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Parlimentary Republic
A PARLIAMENTARY REPUBLIC is a republic that operates under a parliamentary system of government where the executive branch (the government) derives its legitimacy from and is accountable to the legislature (the parliament). There are a number of variations of parliamentary republics. Most have a clear differentiation between the head of government and the head of state , with the head of government holding real power, much like constitutional monarchies
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Commonwealth Of Nations
The COMMONWEALTH OF NATIONS (formerly the BRITISH COMMONWEALTH), also known as simply THE COMMONWEALTH, is an intergovernmental organisation of 53 member states that are mostly former territories of the British Empire
British Empire
. The Commonwealth
Commonwealth
operates by intergovernmental consensus of the member states, organised through the Commonwealth Secretariat and non-governmental organisations , organised through the Commonwealth Foundation . The Commonwealth
Commonwealth
dates back to the mid-20th century with the decolonisation of the British Empire
British Empire
through increased self-governance of its territories. It was formally constituted by the London Declaration in 1949, which established the member states as "free and equal"
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Presidential Republic (1925–1973)
The PRESIDENTIAL REPUBLIC (Spanish : República Presidencial) is the period in the History of Chile
History of Chile
spanning from the approval of the 1925 Constitution on 18 September 1925, under the government of Arturo Alessandri Palma , to the fall of the Popular Unity government headed by the President Salvador Allende
Salvador Allende
on September 11, 1973. The period spans the same time as the "Development inwards" (Desarrollo hacia adentro) period in Chilean economic history
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London Declaration
The LONDON DECLARATION was a declaration issued by the 1949 Commonwealth Prime Ministers\' Conference on the issue of India
India
's continued membership in the Commonwealth of Nations
Commonwealth of Nations
after its transition to a republican constitution. It was made in London on 28 April 1949 and marked the birth of the modern Commonwealth. The declaration had two main provisions: It allowed the Commonwealth to admit and retain members that were not Dominions , so including both republics and indigenous monarchies, and it changed the name of the organisation from the British Commonwealth to the Commonwealth of Nations, reflecting the first change. The Declaration recognised King George VI
George VI
as Head of the Commonwealth. Following his death, the Commonwealth leaders recognised Queen Elizabeth II
Elizabeth II
in that capacity
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Republic Of Ireland
IRELAND (/ˈaɪərlənd/ ( listen ); Irish : Éire ( listen )), also known as the REPUBLIC OF IRELAND (Poblacht na hÉireann), is a sovereign state in north-western Europe
Europe
occupying 26 of 32 counties of the island of Ireland
Ireland
. The capital and largest city is Dublin
Dublin
, which is located on the eastern part of the island, and whose metropolitan area is home to around a third of the country's 4.75 million inhabitants. The state shares its only land border with Northern Ireland
Ireland
, a part of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
. It is otherwise surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
, with the Celtic Sea to the south, Saint George\'s Channel to the south-east, and the Irish Sea to the east. It is a unitary , parliamentary republic
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Republics In The Commonwealth Of Nations
The REPUBLICS IN THE COMMONWEALTH OF NATIONS are the sovereign states of the Commonwealth of Nations with a republican form of government. As of May 2017, there are 31 of these. In contrast to the 16 Commonwealth realms , they do not have Elizabeth II or any other monarch as their Head of state . Elizabeth II is still the titular Head of the Commonwealth in a personal capacity, but this role does not carry with it any power; instead it is a symbol of the free association of Commonwealth members. Except for the former Portuguese possession of Mozambique and the former Belgian trust territory of Rwanda , they are all former British (or partly British) self-governing colonies , that have evolved into republics. Most of them achieved independence as Commonwealth realms, and later became republics within the Commonwealth. In some instances, the countries became republics after achieving independence from other former British colonies (as Bangladesh did from Pakistan in 1971)
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South America
SOUTH AMERICA is a continent located in the western hemisphere , mostly in the southern hemisphere , with a relatively small portion in the northern hemisphere . It may also be considered a subcontinent of the Americas
Americas
, which is how it is viewed in the Spanish and Portuguese-speaking regions of the Americas. The reference to South America instead of other regions (like Latin America
Latin America
or the Southern Cone) has increased in the last decades due to changing geopolitical dynamics (in particular, the rise of Brazil). It is bordered on the west by the Pacific Ocean
Pacific Ocean
and on the north and east by the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
; North America
North America
and the Caribbean Sea
Caribbean Sea
lie to the northwest
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History Of Chile During The Parliamentary Era (1891–1925)
A PARLIAMENTARY SYSTEM is a system of democratic governance of a state where the executive branch derives its democratic legitimacy from its ability to command the confidence of the legislative branch, typically a parliament , and is also held accountable to that parliament. In a parliamentary system, the head of state is usually a different person from the head of government . This is in contrast to a presidential system , where the head of state often is also the head of government and, most importantly, the executive branch does not derive its democratic legitimacy from the legislature
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French Third Republic
The FRENCH THIRD REPUBLIC (French : La Troisième République, sometimes written as La IIIe République) was the system of government adopted in France
France
from 1870, when the Second French Empire collapsed, until 1940, when France's defeat by Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
in World War II
World War II
led to the formation of the Vichy government in France. It came to an end on 10 July 1940. The early days of the Third Republic were dominated by political disruptions caused by the Franco-Prussian War
Franco-Prussian War
of 1870–71, which the Republic continued to wage after the fall of Emperor Napoleon III
Napoleon III
in 1870
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Battle Of France
FRANCE * French colonial empire Belgium
Belgium
United Kingdom
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French Fourth Republic
The FRENCH FOURTH REPUBLIC was the republican government of France between 1946 and 1958, governed by the fourth republican constitution. It was in many ways a revival of the Third Republic , which was in place before World War II
World War II
, and suffered many of the same problems. France
France
adopted the constitution of the Fourth Republic on 13 October 1946. The Fourth Republic saw an era of great economic growth in France
France
and the rebuilding of the nation's social institutions and industry after World War II, and played an important part in the development of the process of European integration which changed the continent permanently. The greatest accomplishments of the Fourth Republic were in social reform and economic development
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French Fifth Republic
The FIFTH REPUBLIC, France
France
's current republican system of government, was established by Charles de Gaulle
Charles de Gaulle
under the Constitution of the Fifth Republic
Republic
on 4 October 1958. The Fifth Republic
Republic
emerged from the collapse of the Fourth Republic
Republic
, replacing the former parliamentary republic with a semi-presidential , or dual-executive, system that split powers between a prime minister as head of government and a president as head of state . De Gaulle, who was the first president elected under the Fifth Republic
Republic
in December 1958, believed in a strong head of state, which he described as embodying l'esprit de la nation ("the spirit of the nation")
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Governor-General
GOVERNOR-GENERAL or GOVERNOR GENERAL (plural governors-general), in modern usage, is the title of an office-holder appointed to represent the monarch of a sovereign state in the governing of an independent realm. Governors-General have also previously been appointed in respect of major colonial states or other territories held by either a monarchy or republic, such as French Indochina
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Malta
Coordinates : 35°53′N 14°30′E / 35.883°N 14.500°E / 35.883; 14.500 MALTA (/ˈmɒltə/ ( listen ); Maltese: ), officially known as the REPUBLIC OF MALTA (Maltese : Repubblika ta' Malta), is a Southern European island country consisting of an archipelago in the Mediterranean Sea . It lies 80 km (50 mi) south of Italy , 284 km (176 mi) east of Tunisia , and 333 km (207 mi) north of Libya . The country covers just over 316 km2 (122 sq mi), with a population of just under 450,000, making it one of the world's smallest and most densely populated countries. The capital of Malta is Valletta , which at 0.8 km2, is the smallest national capital in the European Union by area. Malta has one national language , which is Maltese , and English as an official language
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Nazi Germany
Coordinates : 52°31′N 13°24′E / 52.517°N 13.400°E / 52.517; 13.400 "Drittes Reich" redirects here. For the 1923 book, see Das Dritte Reich
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Austria
Coordinates : 47°20′N 13°20′E / 47.333°N 13.333°E / 47.333; 13.333 Republic
Republic
of Austria Republik Österreich (German ) Flag Coat of arms ANTHEM: * Land der Berge, Land am Strome (German ) * Land of Mountains, Land by the River * Location of <
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