Michigan
Michigan
. As of the 2010 census , the city population was 188,040. In 2010, the Grand Rapids metropolitan area had a population of 1,005,648, and the combined statistical area of Grand Rapids-Muskegon-Holland had a population of 1,321,557. Grand Rapids is the county seat of Kent County . A historic furniture-manufacturing center, Grand Rapids is home to five of the world's leading office furniture companies, and is nicknamed Furniture
Furniture
City. Its more common modern nickname of River City
City
refers to the landmark river for which it was named. The city and surrounding communities are economically diverse, based in the health care , information technology, automotive , aviation, and consumer goods manufacturing industries, among others. Grand Rapids is the hometown of U.S. President Gerald Ford
Gerald Ford
, who is buried with his wife Betty on the grounds of the Gerald R. Ford Presidential Museum in the city
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Michigan
MICHIGAN /ˈmɪʃᵻɡən/ ( listen ) is a state in the Great Lakes and Midwestern regions of the United States
United States
. The state's name, Michigan, is of French origins (form of the Ojibwe word) _mishigamaa_, meaning "large water" or "large lake". Michigan is the tenth most populous of the 50 United States
United States
, with the 11th most extensive total area, and the largest state by total area east of the Mississippi River
Mississippi River
. Michigan's capital is Lansing
Lansing
, and its largest city is Detroit
Detroit
. Michigan
Michigan
is the only state to consist of two peninsulas . The Lower Peninsula
Peninsula
, to which the name Michigan
Michigan
was originally applied, is often noted to be shaped like a mitten . The Upper Peninsula
Peninsula
(often referred to as "the U.P.") is separated from the Lower Peninsula
Peninsula
by the Straits of Mackinac , a five-mile (8 km) channel that joins Lake Huron to Lake Michigan
Lake Michigan
. The two peninsulas are connected by the Mackinac Bridge . The state has the longest freshwater coastline of any political subdivision in the world, being bounded by four of the five Great Lakes , plus Lake Saint Clair . As a result, it is one of the leading U.S
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Screenwriter
A SCREENPLAY WRITER (also called SCREENWRITER for short), SCRIPTWRITER, or SCENARIST is a writer who practices the craft of screenwriting , writing screenplays on which mass media , such as films , television programs , comics or video games , are based. CONTENTS * 1 Profession * 2 Film industry * 3 Script doctoring * 4 Development process * 5 Production involvement * 6 Union * 7 See also * 8 References PROFESSION Screenwriting is a freelance profession. No education is required to become a professional screenwriter, just good storytelling abilities and imagination . Screenwriters are not hired employees but contracted freelancers. Most, if not all, screenwriters start their careers writing on speculation (spec) and so write without being hired or paid for it. If such a script is sold, it is called a spec script . What separates a professional screenwriter from an amateur screenwriter is that professional screenwriters are usually represented by a talent agency . Also, professional screenwriters do not often work for free, but amateur screenwriters will often work for free and are considered "writers in training." Spec scripts are usually penned by unknown professional screenwriters and amateur screenwriters. There are a legion of would-be screenwriters who attempt to enter the film industry , but it often takes years of trial-and-error, failure, and gritty persistence to achieve success
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Film Director
A FILM DIRECTOR is a person who directs the making of a film . Generally, a film director controls a film's artistic and dramatic aspects and visualizes the screenplay (or script) while guiding the technical crew and actors in the fulfillment of that vision. The director has a key role in choosing the cast members , production design, and the creative aspects of filmmaking. Under European Union law, the director is viewed as the author of the film. The film director gives direction to the cast and crew and creates an overall vision through which a film eventually becomes realized, or noticed. Directors need to be able to mediate differences in creative visions and stay within the boundaries of the film's budget. There are many pathways to becoming a film director. Some film directors started as screenwriters, cinematographers , film editors or actors. Other film directors have attended a film school. Directors use different approaches. Some outline a general plotline and let the actors improvise dialogue, while others control every aspect, and demand that the actors and crew follow instructions precisely. Some directors also write their own screenplays or collaborate on screenplays with long-standing writing partners. Some directors edit or appear in their films, or compose the music score for their films
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Jeannine Oppewall
JEANNINE CLAUDIA OPPEWALL (born November 28, 1946) is an American film art director . She has worked on more than 30 movies in such roles as production designer , set decorator and set designer , and has four Academy Award nominations for Best Art Direction for L.A. Confidential , Pleasantville , Seabiscuit
Seabiscuit
and The Good Shepherd . Many of her film sets represented different time periods within the 20th century, including the 1930s (Seabiscuit), the 1950s (L.A. Confidential and Pleasantville), and from the 1960s (The Big Easy , The Bridges of Madison County and Catch Me If You Can
Catch Me If You Can
). CONTENTS* 1 Biography * 1.1 Early life * 1.2 Film
Film
career * 2 Awards and nominations * 3 References * 4 External links BIOGRAPHYEARLY LIFEJeannie Oppewall was born on November 28, 1946 and was raised in Uxbridge, Massachusetts with a Calvinist upbringing. Her father was a tool and die maker Garrett Oppewall and her mother was Eva Boutiler. According to The New York Times , Oppewall was determined to be "the family intellectual." Oppewall attended and graduated from Calvin College in Grand Rapids, Michigan , where she met future husband, Paul Schrader , who would go on to become a film director and screenwriter. She then studied medieval history at Bryn Mawr College in Lower Merion Township, Pennsylvania
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Mary Beth Hurt
MARY BETH HURT (born September 26, 1946) is an American actress of stage and screen. She is a three-time Tony Award -nominated actress. Notable films in which Hurt has appeared include Interiors (1978), The World According to Garp (1982), The Age of Innocence (1993), and Six Degrees of Separation (1993). She has also collaborated with her husband, filmmaker Paul Schrader , in such films as Light Sleeper (1992) and Affliction (1997). CONTENTS * 1 Early life * 2 Career * 3 Personal life * 4 Filmography * 4.1 Film * 4.2 Television * 5 Theater * 6 References * 7 External links EARLY LIFEHurt was born MARY SUPINGER in 1946 in Marshalltown, Iowa
Marshalltown, Iowa
, the daughter of Delores Lenore (née Andre) and Forrest Clayton Supinger. Her childhood babysitter was actress Jean Seberg
Jean Seberg
, also a Marshalltown native. Hurt studied drama at the University of Iowa and at New York University 's Graduate Acting Program at the Tisch School of the Arts . CAREERHurt made her New York stage debut in 1974. Hurt was nominated for three Tony Awards for her Broadway performances in Trelawny of the Wells , Crimes of the Heart (for which she won an Obie) and Benefactors
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Film Critic
FILM CRITICISM is the analysis and evaluation of films and the film medium. In general, film criticism can be divided into two categories: journalistic criticism found regularly in newspapers , magazines and other popular mass-media outlets; and academic criticism by film scholars who are informed by film theory and are published in academic journals. CONTENTS* 1 Journalistic criticism * 1.1 Online film reviews * 1.2 Criticism and lexical creativity * 2 Academic criticism * 3 Awards * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 Further reading JOURNALISTIC CRITICISM Film critics working for newspapers , magazines , broadcast media , and online publications, mainly review new releases, although some reviewers include reviews of older "classic" films. The plot summary and description of a film that makes up the majority of the review can influence whether readers or listeners decide to see a film. In the 2000s, the effect that reviews have on a film's box office performance and DVD rentals/sales have become a matter for debate. Some analysts argue that modern movie marketing , using pop culture convention appearances (e.g., Comicon ) and social media along with traditional means of advertising, has led, in part, to a decline in the readership of many reviewers for newspapers and other print publications. There are fewer film critics on television and radio in the last thirty years
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Martin Scorsese
MARTIN CHARLES SCORSESE (/skɔːrˈsɛsi/ ; Italian: ; born November 17, 1942) is an American director, producer, screenwriter, and film historian, whose career spans more than 50 years. Scorsese\'s body of work addresses such themes as Sicilian-American identity, Roman Catholic concepts of guilt and redemption , faith , machismo , modern crime, and gang conflict. Many of his films are also known for their depiction of violence and liberal use of profanity . Part of the New Hollywood wave of filmmaking, he is widely regarded as one of the most significant and influential filmmakers in cinematic history. In 1990, he founded The Film Foundation
The Film Foundation
, a nonprofit organization dedicated to film preservation , and in 2007 he founded the World Cinema Foundation . He is a recipient of the AFI Life Achievement Award for his contributions to the cinema, and has won an Academy Award
Academy Award
, a Palme d\'Or , Cannes Film Festival Best Director Award , Silver Lion , Grammy Award
Grammy Award
, Emmys , Golden Globes , BAFTAs , and DGA Awards
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Taxi Driver
TAXI DRIVER is a 1976 American vigilante film with neo-noir and psychological thriller elements, directed by Martin Scorsese and written by Paul Schrader . Set in New York City
New York City
following the Vietnam War
Vietnam War
, the film stars Robert De Niro , and features Jodie Foster , Harvey Keitel , Cybill Shepherd
Cybill Shepherd
, Peter Boyle
Peter Boyle
, and Albert Brooks . Nominated for four Academy Awards
Academy Awards
, including Best Picture , Taxi Driver won the Palme d\'Or at the 1976 Cannes Film Festival . It is regularly cited by critics, film directors, and audiences alike as one of the greatest films of all time . In 2012, Sight however, Wizard assures him that he will be fine, leaving Travis to his own destructive path. Travis is disgusted by the sleaze, dysfunction, and prostitution that he witnesses throughout the city, and attempts to find an outlet for his frustrations by beginning a program of intense physical training. A fellow taxi driver refers Travis to illegal gun dealer, Easy Andy, from whom he buys a number of handguns. At home, Travis practices drawing his weapons and constructs a sleeve gun to hide and then quickly deploy a gun from his sleeve. One night, Travis enters a convenience store moments before an attempted armed robbery and he fatally shoots the robber
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Raging Bull
_RAGING BULL_ is a 1980 American biographical black-and-white sports drama film directed by Martin Scorsese , produced by Robert Chartoff and Irwin Winkler and adapted by Paul Schrader and Mardik Martin from Jake LaMotta 's memoir _Raging Bull: My Story _. It stars Robert De Niro as Jake LaMotta, an Italian American middleweight boxer whose self-destructive and obsessive rage, sexual jealousy, and animalistic appetite destroyed his relationship with his wife and family. Also featured in the film are Joe Pesci as Joey , LaMotta's well-intentioned brother and manager who tries to help Jake battle his inner demons, and Cathy Moriarty as his wife . The film features supporting roles from Nicholas Colasanto , Theresa Saldana and Frank Vincent . Scorsese was initially reluctant to develop the project, though he eventually came to relate to LaMotta's story. Schrader re-wrote Martin's first screenplay, and Scorsese and De Niro together made uncredited contributions thereafter. Pesci was an unknown actor prior to the film, as was Moriarty, who was suggested for her role by Pesci. During principal photography , each of the boxing scenes was choreographed for a specific visual style and De Niro gained approximately 60 pounds (27 kg) to portray LaMotta in his later post-boxing years
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The Last Temptation Of Christ (film)
THE LAST TEMPTATION OF CHRIST is a 1988 American epic drama film directed by Martin Scorsese . Written by Paul Schrader with uncredited rewrites from Scorsese and Jay Cocks , the film is an adaptation of Nikos Kazantzakis ' controversial 1955 novel of the same name . The film, starring Willem Dafoe , Harvey Keitel , Barbara Hershey , Andre Gregory , Harry Dean Stanton and David Bowie , was shot entirely in Morocco . Like the novel, the film depicts the life of Jesus Christ and his struggle with various forms of temptation including fear, doubt, depression, reluctance and lust. This results in the book and film depicting Christ being tempted by imagining himself engaged in sexual activities, a notion that has caused outrage from some Christians . The film includes a disclaimer explaining that it departs from the commonly accepted biblical portrayal of Jesus's life and is not based on the Gospels . The film received polarized reviews from critics on its release but Scorsese received an Academy Award nomination for Best Director . Hershey's performance as Mary Magdalene earned her a nomination for the Golden Globe for Best Supporting Actress . Peter Gabriel 's music score also received acclaim, including a nomination for the Golden Globe Award for Best Original Score
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Bringing Out The Dead
BRINGING OUT THE DEAD is a 1999 American drama film directed by Martin Scorsese , written by Paul Schrader
Paul Schrader
, based on the novel by Joe Connelly and starring Nicolas Cage
Nicolas Cage
, Patricia Arquette , John Goodman , Ving Rhames , and Tom Sizemore . Though a flop at the box office , the film received very positive reviews from critics and was also the last North American title to be released on LaserDisc
LaserDisc
. CONTENTS * 1 Plot * 2 Cast * 3 Soundtrack * 3.1 Track listing * 4 Production * 5 Reception * 5.1 Critical response * 5.2 Box office * 6 Notes * 7 References * 8 External links PLOTIn Manhattan
Manhattan
in the early 1990s, Frank Pierce is a burned-out paramedic who works the graveyard shift in a two-man ambulance team with various different partners. Usually exhausted and depressed, he has not saved any patients in months and begins to see the ghosts of those lost, especially a homeless adolescent girl named Rose whose face appears on the bodies of others. Frank and his first partner Larry respond to a call by the family of a man named Mr. Burke who has entered cardiac arrest . Frank befriends Mr. Burke's distraught daughter Mary, a former junkie. Frank discovers Mary was childhood friends with Noel, a brain-damaged drug addict and delinquent who is frequently sent to the hospital
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