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Parmenides
Parmenides
Parmenides
of Elea (/pɑːrˈmɛnɪdiːz əv ˈɛliə/; Greek: Παρμενίδης ὁ Ἐλεάτης; fl. late sixth or early fifth century BC) was a pre-Socratic Greek philosopher from Elea in Magna Graecia
Magna Graecia
(Greater Greece, included Southern Italy). He was the founder of the Eleatic school of philosophy. The single known work of Parmenides
Parmenides
is a poem, On Nature, which has survived only in fragmentary form. In this poem, Parmenides
Parmenides
describes two views of reality. In "the way of truth" (a part of the poem), he explains how reality (coined as "what-is") is one, change is impossible, and existence is timeless, uniform, necessary, and unchanging
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Cosmogony
Cosmogony
Cosmogony
(or cosmogeny) is any model concerning the origin of either the cosmos or universe.[1][2] Developing a complete theoretical model has implications in both the philosophy of science and epistemology.Contents1 Etymology 2 Overview 3 Compared with cosmology 4 Theoretical scenarios 5 See also 6 ReferencesEtymology[edit] The word comes from the Koine Greek
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Dictionary Of Greek And Roman Biography And Mythology
The Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology
Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology
(1849, originally published 1844 under a slightly different title) is an encyclopedia/biographical dictionary. Edited by William Smith, the dictionary spans three volumes and 3,700 pages. It is a classic work of 19th-century lexicography. The work is a companion to Smith's Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities and Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography.[1]Contents1 Authors and scope 2 Use and availability today 3 See also 4 References 5 External linksAuthors and scope[edit]Excerpt from Philolaus
Philolaus
Pythagoras book, (Charles Peter Mason, 1870)The work lists thirty-five authors in addition to the editor, who is also an author for some definitions and articles
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Philosopher
A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy, which involves rational inquiry into areas that are outside either theology or science.[1] The term "philosopher" comes from the Ancient Greek φιλόσοφος (philosophos) meaning "lover of wisdom". The coining of the term has been attributed to the Greek thinker Pythagoras
Pythagoras
(6th century BC).[2] In the classical sense, a philosopher was someone who lived according to a certain way of life, focusing on resolving existential questions about the human condition, and not someone who discourses upon theories or comments upon authors.[3] Typically, these particular brands of philosophy are Hellenistic ones and those who most arduously commit themselves to this lifestyle may be considered philosophers. A philosopher is one who challenges what is thought to be common sense, doesn’t know when to stop asking questions, and reexamines the old ways of thought
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Philosophy
Philosophy
Philosophy
(from Greek φιλοσοφία, philosophia, literally "love of wisdom"[1][2][3][4]) is the study of general and fundamental problems concerning matters such as existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language.[5][6] The term was probably coined by Pythagoras
Pythagoras
(c. 570–495 BCE)
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Poem
Poetry
Poetry
(the term derives from a variant of the Greek term, poiesis, "making") is a form of literature that uses aesthetic and rhythmic[1][2][3] qualities of language—such as phonaesthetics, sound symbolism, and metre—to evoke meanings in addition to, or in place of, the prosaic ostensible meaning. Poetry
Poetry
has a long history, dating back to the Sumerian Epic of Gilgamesh. Early poems evolved from folk songs such as the Chinese Shijing, or from a need to retell oral epics, as with the Sanskrit Vedas, Zoroastrian Gathas, and the Homeric epics, the Iliad
Iliad
and the Odyssey. Ancient attempts to define poetry, such as Aristotle's Poetics, focused on the uses of speech in rhetoric, drama, song and comedy
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Change (mathematics)
Mathematics
Mathematics
(from Greek μάθημα máthēma, "knowledge, study, learning") is the study of such topics as quantity,[1] structure,[2] space,[1] and change.[3][4][5] It has no generally accepted definition.[6][7] Mathematicians seek out patterns[8][9] and use them to formulate new conjectures. Mathematicians resolve the truth or falsity of conjectures by mathematical proof. When mathematical structures are good models of real phenomena, then mathematical reasoning can provide insight or predictions about nature. Through the use of abstraction and logic, mathematics developed from counting, calculation, measurement, and the systematic study of the shapes and motions of physical objects. Practical mathematics has been a human activity from as far back as written records exist
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Greek Colony
Colonies in antiquity
Colonies in antiquity
were city-states founded from a mother-city (its "metropolis"),[1] not from a territory-at-large
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Diogenes Laërtius
Diogenes Laërtius
Diogenes Laërtius
(/daɪˈɒdʒɪniːz leɪˈɜːrʃiəs/;[1] Greek: Διογένης Λαέρτιος, Diogenēs Laertios; fl. 3rd century AD) was a biographer of the Greek philosophers. Nothing is definitively known about his life, but his surviving Lives and Opinions of Eminent Philosophers is a principal source for the history of Greek philosophy. "Diogenes has acquired an importance out of all proportion to his merits because the loss of many primary sources and of the earlier secondary compilations has accidentally left him the chief continuous source for the history of Greek philosophy."[2]Contents1 Life 2 Writings 3 Editions and translations 4 Notes 5 References 6 Further reading 7 External linksLife[edit] Although not definitive, Laërtius must have lived after Sextus Empiricus (c. 200), whom he mentions, and before Stephanus of Byzantium and Sopater of Apamea (c. 500), who quote him
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Greek Language
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά [eliniˈka], elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα [eliniˈci ˈɣlosa] ( listen), ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece
Greece
and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean
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William Smith (lexicographer)
Sir William Smith (20 May 1813 – 7 October 1893)[1] was an English lexicographer. He also made advances in the teaching of Greek and Latin in schools.Contents1 Early life 2 Career2.1 Publications3 Honours and death 4 Notes 5 References 6 External linksEarly life[edit] Smith was born in Enfield in 1813 of Nonconformist
Nonconformist
parents. He attended the Madras House school of John Allen in Hackney.[2] Originally destined for a theological career, he instead was articled to a solicitor. In his spare time he taught himself classics, and when he entered University College London
University College London
he carried off both the Greek and Latin prizes
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Hero Cult
Hero
Hero
cults were one of the most distinctive features of ancient Greek religion. In Homeric Greek, "hero" (ἥρως, hḗrōs) refers to a man who was fighting on either side during the Trojan War. By the historical period, however, the word came to mean specifically a dead man, venerated and propitiated at his tomb or at a designated shrine, because his fame during life or unusual manner of death gave him power to support and protect the living
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Heroon
A heroon or herõon (/hɪˈroʊ.ɒn/; Greek ἡρῷον, plural ἡρῷα, heroa), also latinized as heroum, was a shrine dedicated to an ancient Greek or Roman hero and used for the commemoration or cult worship of the hero. It was often erected over his or her supposed tomb or cenotaph.Contents1 Description 2 Early examples of heroa 3 Leftkandi heroon 4 Olympian Heroon 5 Heroa in the colonies 6 Association with hero cults 7 References 8 External linksDescription[edit] The Romans and the Greeks practised an extensive and widespread cult of heroes. Heroes played a central role in the life of a polis, giving the city a shared focus for its identity. The cult typically centred on the heroon in which the hero's bones were usually believed to be contained. In a sense, the hero was considered still to be alive; he was offered meals and was imagined to be sharing feasts. His allegiance was seen as vitally important to the continued well-being of the city
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Laws
Law
Law
is a system of rules that are created and enforced through social or governmental institutions to regulate behavior.[2] Law
Law
is a system that regulates and ensures that individuals or a community adhere to the will of the state. State-enforced laws can be made by a collective legislature or by a single legislator, resulting in statutes, by the executive through decrees and regulations, or established by judges through precedent, normally in common law jurisdictions. Private individuals can create legally binding contracts, including arbitration agreements that may elect to accept alternative arbitration to the normal court process. The formation of laws themselves may be influenced by a constitution, written or tacit, and the rights encoded therein
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Western Philosophy
Western philosophy
Western philosophy
is the philosophical thought and work of the Western world. Historically, the term refers to the philosophical thinking of Western culture, beginning with Greek philosophy
Greek philosophy
of the Pre-Socratics such as Thales
Thales
(c. 624 – c. 546 BC) and Pythagoras (c. 570 BC – c. 495 BC), and eventually covering a large area of the globe.[1][2] The word philosophy itself originated from the Ancient Greek: philosophia (φιλοσοφία), literally, "the love of wisdom" (φιλεῖν philein, "to love" and σοφία sophia, "wisdom"). The scope of philosophy in the ancient understanding, and the writings of (at least some of) the ancient philosophers, were all intellectual endeavors
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