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Parlimentary Republic
A PARLIAMENTARY REPUBLIC is a republic that operates under a parliamentary system of government where the executive branch (the government) derives its legitimacy from and is accountable to the legislature (the parliament). There are a number of variations of parliamentary republics. Most have a clear differentiation between the head of government and the head of state , with the head of government holding real power, much like constitutional monarchies . Some have combined the roles of head of state and head of government, much like presidential systems , but with a dependency upon parliamentary power. For the first case mentioned above, the form of executive-branch arrangement is distinct from most other parliamentary and semi-presidential republics that separate the head of state (usually designated as the "president ") from the head of government (usually designated as "prime minister ", "premier " or "chancellor ") and subject the latter to the confidence of parliament and a lenient tenure in office while the head of state lacks dependency and investing either office with the majority of executive power
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Parliamentary Republic (other)
The PARLIAMENTARY REPUBLIC can refer to: * A republican form of government with a Parliamentary system and a ceremonial head of state or head of state elected by parliament - see Parliamentary republic * The History of Chile during the Parliamentary Era (1891–1925) * The French Third Republic (1870–1940) * The French Fourth Republic (1947–1958) This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title PARLIAMENTARY REPUBLIC. If an internal link led you here, you may wish to change the link to point directly to the intended article. Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Parliamentary_Republic additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy .® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc
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Executive President
An EXECUTIVE PRESIDENT is a president who exercises active executive power in certain systems of government . Executive presidents are active in day-to-day governance of a nation, and are usually popularly elected. They contrast with figurehead presidents, common in most parliamentary republics , in which the president serves symbolic, nonpolitical roles (and often is appointed to office by parliament) while the prime minister holds all relevant executive power. A small number of nations, most notably South Africa
South Africa
and Botswana
Botswana
, have both an executive presidency and a system of governance that is parliamentary in character, with the President
President
elected by and dependent on the confidence of the legislature. In these states, the offices of president and prime minister (as both head of state and head of government respectively) might be said to be combined. The above examples notwithstanding, executive presidencies are found in presidential systems and semi-presidential systems . The usual checks and balances on an executive president are through the judicial system through statutory authorisations or prohibitions and by some legislative body or bodies (e.g., congress, parliament, senate). Rarely, an executive president has some powers that are unchecked, which can lead to abuses
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Constitutional Monarchy
A CONSTITUTIONAL MONARCHY is a form of monarchy in which the sovereign exercises their authorities in accordance with a written or unwritten constitution . Constitutional monarchy
Constitutional monarchy
differs from absolute monarchy (in which a monarch holds absolute power), in that constitutional monarchs are bound to exercise their powers and authorities within the limits prescribed within an established legal framework. Constitutional monarchies range from countries such as Morocco
Morocco
, where the constitution grants substantial discretionary powers to the sovereign, to countries such as Sweden
Sweden
or Denmark
Denmark
where the monarch retains very few formal authorities. A constitutional monarchy may refer to a system in which the monarch acts as a non-party political head of state under the constitution , whether written or unwritten . While most monarchs may hold formal authority and the government may legally operate in the monarch's name, in the form typical in Europe the monarch no longer personally sets public policy or chooses political leaders. Political scientist Vernon Bogdanor , paraphrasing Thomas Macaulay , has defined a constitutional monarch as "a sovereign who reigns but does not rule"
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Republic
A REPUBLIC (Latin : _res publica _) is a form of government in which the country is considered a "public matter" – not the private concern or property of the rulers – and where offices of state are elected or appointed, rather than inherited. It is a form of government under which the head of state is not a monarch . In American English, the definition of a republic can also refer specifically to a government in which elected individuals represent the citizen body, known elsewhere as a representative democracy (a democratic republic ), and exercise power according to the rule of law (a constitutional republic). As of 2017 , 159 of the world's 206 sovereign states use the word "republic" as part of their official names; not all of these are republics in the sense of having elected governments, nor do all nations with elected governments use the word "republic" in their names. Both modern and ancient republics vary widely in their ideology, composition, and practicality. In the classical and medieval period of Europe, many states were fashioned on the Roman Republic
Roman Republic
, which referred to the governance of the city of Rome, between it having kings and emperors. The Italian medieval and Renaissance
Renaissance
political tradition, today referred to as "civic humanism ", is sometimes considered to derive directly from Roman republicans such as Sallust and Tacitus
Tacitus

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Parliamentary System
A PARLIAMENTARY SYSTEM is a system of democratic governance of a state where the executive branch derives its democratic legitimacy from its ability to command the confidence of the legislative branch, typically a parliament , and is also held accountable to that parliament. In a parliamentary system, the head of state is usually a different person from the head of government . This is in contrast to a presidential system , where the head of state often is also the head of government and, most importantly, the executive branch does not derive its democratic legitimacy from the legislature. Countries with parliamentary systems may be constitutional monarchies , where a monarch is the head of state while the head of government is almost always a member of parliament (such as the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
, Denmark
Denmark
, Sweden
Sweden
and Japan
Japan
), or parliamentary republics , where a mostly ceremonial president is the head of state while the head of government is regularly from the legislature (such as Ireland , Germany
Germany
, India
India
and Italy
Italy
)
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Executive (government)
The EXECUTIVE is the organ exercising authority in and holding responsibility for the governance of a state . The executive executes and enforces law . In political systems based on the principle of separation of powers , authority is distributed among several branches (executive, legislative , judicial ) — an attempt to prevent the concentration of power in the hands of a small group of people. In such a system, the executive does not pass laws (the role of the legislature) or interpret them (the role of the judiciary). Instead, the executive enforces the law as written by the legislature and interpreted by the judiciary. The executive can be the source of certain types of law, such as a decree or executive order . Executive bureaucracies are commonly the source of regulations . In the Westminster political system , the principle of separation of powers is not as entrenched. Members of the executive, called ministers , are also members of the legislature, and hence play an important part in both the writing and enforcing of law. In this context, the executive consists of a leader(s) of an office or multiple offices. Specifically, the top leadership roles of the executive branch may include: * head of state —often the supreme leader , the president or monarch , the chief public representative and living symbol of national unity. * head of government —often the _de facto _ leader, prime minister , overseeing the administration of all affairs of state
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Legislature
A LEGISLATURE is a deliberative assembly with the authority to make laws for a political entity such as a country or city . Legislatures form important parts of most governments ; in the separation of powers model, they are often contrasted with the executive and judicial branches of government. Laws enacted by legislatures are known as legislation . Legislatures observe and steer governing actions and usually have exclusive authority to amend the budget or budgets involved in the process. The members of a legislature are called legislators . In a democracy , legislators are most commonly popularly elected , although indirect election and appointment by the executive are also used, particularly for bicameral legislatures featuring an upper chamber . CONTENTS * 1 Internal organization * 2 Power * 2.1 Delegation * 3 Members * 4 Terminology * 5 Chambers * 6 Size * 7 See also * 8 References * 9 Further reading INTERNAL ORGANIZATIONEach chamber of legislature consists of a number of legislators who use some form of parliamentary procedure to debate political issues and vote on proposed legislation. There must be a certain number of legislators present to carry out these activities; this is called a quorum . Some of the responsibilities of a legislature, such as giving first consideration to newly proposed legislation, are usually delegated to committees made up of small selections of the legislators
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Head Of Government
HEAD OF GOVERNMENT is a generic term used for either the highest or second highest official in the executive branch of a sovereign state , a federated state , or a self-governing colony , (commonly referred to as countries, nations or nation-states) who often presides over a cabinet , a group of ministers or secretaries who lead executive departments. The term "head of government" is often differentiated from the term "head of state ", (e.g. as in article 7 of the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties , article 1 of the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of Crimes against Internationally Protected Persons, including Diplomatic Agents and the United Nations protocol list), as they may be separate positions, individuals, or roles depending on the country. The authority of a head of government, such as a president, or prime minister and the relationship between that position and other state institutions, such as the relation between the head of state and of the legislature , varies greatly among sovereign states, depending largely on the particular makeup of the government that has been chosen, won, or evolved over time. In parliamentary systems , including constitutional monarchies , the head of government is the _de facto _ political leader of the government, and is answerable to one chamber or the entire legislature
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Head Of State
A HEAD OF STATE (or CHIEF OF STATE) is the public persona that officially represents the national unity and legitimacy of a sovereign state . Depending on the country's form of government and separation of powers , the head of state may be a purely ceremonial figurehead with limited or no executive power or concurrently the head of government . In countries with parliamentary system , the head of state is typically a ceremonial figurehead that does not actually guide day-to-day government activities and may not be empowered to exercise any kind of secular political authority (e.g., Queen Margrethe II of Denmark ). In countries where the head of state is also the head of government, the head of state serves as both a public figurehead and the actual highest-ranking political leader who oversees the executive branch (e.g., the President of the United States ). Former French president Charles de Gaulle , while developing the current Constitution of France (1958), said the head of state should embody _l'esprit de la nation_ ("the spirit of the nation")
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Presidential System
A PRESIDENTIAL SYSTEM is a democratic and republican system of government where a head of government leads an executive branch that is separate from the legislative branch . This head of government is in most cases also the head of state , which is called _president _. In presidential countries, the executive is elected and is not responsible to the legislature, which cannot in normal circumstances dismiss it. Such dismissal is possible, however, in uncommon cases, often through impeachment . The title "president " has persisted from a time when such person personally presided over the governing body, as with the President of the Continental Congress in the early United States , prior to the executive function being split into a separate branch of government. A presidential system contrasts with a parliamentary system , where the head of government is elected to power through the legislative . There is an intermediary system called semi-presidentialism . Countries that feature a presidential or semi-presidential system of government are not the exclusive users of the title of president. Heads of state of parliamentary republics , largely ceremonial in most cases, are called presidents. Dictators or leaders of one-party states , popularly elected or not, are also often called presidents
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Semi-presidential System
A SEMI-PRESIDENTIAL SYSTEM is a system of government in which a president exists alongside a prime minister and a cabinet, with the latter two being responsible to the legislature of a state . A semi-presidential system differs from a parliamentary republic in that it has a popularly elected head of state , who is more than a purely ceremonial figurehead , and from the presidential system in that the cabinet , although named by the president, is responsible to the legislature , which may force the cabinet to resign through a motion of no confidence . While the German Weimar Republic
Republic
(1919–1933) exemplified an early semi-presidential system, the term "semi-presidential" was introduced by a 1959 article by journalist Hubert Beuve-Méry and popularized by a 1978 work by political scientist Maurice Duverger , both of which intended to describe the French Fifth Republic
Republic
(established in 1958). CONTENTS * 1 Subtypes * 2 Division of powers * 3 Cohabitation * 4 Republics with a semi-presidential system of government * 5 See also * 6 Notes and references * 7 External links SUBTYPESThere are two separate subtypes of semi-presidentialism: premier-presidentialism and president-parliamentarism. Under the PREMIER-PRESIDENTIAL system, the prime minister and cabinet are exclusively accountable to parliament
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President
In politics, PRESIDENT is a title given to leaders of republican states . In the modern world, it is a common title for the head of state in most republics. The functions exercised by a president vary according to the form of government. In parliamentary and semi-presidential republics, they are limited to those of the head of state, and are thus largely ceremonial. In presidential republics , the role of the president is more prominent, encompassing also (in most cases) the functions of the head of government . In authoritarian regimes, a dictator or leader of a one-party state may also be called a president, often charismatically
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Prime Minister
A PRIME MINISTER is the most senior minister of cabinet in the executive branch of government , often in a parliamentary or semi-presidential system . In many systems, the prime minister selects and may dismiss other members of the cabinet, and allocates posts to members within the government. In most systems, the prime minister is the presiding member and chairman of the cabinet. In a minority of systems, notably in semi-presidential systems of government, a prime minister is the official who is appointed to manage the civil service and execute the directives of the head of state . In parliamentary systems fashioned after the Westminster system , the prime minister is the presiding and actual head of government and head of the executive branch. In such systems, the head of state or the head of state's official representative (i.e. the monarch, president, or governor-general) usually holds a largely ceremonial position, although often with reserve powers . The prime minister is often, but not always, a member of the Legislature or the Lower House thereof and is expected with other ministers to ensure the passage of bills through the legislature . In some monarchies the monarch may also exercise executive powers (known as the royal prerogative ) that are constitutionally vested in the crown and may be exercised without the approval of parliament
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Premier
PREMIER is a title for the head of government in some countries, states and sub-national governments. A second in command to a premier is designated as a VICE-PREMIER or deputy premier . CONTENTS * 1 Examples by country * 2 By jurisdiction * 3 See also * 4 References EXAMPLES BY COUNTRYIn many nations, "premier" is used interchangeably with "prime minister ". In the People\'s Republic of China , "premier" is more common and official, but "prime minister" is still used (see Premier of the People\'s Republic of China ). In four of the British overseas territories ( Bermuda , the Cayman Islands , the Turks and Caicos Islands , and the British Virgin Islands ), the elected heads of government are styled as "Premier". In other overseas territories the equivalent post is styled as Chief Minister . "Premier" is also the title of the heads of government in sub-national entities , such as the provinces and territories of Canada , states of the Commonwealth of Australia , provinces of South Africa , the island of Nevis within the Federation of Saint Kitts and Nevis , and the nation of Niue . In some of these cases, the formal title remains "Prime Minister" but "Premier" is used to avoid confusion with the national leader. In these cases, care should be taken not to confuse the title of "premier" with "prime minister"
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Chancellor
CHANCELLOR (Latin : _cancellarius_) is a title of various official positions in the governments of many nations. The original chancellors were the _cancellarii _ of Roman courts of justice—ushers, who sat at the _cancelli_ or lattice work screens of a basilica or law court, which separated the judge and counsel from the audience. A chancellor's office is called a chancellery or chancery . The word is now used in the titles of many various officers in all kinds of settings (government, education, religion, etc.). Nowadays the term is most often used to describe: * The head of the government * A person in charge of foreign affairs * A person with duties related to justice * A person in charge of financial and economic issues * The head of a universityCONTENTS* 1 Head of government * 1.1 Austria * 1.2 Germany * 1.3 Switzerland * 2 Foreign minister * 3 Functions related to justice and the law * 4 Other * 4.1 Ecclesiastical * 4.2 Educational usage * 5 Historical uses * 6 See also * 7 References HEAD OF GOVERNMENTAUSTRIAThe Chancellor of Austria , also titled _Bundeskanzler_, is the head of government in Austria. Christian Kern is the current _Bundeskanzler_ of Austria. GERMANYThe CHANCELLOR OF GERMANY or _BUNDESKANZLER_ (official German title which means "FEDERAL CHANCELLOR"), is the title for the head of government in Germany
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