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Parrot
Cacatuoidea
Cacatuoidea
(cockatoos) Psittacoidea
Psittacoidea
(true parrots) Strigopoidea
Strigopoidea
( New Zealand
New Zealand
parrots) Range of parrots, all species (red)PARROTS, also known as PSITTACINES /ˈsɪtəsaɪnz/ , are birds of the roughly 393 species in 92 genera that make up the order PSITTACIFORMES, found in most tropical and subtropical regions. The order is subdivided into three superfamilies: the Psittacoidea
Psittacoidea
("true" parrots), the Cacatuoidea
Cacatuoidea
(cockatoos), and the Strigopoidea
Strigopoidea
(New Zealand parrots). Parrots have a generally pantropical distribution with several species inhabiting temperate regions in the Southern Hemisphere , as well. The greatest diversity of parrots is in South America and Australasia
Australasia

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Genus (biology)
A GENUS (/ˈdʒiːnəs/ , pl. GENERA) is a taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of living and fossil organisms in biology . In the hierarchy of biological classification, genus comes above species and below family . In binomial nomenclature , the genus name forms the first part of the binomial species name for each species within the genus. E.g. Felis catus
Felis catus
and Felis silvestris are two species within the genus Felis
Felis
. Felis
Felis
is a genus within the family Felidae
Felidae
. The composition of a genus is determined by a taxonomist . The standards for genus classification are not strictly codified, so different authorities often produce different classifications for genera
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Order (biology)
In biological classification , the ORDER (Latin : ordo) is * a taxonomic rank used in the classification of organisms and recognized by the nomenclature codes . Other well-known ranks are life , domain , kingdom , phylum , class , family , genus , and species , with order fitting in between class and family. An immediately higher rank, SUPERORDER, may be added directly above order, while SUBORDER would be a lower rank. * a taxonomic unit, a taxon , in that rank. In that case the plural is orders (Latin ordines). Example: All owls belong to the order Strigiformes. What does and does not belong to each order is determined by a taxonomist , as is whether a particular order should be recognized at all. Often there is no exact agreement, with different taxonomists each taking a different position. There are no hard rules that a taxonomist needs to follow in describing or recognizing an order
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Tropics
The TROPICS are a region of the Earth
Earth
surrounding the Equator
Equator
. They are delimited in latitude by the Tropic of Cancer in the Northern Hemisphere at 23°26′13.2″ (or 23.43701°) N and the Tropic of Capricorn in the Southern Hemisphere
Southern Hemisphere
at 23°26′13.2″ (or 23.43701°) S; these latitudes correspond to the axial tilt of the Earth. The tropics are also referred to as the TROPICAL ZONE and the TORRID ZONE (see geographical zone ). The tropics include all the areas on the Earth
Earth
where the Sun
Sun
contacts the zenith , a point directly overhead, at least once during the solar year (which is a subsolar point ). The tropics are distinguished from the other climatic and biomatic regions of Earth, which are the middle latitudes and the polar regions on either side of the equatorial zone
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Species
In biology , a SPECIES (abbreviated SP., with the plural form SPECIES abbreviated SPP.) is the basic unit of biological classification and a taxonomic rank . A species is often defined as the largest group of organisms in which two individuals can produce fertile offspring , typically by sexual reproduction . While this definition is often adequate, looked at more closely it is problematic . For example, with hybridisation , in a species complex of hundreds of similar microspecies , or in a ring species , the boundaries between closely related species become unclear. Other ways of defining species include similarity of DNA
DNA
, morphology , or ecological niche . All species are given a two-part name , a "binomial". The first part of a binomial is the genus to which the species belongs. The second part is called the specific name or the specific epithet (in botanical nomenclature , also sometimes in zoological nomenclature )
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Family (biology)
In biological classification , FAMILY (Latin : familia, plural familiae) is one of the eight major taxonomic ranks ; it is classified between order and genus . A family may be divided into subfamilies , which are intermediate ranks above the rank of genus . In vernacular usage , a family may be named after one of its common members; for example, walnuts and hickory trees belong to the family Juglandaceae , commonly known as the walnut family. What does or does not belong to a family—or whether a described family should be recognized at all—are proposed and determined by practicing taxonomists. There are no hard rules for describing or recognizing a family, or any taxa. Taxonomists often take different positions about descriptions of taxa, and there may be no broad consensus across the scientific community for some time
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Animal
ANIMALS are multicellular , eukaryotic organisms of the kingdom ANIMALIA (also called METAZOA). The animal kingdom emerged as a clade within Apoikozoa as the sister group to the choanoflagellates . Animals are motile , meaning they can move spontaneously and independently at some point in their lives. Their body plan eventually becomes fixed as they develop , although some undergo a process of metamorphosis later in their lives. All animals are heterotrophs : they must ingest other organisms or their products for sustenance . Most known animal phyla appeared in the fossil record as marine species during the Cambrian explosion
Cambrian explosion
, about 542 million years ago. Animals can be divided broadly into vertebrates and invertebrates . Vertebrates have a backbone or spine (vertebral column ), and amount to less than five percent of all described animal species . They include fish , amphibians , reptiles , birds and mammals
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Psittacopasserae
Passeriformes
Passeriformes
Psittaciformes PSITTACOPASSERAE is a taxon of birds consisting of the Passeriformes (passerines, a large group of perching birds) and Psittaciformes (parrots). Per Ericson and colleagues, in analysing genomic DNA, revealed a lineage comprising Passerines, Psittaciformes and Falconiformes
Falconiformes
. The group was proposed following an alignment of nuclear intron sequences by Shannon Hackett et al. in 2008, it was formally named in a 2011 Nature Communications article by Alexander Suh and other authors working with Jürgen Schmitz 's group, based on genetic analysis of the insertion of retroposons into the genomes of key avian lineages over the course of evolution during the Mesozoic Era
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Johann Georg Wagler
JOHANN GEORG WAGLER (28 March 1800 – 23 August 1832) was a German herpetologist . Wagler was assistant to Johann Baptist von Spix , and gave lectures in Zoology at the Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich
Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich
after that was moved to Munich. He worked on the extensive collections brought back from Brazil
Brazil
by Spix, published partly together with him books on reptiles from Brazil. Wagler wrote Monographia Psittacorum (1832), which included the correct naming of the blue macaws . In 1832, Wagler died of an accidental self-inflicted gunshot wound while out collecting in München-Moosach . CONTENTS * 1 Legacy * 2 Publication * 3 References * 4 Further reading * 5 External links LEGACYWagler is commemorated in the scientific names of three species of reptiles: Atractus wagleri , Podarcis waglerianus , and Tropidolaemus wagleri
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Subtropics
The SUBTROPICS are geographic and climate zones located roughly between the tropics at latitude 23.5° (the Tropic of Cancer
Tropic of Cancer
and Tropic of Capricorn
Tropic of Capricorn
) and temperate zones (normally referring to latitudes 35–66.5°) north and south of the Equator
Equator
. Subtropical climates are often characterized by warm to hot summers and cool to mild winters with infrequent frost. Most subtropical climates fall into two basic types - humid subtropical , where rainfall is often concentrated in the warmest months (for example Brisbane
Brisbane
or Jacksonville, Florida ) and dry summer (or Mediterranean ), where seasonal rainfall is concentrated in the cooler months (for example Naples
Naples
, Italy
Italy
or Los Angeles, California
Los Angeles, California
)
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Pantropical
A PANTROPICAL ("all tropics") distribution is one which covers tropical regions of both hemispheres. Examples include the plant genera Acacia
Acacia
and Bacopa . NEOTROPICAL is a zoogeographic term that covers a large part of the Americas , roughly from Mexico and the Caribbean southwards (including cold regions in southernmost South America). PALAEOTROPICAL refers to geographical occurrence. For a distribution to be palaeotropical a taxon must occur in tropical regions in the Old World
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Australasia
AUSTRALASIA, a region of Oceania
Oceania
, comprises Australia
Australia
, New Zealand , the island of New Guinea
New Guinea
, and neighbouring islands in the Pacific Ocean
Ocean
. Charles de Brosses
Charles de Brosses
coined the term (as French Australasie) in Histoire des navigations aux terres australes (1756). He derived it from the Latin
Latin
for "south of Asia
Asia
" and differentiated the area from Polynesia (to the east) and the southeast Pacific ( Magellanica ). The bulk of Australasia
Australasia
sits on the Indo-Australian Plate
Indo-Australian Plate
, together with India
India

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Carrion
CARRION (from Latin
Latin
caro, meaning "meat") is the decaying dead flesh of an animal. OVERVIEW Carrion
Carrion
is an important food source for large carnivores and omnivores in most ecosystems. Examples of carrion-eaters (or scavengers ) include vultures , hawks , eagles , hyenas , Virginia opossum , Tasmanian devils , coyotes , and Komodo dragons . Many invertebrates such as the carrion and burying beetles , as well as maggots of calliphorid flies and flesh-flies also eat carrion, playing an important role in recycling nitrogen and carbon in animal remains. Play media Zoarcid fish feeding on the carrion of a mobulid ray . Carrion
Carrion
begins to decay the moment of the animal's death, and it will increasingly attract insects and breed bacteria
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Flower
A FLOWER, sometimes known as a bloom or blossom , is the reproductive structure found in plants that are floral (plants of the division Magnoliophyta , also called angiosperms). The biological function of a flower is to effect reproduction, usually by providing a mechanism for the union of sperm with eggs. Flowers may facilitate outcrossing (fusion of sperm and eggs from different individuals in a population) or allow selfing (fusion of sperm and egg from the same flower). Some flowers produce diaspores without fertilization (parthenocarpy ). Flowers contain sporangia and are the site where gametophytes develop. Many flowers have evolved to be attractive to animals, so as to cause them to be vectors for the transfer of pollen . After fertilization, the ovary of the flower develops into fruit containing seeds
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South America
SOUTH AMERICA is a continent located in the western hemisphere , mostly in the southern hemisphere , with a relatively small portion in the northern hemisphere . It may also be considered a subcontinent of the Americas , which is the model used in nations that speak Romance languages . The reference to South America
South America
instead of other regions (like Latin America or the Southern Cone) has increased in the last decades due to changing geopolitical dynamics (in particular, the rise of Brazil). It is bordered on the west by the Pacific Ocean
Pacific Ocean
and on the north and east by the Atlantic Ocean ; North America
North America
and the Caribbean Sea
Caribbean Sea
lie to the northwest
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Biodiversity
BIODIVERSITY, a portmanteau of "biological diversity," generally refers to the variety and variability of life on Earth
Earth
. According to the United Nations Environment Programme , biodiversity typically measures variation at the genetic , the species , and the ecosystem level. Terrestrial biodiversity tends to be greater near the equator , which seems to be the result of the warm climate and high primary productivity . Biodiversity
Biodiversity
is not distributed evenly on Earth