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Paperboard
Paperboard
Paperboard
is a thick paper-based material. While there is no rigid differentiation between paper and paperboard, paperboard is generally thicker (usually over 0.30 mm, 0.012 in, or 12 points) than paper and has certain superior attributes such as foldability and rigidity. According to ISO standards, paperboard is a paper with a grammage above 250 g/m2, but there are exceptions.[1] Paperboard
Paperboard
can be single- or multi-ply. Paperboard
Paperboard
can be easily cut and formed, is lightweight, and because it is strong, is used in packaging
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Chlorine Gas
Chlorine
Chlorine
is a chemical element with symbol Cl and atomic number 17. The second-lightest of the halogens, it appears between fluorine and bromine in the periodic table and its properties are mostly intermediate between them. Chlorine
Chlorine
is a yellow-green gas at room temperature. It is an extremely reactive element and a strong oxidising agent: among the elements, it has the highest electron affinity and the third-highest electronegativity, behind only oxygen and fluorine. The most common compound of chlorine, sodium chloride (common salt), has been known since ancient times. Around 1630, chlorine gas was first synthesised in a chemical reaction, but not recognised as a fundamentally important substance. Carl Wilhelm Scheele
Carl Wilhelm Scheele
wrote a description of chlorine gas in 1774, supposing it to be an oxide of a new element
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Straw
Straw
Straw
is an agricultural by-product, the dry stalks of cereal plants, after the grain and chaff have been removed. Straw
Straw
makes up about half of the yield of cereal crops such as barley, oats, rice, rye and wheat. It has many uses, including fuel, livestock bedding and fodder, thatching and basket-making. It is usually gathered and stored in a straw bale, which is a bundle of straw tightly bound with twine or wire. Bales may be square, rectangular, or round, depending on the type of baler used.Contents1 Uses 2 Safety 3 Research 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksUses[edit] Current and historic uses of straw include:Animal feed Straw
Straw
may be fed as part of the roughage component of the diet to cattle or horses that are on a near maintenance level of energy requirement. It has a low digestible energy and nutrient content (as opposed to hay, which is much more nutritious)
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Renewable Resources
A renewable resource is a natural resource which replenishes to overcome resource depletion caused by usage and consumption, either through biological reproduction or other naturally recurring processes in a finite amount of time in a human time scale. Renewable resources are a part of Earth's natural environment and the largest components of its ecosphere. A positive life cycle assessment is a key indicator of a resource's sustainability.[1] Definitions of renewable resources may also include agricultural production, as in sustainable agriculture and to an extent water resources.[2] In 1962, Paul Alfred Weiss
Paul Alfred Weiss
defined Renewable Resources as: "The total range of living organisms providing man with food, fibres, etc...".[3] Another type of renewable resources is renewable energy resources
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Hardwood
Hardwood
Hardwood
is wood from dicot trees. These are usually found in broad-leaved temperate and tropical forests. In temperate and boreal latitudes they are mostly deciduous, but in tropics and subtropics mostly evergreen. Hardwood
Hardwood
contrasts with softwood (which is from gymnosperm trees).Contents1 Characteristics 2 Applications2.1 Cooking3 See also 4 References 5 Further reading 6 External linksCharacteristics[edit]SEM images showing the presence of pores in hardwoods (oak, top) and absence in softwoods (pine, bottom)Hardwoods are produced by angiosperm trees that reproduce by flowers, and have broad leaves. Many species are deciduous
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Birch
A birch is a thin-leaved deciduous hardwood tree of the genus Betula (/ˈbɛtjʊlə/),[2] in the family Betulaceae, which also includes alders, hazels, and hornbeams. It is closely related to the beech-oak family Fagaceae. The genus Betula contains 30 to 60 known taxa of which 11 are on the IUCN 2011 Green List of Threatened Species. They are a typically rather short-lived pioneer species widespread in the Northern Hemisphere, particularly in northern areas of temperate climates and in boreal climates.[3]Contents1 Description1.1 Flower and fruit2 Taxonomy2.1 Subdivision 2.2 Etymology3 Ecology 4 Uses4.1 Cultivation 4.2 Medical 4.3 Paper 4.4 Tonewood5 Culture 6 See also 7 References 8 Sources 9 External linksDescription[edit]The front and rear sides of a piece of birch bark Birch
Birch
species are generally small to medium-sized trees or shrubs, mostly of northern temperate and boreal climates
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Softwood
Softwood
Softwood
is wood from gymnosperm trees such as conifers. The term is opposed to hardwood, which is the wood from angiosperm trees. Softwood trees have needles and exposed seeds, but do not have leaves.Contents1 Characteristics 2 Known softwood trees and uses 3 Applications 4 See also 5 ReferencesCharacteristics[edit] Softwoods are not necessarily softer than hardwoods.[1] In both groups there is an enormous variation in actual wood hardness, with the range in density in hardwoods completely including that of softwoods; some hardwoods (e.g. balsa) are softer than most softwoods, while the hardest hardwoods are much harder than any softwood
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Pine
See Pinus classification
Pinus classification
for complete taxonomy to species level. See list of pines by region for list of species by geographic distribution.Range of PinusA pine is any conifer in the genus Pinus, /ˈpiːnuːs/,[1] of the family Pinaceae
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Spruce
About 35; see text.A spruce is a tree of the genus Picea
Picea
/paɪˈsiːə/,[1] a genus of about 35 species of coniferous evergreen trees in the family Pinaceae, found in the northern temperate and boreal (taiga) regions of the Earth. Spruces are large trees, from about 20–60 m (about 60–200 ft) tall when mature, and can be distinguished by their whorled branches and conical form. The needles, or leaves, of spruces are attached singly to the branches in a spiral fashion, each needle on a small, peg-like structure. The needles are shed when 4–10 years old, leaving the branches rough with the retained pegs (an easy means of distinguishing them from other similar genera, where the branches are fairly smooth). Spruces are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera (moth and butterfly) species, such as the eastern spruce budworm
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Hemp
Hemp, or industrial hemp (from Old English
Old English
hænep),[1] typically found in the northern hemisphere, is a variety of the Cannabis
Cannabis
sativa pla
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Binder's Board
Bookbinding
Bookbinding
is the process of physically assembling a book from an ordered stack of paper sheets that are folded together into sections or sometimes left as a stack of individual sheets. The stack is then bound together along one edge by either sewing with thread through the folds or by a layer of flexible adhesive. Alternative methods of binding that are cheaper but less permanent include loose-leaf rings, individual screw posts or binding posts, twin loop spine coils, plastic spiral coils, and plastic spine combs. For protection, the bound stack is either wrapped in a flexible cover or attached to stiff boards. Finally, an attractive cover is adhered to the boards, including identifying information and decoration
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Cotton
Cotton
Cotton
is a soft, fluffy staple fiber that grows in a boll, or protective case, around the seeds of the cotton plants of the genus Gossypium
Gossypium
in the mallow family Malvaceae. The fiber is almost pure cellulose. Under natural conditions, the cotton bolls will increase the dispersal of the seeds. The plant is a shrub native to tropical and subtropical regions around the world, including the Americas, Africa, and India. The greatest diversity of wild cotton species is found in Mexico, followed by Australia
Australia
and Africa.[1] Cotton
Cotton
was independently domesticated in the Old and New Worlds. The fiber is most often spun into yarn or thread and used to make a soft, breathable textile
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Flax
Flax
Flax
( Linum
Linum
usitatissimum), also known as common flax or linseed, is a member of the genus Linum
Linum
in the family Linaceae. It is a food and fiber crop cultivated in cooler regions of the world. The textiles made from flax are known in the Western countries as linen, and traditionally used for bed sheets, underclothes, and table linen. The oil is known as linseed oil. In addition to referring to the plant itself, the word "flax" may refer to the unspun fibers of the flax plant
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Kenaf
Kenaf
Kenaf
[etymology: Persian],[2] Hibiscus
Hibiscus
cannabinus, is a plant in the Malvaceae
Malvaceae
family also called Deccan hemp and Java jute. Hibiscus cannabinus is in the genus Hibiscus
Hibiscus
and is native to southern Asia, though its exact origin is unknown. The name also applies to the fibre obtained from this plant
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Abaca
Abacá
Abacá
(/ɑːbəˈkɑː/ ah-bə-KAH; Filipino: Abaka [aβaˈka]), binomial name Musa textilis, is a species of banana native to the Philippines,[3] grown as a commercial crop in the Philippines, Ecuador, and Costa Rica. The plant, also known as Manila hemp,[3] has great economic importance, being harvested for its fiber, also called Manila hemp, extracted from the leaf-stems.[4] The plant grows to 13–22 feet (4.0–6.7 m),[1] and averages about 12 feet (3.7 m). The fiber was originally used for making twines and ropes; now most is pulped and used in a variety of specialized paper products including tea bags, filter paper and banknotes
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Ink
Ink
Ink
is a liquid or paste that contains pigments or dyes and is used to color a surface to produce an image, text, or design. Ink
Ink
is used for drawing or writing with a pen, brush, or quill. Thicker inks, in paste form, are used extensively in letterpress and lithographic printing. Ink
Ink
can be a complex medium, composed of solvents, pigments, dyes, resins, lubricants, solubilizers, surfactants, particulate matter, fluorescents, and other materials
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