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Parliamentary System
A PARLIAMENTARY SYSTEM is a system of democratic governance of a state where the executive branch derives its democratic legitimacy from its ability to command the confidence of the legislative branch, typically a parliament , and is also held accountable to that parliament. In a parliamentary system, the head of state is usually a different person from the head of government . This is in contrast to a presidential system , where the head of state often is also the head of government and, most importantly, the executive branch does not derive its democratic legitimacy from the legislature
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Monarchy
A MONARCHY is a form of government in which a group, generally a family representing a dynasty (aristocracy ), embodies the country's national identity and its head, the monarch , exercises the role of sovereignty. The actual power of the monarch may vary from purely symbolic (crowned republic ), to partial and restricted (constitutional monarchy ), to completely autocratic (absolute monarchy ). Traditionally the monarch's post is inherited and lasts until death or abdication. In contrast, elective monarchies require the monarch to be elected. Both types have further variations as there are widely divergent structures and traditions defining monarchy. For example, in some elected monarchies only pedigrees are taken into account for eligibility of the next ruler, whereas many hereditary monarchies impose requirements regarding the religion, age, gender, mental capacity, etc
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Feudalism
FEUDALISM was a combination of legal and military customs in medieval Europe that flourished between the 9th and 15th centuries. Broadly defined, it was a way of structuring society around relationships derived from the holding of land in exchange for service or labour. Although derived from the Latin word feodum or feudum (fief), then in use, the term feudalism and the system it describes were not conceived of as a formal political system by the people living in the Middle Ages. In its classic definition, by François-Louis Ganshof (1944), feudalism describes a set of reciprocal legal and military obligations among the warrior nobility revolving around the three key concepts of lords , vassals and fiefs
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International Relations Theory
INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS THEORY is the study of international relations (IR) from a theoretical perspective. It attempts to provide a conceptual framework upon which international relations can be analyzed. Ole Holsti describes international relations theories as acting like pairs of coloured sunglasses that allow the wearer to see only salient events relevant to the theory; e.g., an adherent of realism may completely disregard an event that a constructivist might pounce upon as crucial, and vice versa. The three most prominent theories are realism , liberalism and constructivism . International relations
International relations
theories can be divided into "positivist /rationalist " theories which focus on a principally state-level analysis, and "post-positivist /reflectivist " ones which incorporate expanded meanings of security, ranging from class, to gender, to postcolonial security
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Foreign Policy
The approaches are strategically employed to interact with other countries. The study of such strategies is called foreign policy analysis . In recent times, due to the deepening level of globalization and transnational activities, the states will also have to interact with non-state actors . The aforementioned interaction is evaluated and monitored in attempts to maximize benefits of multilateral international cooperation. Since the national interests are paramount, foreign policies are designed by the government through high-level decision making processes. National interests accomplishment can occur as a result of peaceful cooperation with other nations, or through exploitation. Usually, creating foreign policy is the job of the head of government and the foreign minister (or equivalent). In some countries the legislature also has considerable effects
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Anarchy
ANARCHY is the condition of a society , entity, group of people, or a single person that rejects hierarchy . The word originally meant leaderlessness , but in 1840 Pierre-Joseph Proudhon adopted the term in his treatise What Is Property? to refer to a new political philosophy : anarchism , which advocates stateless societies based on voluntary associations . In practical terms, anarchy can refer to the curtailment or abolition of traditional forms of government . It can also designate a nation (or anywhere on earth that is inhabited) that has no system of government or central rule
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Theocracy
THEOCRACY is a form of government in which a deity is the source from which all authority derives. The Oxford English Dictionary
Oxford English Dictionary
has this definition: 1. a system of government in which priests rule in the name of God
God
or a god. 1.1. the commonwealth of Israel
Israel
from the time of Moses
Moses
until the election of Saul as King. An ECCLESIOCRACY is a situation where the religious leaders assume a leading role in the state, but do not claim that they are instruments of divine revelation: for example, the prince-bishops of the European Middle Ages , where the bishop was also the temporal ruler. Such a state may use the administrative hierarchy of the religion for its own administration, or it may have two 'arms'—administrators and clergy—but with the state administrative hierarchy subordinate to the religious hierarchy
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Constitutional Monarchy
A CONSTITUTIONAL MONARCHY is a form of monarchy in which the sovereign exercises their authorities in accordance with a written or unwritten constitution . Constitutional monarchy
Constitutional monarchy
differs from absolute monarchy (in which a monarch holds absolute power), in that constitutional monarchs are bound to exercise their powers and authorities within the limits prescribed within an established legal framework. Constitutional monarchies range from countries such as Morocco
Morocco
, where the constitution grants substantial discretionary powers to the sovereign, to countries such as Sweden
Sweden
or Denmark
Denmark
where the monarch retains very few formal authorities. A constitutional monarchy may refer to a system in which the monarch acts as a non-party political head of state under the constitution , whether written or unwritten
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Voting System
An ELECTORAL SYSTEM is the set of rules that determines how elections and referendums are conducted and how their results are determined. Political electoral systems are organized by governments, while non-political elections may take place in business, non-profit organisations and informal organisations. Electoral systems consist of sets of rules that govern all aspects of the voting process: when elections occur, who is allowed to vote , who can stand as a candidate, how ballots are marked and cast , how the ballots are counted (electoral method), limits on campaign spending , and other factors that can affect the outcome. Political electoral systems are defined by constitutions and electoral laws, are typically conducted by election commissions , and can use multiple types of elections for different offices
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Dictatorship
DICTATORSHIP is a form of government in which a country or a group of countries is ruled by one person (a dictator ) or by a polity , and power is exercized through various mechanisms in order to ensure that the entity's power remains strong. A dictatorship is a type of authoritarianism , in which politicians regulate nearly every aspect of the public and private behavior of citizens. Dictatorship
Dictatorship
and totalitarian societies generally employ political propaganda in order to decrease the influence of proponents of alternative governing systems. In the past, different religious tactics were used by dictators in order to maintain their rule, such as the monarchical system in the west . In the 19th and 20th centuries, traditional monarchies gradually declined and disappeared. Dictatorship
Dictatorship
and constitutional democracy emerged as the world's two major forms of government
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Biology And Political Orientation
ORIENTATION may refer to: * Map orientation , the relationship between directions on a map and compass directions * Orientation (mental) , a function of the mind * Orientation (film) , a 1996 short film produced by the Church of Scientology * Orientation of churches is the architectural feature of facing ("orienting"), churches towards the east (Latin: oriens) *
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Politics By Country
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to politics and political science: POLITICS – the exercise of power; process by which groups of people make collective decisions . Politics
Politics
is the art or science of running governmental or state affairs (including behavior within civil governments ), institutions, fields, and special interest groups such as the corporate , academic , and religious segments of society. POLITICAL SCIENCE – the field concerning the theory and practice of politics and the description and analysis of political systems and political behavior
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Adhocracy
ADHOCRACY is a flexible, adaptable and informal form of organization that is defined by a lack of formal structure. It operates in an opposite fashion to a bureaucracy . The term was coined by Warren Bennis in his 1968 book The Temporary Society, later popularized in 1970 by Alvin Toffler
Alvin Toffler
in Future Shock , and has since become often used in the theory of management of organizations (particularly online organizations). The concept has been further developed by academics such as Henry Mintzberg . Adhocracy is characterized by an adaptive, creative and flexible integrative behavior based on non-permanence and spontaneity. It is believed that these characteristics allow adhocracy to respond faster than traditional bureaucratic organizations while being more open to new ideas
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Bureaucracy
BUREAUCRACY (/bjuːˈrɒkrəsi/ ) is a term that refers to both a body of non-elective government officials and an administrative policy-making group. Historically, a bureaucracy was a government administration managed by departments staffed with non-elected officials. Today, bureaucracy is the administrative system governing any large institution. The public administration in many countries is an example of a bureaucracy. Since being coined, the word bureaucracy has developed negative connotations. Bureaucracies have been criticized as being inefficient, convoluted, or too inflexible to individuals. The dehumanizing effects of excessive bureaucracy became a major theme in the work of German-language writer Franz Kafka and are central to his novels The Trial and The Castle . The elimination of unnecessary bureaucracy is a key concept in modern managerial theory and has been an issue in some political campaigns
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Comparative Politics
COMPARATIVE POLITICS is a field in political science , characterized by an empirical approach based on the comparative method . In other words, comparative politics is the study of the domestic politics, political institutions, and conflicts of countries. It often involves comparisons among countries and through time within single countries, emphasizing key patterns of similarity and difference. Arend Lijphart argues that comparative politics does not have a substantive focus in itself, but rather a methodological one: it focuses on "the how but does not specify the what of the analysis." In other words, comparative politics is not defined by the object of its study, but rather by the method it applies to study political phenomena
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Public Administration
PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION is the implementation of government policy and also an academic discipline that studies this implementation and prepares civil servants for working in the public service. As a "field of inquiry with a diverse scope" its "fundamental goal... is to advance management and policies so that government can function." Some of the various definitions which have been offered for the term are: "the management of public programs"; the "translation of politics into the reality that citizens see every day"; and "the study of government decision making, the analysis of the policies themselves, the various inputs that have produced them, and the inputs necessary to produce alternative policies." Public administration is "centrally concerned with the organization of government policies and programmes as well as the behavior of officials (usually non-elected) formally responsible for their conduct"
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