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Eastern Orthodox Church
The EASTERN ORTHODOX CHURCH, also known as the ORTHODOX CHURCH, or officially as the ORTHODOX CATHOLIC CHURCH, is the second-largest Christian church and one of the oldest extant religious institutions in the world. The Eastern Orthodox Church teaches that it is the One, Holy, Catholic and Apostolic Church established by Jesus Christ in his Great Commission to the apostles. It practices what it understands to be the original Christian faith and maintains the sacred tradition passed down from the apostles . The Eastern Orthodox Church is a communion of autocephalous churches , each typically governed by a Holy Synod . It teaches that all bishops are equal by virtue of their ordination , and has no central governing structure analogous to the Papacy in the Roman Catholic Church
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Christ Pantocrator
In Christian iconography , CHRIST PANTOCRATOR refers to a specific depiction of Christ . Pantocrator or Pantokrator (Greek : Χριστός Παντοκράτωρ) is, used in this context, a translation of one of many names of God
God
in Judaism. When the Hebrew Bible was translated into Greek as the Septuagint , Pantokrator was used both for YHWH Sabaoth " Lord of Hosts " and for El Shaddai " God Almighty ." In the New Testament
New Testament
, Pantokrator is used once by Paul (2 Cor 6:18) and nine times in the Book of Revelation : 1:8, 4:8, 11:17, 15:3, 16:7, 16:14, 19:6, 19:15, and 21:22. The references to God
God
and Christ in Revelation are at times interchangeable, Pantokrator appears to be reserved for God
God
except, perhaps, in 1:8
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Hagia Sophia
HAGIA SOPHIA (/ˈhɑːɡiə soʊˈfiːə/ ; from the Greek : Αγία Σοφία, pronounced , "Holy Wisdom "; Latin
Latin
: _Sancta Sophia_ or _Sancta Sapientia_; Turkish : _Ayasofya_) was a Greek Orthodox Christian
Christian
patriarchal basilica (church ), later an imperial mosque , and now a museum (Ayasofya Müzesi) in Istanbul
Istanbul
, Turkey
Turkey
. The Roman Empire 's first Christian
Christian
Cathedral, from the date of its construction in 537 AD, and until 1453, it served as an Eastern Orthodox cathedral and seat of the Patriarch
Patriarch
of Constantinople
Constantinople
, except between 1204 and 1261, when it was converted by the Fourth Crusaders to a Roman Catholic cathedral under the Latin Empire . The building was later converted into an Ottoman mosque from 29 May 1453 until 1931
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Eastern Orthodox Church Organization
This article covers the ORGANIZATION OF THE EASTERN ORTHODOX CHURCHES rather than the doctrines, traditions, practices, or other aspects of Eastern Orthodoxy
Orthodoxy
. Like the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
, the Eastern Orthodox Church claims to be the One, Holy, Catholic and Apostolic Church . The term Western Orthodoxy
Orthodoxy
is sometimes used to denominate what is technically a vicariate within the Antiochian Orthodox and the Russian Orthodox Churches and thus a part of the Eastern Orthodox Church
Eastern Orthodox Church
as that term is defined here. The term "Western Orthodox Church" is disfavored by members of that vicariate
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Eastern Orthodox Christian Theology
EASTERN ORTHODOX CHRISTIAN THEOLOGY is the theology particular to the Eastern Orthodox Church . It is characterized by monotheistic Trinitarianism , belief in the Incarnation of the Logos (Son of God ), a balancing of cataphatic theology with apophatic theology , a hermeneutic defined by Sacred Tradition , a concrete ecclesiology , a robust theology of the person , and a therapeutic soteriology
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History Of Eastern Orthodox Christian Theology
The history of Eastern ORTHODOX CHRISTIAN theology begins with the life of Jesus and the forming of the Christian Church . Major events include the Chalcedonian schism with the Oriental Orthodox miaphysites , the Iconoclast controversy , the Photian schism , the Great Schism between East and West , and the Hesychast controversy . The period after the Second World War saw a re-engagement with the Greek, and more recently Syriac, Fathers that included a rediscovery of the theological works of St. Gregory Palamas , which has resulted in a renewal of Orthodox theology in the 20th and 21st centuries
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Eastern Orthodox Worship
Eastern Orthodox worship in this article is distinguished from Eastern Orthodox prayer in that 'worship' refers to the activity of the Christian Church as a body offering up prayers to God while 'prayer' refers to the individual devotional traditions of the Orthodox . The worship of the Orthodox Church is viewed as the Church's fundamental activity because the worship of God is the joining of man to God in prayer and that is the essential function of Christ 's Church. The Orthodox view their Church as being the living embodiment of Christ, through the grace of His Holy Spirit , in the people, clergy, monks and all other members of the Church. Thus the Church is viewed as the Body of Christ on earth which is perpetually unified with the Body of Christ in heaven through a common act of worship to God
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History Of The Eastern Orthodox Church
The HISTORY OF THE EASTERN ORTHODOX CHURCH is traced back to Jesus Christ and the Apostles . The Apostles appointed successors, known as bishops , and they in turn appointed other bishops in a process known as Apostolic succession . Over time, five Patriarchates were established to organize the Christian world, and four of these ancient Patriarchates remain Orthodox today. Orthodox Christianity reached its present form in Late Antiquity (in the period from the 3rd to the 8th century), when the Ecumenical Councils were held, doctrinal disputes were resolved, the Fathers of the Church lived and wrote, and Orthodox worship practices settled into their permanent form (including the liturgies and the major holidays of the Church)
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Theosis (Eastern Christian Theology)
THEOSIS, or DEIFICATION, is a transformative process whose aim is likeness to or union with God
God
, as taught by the Eastern Orthodox Church and Eastern Catholic Churches
Eastern Catholic Churches
. As a process of transformation, theosis is brought about by the effects of catharsis (purification of mind and body) and theoria ('illumination' with the 'vision' of God). According to Eastern Christian teaching, theosis is very much the purpose of human life. It is considered achievable only through a synergy (or cooperation) between human activity and God's uncreated energies (or operations)
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Theotokos
_THEOTOKOS_ (Greek Θεοτόκος Greek pronunciation: ) is a title of Mary, mother of Jesus , used especially in Eastern Christianity . The usual Latin translations, _Dei Genetrix_ or _Deipara_ (approximately "parent (fem.) of God "), are translated as "Mother of God" or "God-bearer". The Council of Ephesus decreed in 431 that Mary is the _Theotokos_ because her son Jesus is both God and man : one divine person with two natures (divine and human) intimately and hypostatically united . _Theotokos_ is also used as the term for an Eastern icon , or type of icon, of the Mother with Child (in the western tradition typically called a _Madonna _), as in "the Theotokos of Vladimir " both for the original 12th-century icon and for icons that are copies or imitate its composition
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Crucifixion Of Jesus
The CRUCIFIXION OF JESUS occurred in 1st century Judea , most probably between the years 30 and 33 AD. Jesus' crucifixion is described in the four canonical gospels , referred to in the New Testament epistles , attested to by other ancient sources , and is established as a historical event confirmed by non-Christian sources, although, among historians, there is no consensus on the precise details of what exactly occurred. According to the canonical gospels, Jesus , the Christ , was arrested , tried , and sentenced by Pontius Pilate to be scourged , and finally crucified by the Romans . Jesus was stripped of his clothing and offered wine mixed with gall to drink, before being crucified. He was then hung between two convicted thieves and according to Mark's Gospel, died some six hours later. During this time, the soldiers affixed a sign to the top of the cross stating " Jesus of Nazareth, King of the Jews " in three languages
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Resurrection Of Jesus
The RESURRECTION OF JESUS is the Christian religious belief that, after being put to death , Jesus rose again from the dead . It is the central tenet of Christian theology and part of the Nicene Creed : "On the third day he rose again in accordance with the Scriptures". According to the New Testament , after the Romans crucified Jesus, he was anointed and buried in a new tomb by Joseph of Arimathea but God raised him from the dead and he appeared to many people over a span of forty days before he ascended into heaven , to sit at the right hand of God
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Ascension Of Jesus
PORTALS: Christianity Bible Book:Life of Jesus * v * t * e The ASCENSION OF JESUS (anglicized from the Vulgate Latin Acts 1:9-11 section title: _Ascensio Iesu_) is the departure of Christ from Earth into the presence of God . The narrative in Acts 1 takes place 40 days after the Resurrection : Jesus, in the company of the disciples, is taken up in their sight after warning them to remain in Jerusalem until the coming of the Holy Spirit ; as he ascends a cloud hides him from their view, and two men in white appear to tell them that he will return "in the same way you have seen him go into heaven." Stories of Heavenly ascents were fairly common in the time of Jesus, signifying divine approval or the deification of an exceptional man
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Christianity
CHRISTIANITY is an Abrahamic monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus Christ , who serves as the focal point of the Christian faith . It is the world\'s largest religion , with over 2.4 billion followers, or 33% of the global population, known as Christians . Christians make up a majority of the population in 158 countries and territories . They believe that Jesus is the Son of God and the savior of humanity whose coming as the Messiah (the Christ ) was prophesied in the Old Testament . Christian theology is summarized in creeds such as the Apostles\'