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Parliamentary Republic (other)
A PARLIAMENTARY SYSTEM is a system of democratic governance of a state where the executive branch derives its democratic legitimacy from its ability to command the confidence of the legislative branch, typically a parliament , and is also held accountable to that parliament. In a parliamentary system, the head of state is usually a different person from the head of government . This is in contrast to a presidential system , where the head of state often is also the head of government and, most importantly, the executive branch does not derive its democratic legitimacy from the legislature
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Policy
A POLICY is a deliberate system of principles to guide decisions and achieve rational outcomes. A policy is a statement of intent, and is implemented as a procedure or protocol. Policies are generally adopted by the board of directors or senior governance body within an organization, where procedures or protocols are developed and adopted by senior executive officers . Policies can assist in both subjective and objective decision making . Policies to assist in subjective decision making usually assist senior management with decisions that must be based on the relative merits of a number of factors, and as a result are often hard to test objectively, e.g. work-life balance policy. In contrast policies to assist in objective decision making are usually operational in nature and can be objectively tested, e.g. password policy. The term may apply to government, private sector organizations and groups, as well as individuals
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Adhocracy
ADHOCRACY is a flexible, adaptable and informal form of organization that is defined by a lack of formal structure. It operates in an opposite fashion to a bureaucracy . The term was coined by Warren Bennis in his 1968 book The Temporary Society, later popularized in 1970 by Alvin Toffler
Alvin Toffler
in Future Shock , and has since become often used in the theory of management of organizations (particularly online organizations). The concept has been further developed by academics such as Henry Mintzberg . Adhocracy is characterized by an adaptive, creative and flexible integrative behavior based on non-permanence and spontaneity. It is believed that these characteristics allow adhocracy to respond faster than traditional bureaucratic organizations while being more open to new ideas
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Public Policy
PUBLIC POLICY is the principled guide to action taken by the administrative executive branches of the state with regard to a class of issues, in a manner consistent with law and institutional customs . The foundation of public policy is composed of national constitutional laws and regulations. Further substrates include both judicial interpretations and regulations which are generally authorized by legislation. Public policy is considered strong when it solves problems efficiently and effectively, serves justice, supports governmental institutions and policies, and encourages active citizenship
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Public Policy Doctrine
In private international law , the PUBLIC POLICY DOCTRINE or ORDRE PUBLIC concerns the body of principles that underpin the operation of legal systems in each state . This addresses the social, moral and economic values that tie a society together: values that vary in different cultures and change over time. Law
Law
regulates behaviour either to reinforce existing social expectations or to encourage constructive change, and laws are most likely to be effective when they are consistent with the most generally accepted societal norms and reflect the collective morality of the society . In performing this function, Cappalli has suggested that the critical values of any legal system include impartiality, neutrality, certainty, equality, openness, flexibility, and growth. This assumes that a state's courts function as dispute resolution systems, which avoid the violence that often otherwise accompanies private resolution of disputes
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Domestic Policy
DOMESTIC POLICY are administrative decisions that are directly related to all issues and activity within a nation 's borders. It differs from foreign policy , which refers to the ways a government advances its interests in world politics. Domestic policy covers a wide range of areas, including business , education, energy, healthcare, law enforcement , money and taxes , natural resources , social welfare, and personal rights and freedoms. ISSUESMany domestic policy debates concern the appropriate level of government involvement in economic and social affairs. Traditionally, conservatives believe that the government should not play a major role in regulating business and managing the economy. Most conservatives also believe that government action cannot solve the problems of poverty and economic inequality . Most liberals, however, support government programs that seek to provide economic security, ease human suffering, and reduce inequality
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Street-level Bureaucracy
STREET-LEVEL BUREAUCRACY is the subset of a public agency or government institution where the civil servants work who have direct contact with members of the general public. Street-level civil servants carry out and/or enforce the actions required by a government's laws and public policies , in areas ranging from safety and security to education and social services . A few examples include police officers , border guards , social workers and public school teachers . These civil servants have direct contact with members of the general public, in contrast with civil servants who do policy analysis or economic analysis, who do not meet the public. Street-level bureaucrats act as liaisons between government policy-makers and citizens and these civil servants implement policy decisions made by senior officials in the public service and/or by elected officials
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Bureaucracy
BUREAUCRACY (/bjuːˈrɒkrəsi/ ) is a term that refers to both a body of non-elective government officials and an administrative policy-making group. Historically, a bureaucracy was a government administration managed by departments staffed with non-elected officials. Today, bureaucracy is the administrative system governing any large institution. The public administration in many countries is an example of a bureaucracy. Since being coined, the word bureaucracy has developed negative connotations. Bureaucracies have been criticized as being inefficient, convoluted, or too inflexible to individuals. The dehumanizing effects of excessive bureaucracy became a major theme in the work of German-language writer Franz Kafka and are central to his novels The Trial and The Castle . The elimination of unnecessary bureaucracy is a key concept in modern managerial theory and has been an issue in some political campaigns
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International Relations
INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS (IR) or INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS, depending on academic institution, is either a field of political science , an interdisciplinary academic field similar to global studies , or an entirely independent academic discipline in which students take a variety of internationally focused courses in social science and humanities disciplines. In both cases, the field studies relationships between political entities (polities ) such as states , sovereign states , empires , inter-governmental organizations (IGOs), international non-governmental organizations (INs), other non-governmental organizations (NGOs), and multinational corporations (MNCs), and the wider world-systems produced by this interaction. International relations
International relations
is an academic and a public policy field, and so can be positive and normative , because it analyses and formulates the foreign policy of a given state
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International Relations Theory
INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS THEORY is the study of international relations (IR) from a theoretical perspective. It attempts to provide a conceptual framework upon which international relations can be analyzed. Ole Holsti describes international relations theories as acting like pairs of coloured sunglasses that allow the wearer to see only salient events relevant to the theory; e.g., an adherent of realism may completely disregard an event that a constructivist might pounce upon as crucial, and vice versa. The three most prominent theories are realism , liberalism and constructivism . International relations
International relations
theories can be divided into "positivist /rationalist " theories which focus on a principally state-level analysis, and "post-positivist /reflectivist " ones which incorporate expanded meanings of security, ranging from class, to gender, to postcolonial security
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Comparative Politics
COMPARATIVE POLITICS is a field in political science , characterized by an empirical approach based on the comparative method . In other words, comparative politics is the study of the domestic politics, political institutions, and conflicts of countries. It often involves comparisons among countries and through time within single countries, emphasizing key patterns of similarity and difference. Arend Lijphart argues that comparative politics does not have a substantive focus in itself, but rather a methodological one: it focuses on "the how but does not specify the what of the analysis." In other words, comparative politics is not defined by the object of its study, but rather by the method it applies to study political phenomena
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Public Administration
PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION is the implementation of government policy and also an academic discipline that studies this implementation and prepares civil servants for working in the public service. As a "field of inquiry with a diverse scope" its "fundamental goal... is to advance management and policies so that government can function." Some of the various definitions which have been offered for the term are: "the management of public programs"; the "translation of politics into the reality that citizens see every day"; and "the study of government decision making, the analysis of the policies themselves, the various inputs that have produced them, and the inputs necessary to produce alternative policies." Public administration is "centrally concerned with the organization of government policies and programmes as well as the behavior of officials (usually non-elected) formally responsible for their conduct"
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Foreign Policy
The approaches are strategically employed to interact with other countries. The study of such strategies is called foreign policy analysis . In recent times, due to the deepening level of globalization and transnational activities, the states will also have to interact with non-state actors . The aforementioned interaction is evaluated and monitored in attempts to maximize benefits of multilateral international cooperation. Since the national interests are paramount, foreign policies are designed by the government through high-level decision making processes. National interests accomplishment can occur as a result of peaceful cooperation with other nations, or through exploitation. Usually, creating foreign policy is the job of the head of government and the foreign minister (or equivalent). In some countries the legislature also has considerable effects
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Civil Society
CIVIL SOCIETY is the "aggregate of non-governmental organizations and institutions that manifest interests and will of citizens". Civil society includes the family and the private sphere, referred to as the "third sector" of society , distinct from government and business. By other authors, "civil society" is used in the sense of 1) the aggregate of non-governmental organizations and institutions that manifest interests and will of citizens or 2) individuals and organizations in a society which are independent of the government. Sometimes the term civil society is used in the more general sense of "the elements such as freedom of speech, an independent judiciary, etc, that make up a democratic society" ( Collins English Dictionary
Collins English Dictionary
). Especially in the discussions among thinkers of Eastern and Central Europe, civil society is seen also as a concept of civic values
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Theories Of Political Behavior
THEORIES OF POLITICAL BEHAVIOR, as an aspect of political science , attempt to quantify and explain the influences that define a person's political views, ideology , and levels of political participation. Broadly speaking, behavior is political whenever individuals or groups try to influence or escape the influence of others.Political behavior is the subset of human behavior that involves politics and powers. Theorists who have had an influence on this field include Karl Deutsch and Theodor Adorno . CONTENTS * 1 Long-term influences on political orientation * 2 Short-term influences on political orientation * 3 The influence of social groups on political outcomes * 4 Biology and political science * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links LONG-TERM INFLUENCES ON POLITICAL ORIENTATIONThere are three main sources of influence that shape political orientation which creates long-term effects
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Sovereignty
SOVEREIGNTY is the full right and power of a governing body over itself, without any interference from outside sources or bodies. In political theory, sovereignty is a substantive term designating supreme authority over some polity . It is a basic principle underlying the dominant Westphalian model of state foundation
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