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Paper Data Storage
Paper
Paper
data storage refers to the use of paper as a data storage device. This includes writing, illustrating, and the use of data that can be interpreted by a machine or is the result of the functioning of a machine. A defining feature of paper data storage is the ability of humans to produce it with only simple tools and interpret it visually. Though this is now mostly obsolete, paper was once also an important form of computer data storage.Contents1 History 2 Limits 3 See also 4 References 5 External linksHistory[edit] Before paper was used for storing data, it had been used in several applications for storing instructions to specify a machine's operation. The earliest use of paper to store instructions for a machine was the work of Basile Bouchon
Basile Bouchon
who, in 1725, used punched paper rolls to control textile looms. This technology was later developed into the wildly successful Jacquard loom
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Color Depth
Color
Color
depth or colour depth (see spelling differences), also known as bit depth, is either the number of bits used to indicate the color of a single pixel, in a bitmapped image or video frame buffer, or the number of bits used for each color component of a single pixel.[1][2][3][4] For consumer video standards, such as High Efficiency Video Coding (H.265), the bit depth specifies the number of bits used for each color component.[1][2][3][4] When referring to a pixel, the concept can be defined as bits per pixel (bpp), which specifies the number of bits used. When referring to a color component, the concept can be defined as bits per component, bits per channel, bits per color (all three abbreviated bpc), and also bits per pixel component, bits per color channel or bits per sample (bps).[1][2][5] Color
Color
depth is only one aspect of color representation, expressing how finely levels of color can be expressed (a.k.a
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Scantron
Scantron Corporation is an American company based in Eagan, Minnesota. Scantron provides products and services for assessments and surveys worldwide. Scantron deals with forms printing and scanner manufacturing. It operates in 98% of the US school districts, 56 countries, 48 ministries of education, and 94 of the top 100 US universities. They are best known for their machine-readable paper forms on which students mark answers to multiple-choice test questions and the optical mark recognition (OMR) and imaging scanners that read them. To analyze those answers, the machines use OMR- and image-based data collection software. In addition to its forms and scanners, Scantron provides web- and desktop-based assessment software.[1] Scantron is a division of M&F Worldwide
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Magnetic Ink Character Recognition
Magnetic ink character recognition
Magnetic ink character recognition
code, known in short as MICR code, is a character recognition technology used mainly by the banking industry to streamline the processing and clearance of cheques and other documents. MICR encoding, called the MICR line, is at the bottom of cheques and other vouchers and typically includes the document-type indicator, bank code, bank account number, cheque number, cheque amount (usually added after a cheque is presented for payment), and a control indicator. The format for the bank code and bank account number is country-specific. The technology allows MICR readers to scan and read the information directly into a data-collection device. Unlike barcode and similar technologies, MICR characters can be read easily by humans
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Kimball Tag
A Kimball tag
Kimball tag
was a cardboard tag that included both human and machine-readable data to support punched card processing.[1] A Kimball tag was an early form of stock control label that, like its later successor the barcode, supported back office data processing functions. They were predominantly used by the retail clothing ("fashion") industry. Tagging guns which use plastic toggles to attach price tags to clothing are still known as "Kimball guns" (or the corruption, "kimble guns"), although the tags now use bar codes. History[edit] Sears, Roebuck & Company sponsored the development of a specialized punched card system to track garment inventory, produce timely management reports, and reduce clerical errors. A pilot system was operational in 1952.[2]Coded hang tag from 1970.The A. Kimball Company, an established price tag manufacturer in New York City, and the Karl J
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Index Card
An index card (or system card in Australian English) consists of card stock (heavy paper) cut to a standard size, used for recording and storing small amounts of discrete data. A collection of such cards either serves as, or aids the creation of, an index for expedited lookup of information (such as a library catalog or a back-of-the-book index). This system was invented by Carl Linnaeus,[1] around 1760.[2][3] The most common size for index cards in North America
North America
and UK is 3 by 5 inches (76.2 by 127.0 mm), hence the common name 3-by-5 card. Other sizes widely available include 4 by 6 inches (101.6 by 152.4 mm), 5 by 8 inches (127.0 by 203.2 mm) and ISO-size A7 (74 by 105 mm or 2.9 by 4.1 in). Cards are available in blank, ruled and grid styles in a variety of colors
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Vending Machine
A vending machine is an automated machine that provides items such as snacks, beverages, alcohol, cigarettes and lottery tickets to consumers after money, a credit card, or specially designed card is inserted into the machine.[1] The first modern vending machines were developed in England
England
in the early 1880s and dispensed postcards. Vending machines exist in many countries, and in more recent times, specialized vending machines that provide less common products compared to traditional vending machine items have been created and provided to consumers.Contents1 Histo
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Banknote
A banknote (often known as a bill, paper money, or simply a note) is a type of negotiable promissory note, made by a bank, payable to the bearer on demand. Banknotes were originally issued by commercial banks, who were legally required to redeem the notes for legal tender (usually gold or silver coin) when presented to the chief cashier of the originating bank. These commercial banknotes only traded at face value in the market served by the issuing bank.[2] Commercial banknotes have primarily been replaced by national banknotes issued by central banks. National banknotes are generally legal tender, meaning that medium of payment is allowed by law or recognized by a legal system to be valid for meeting a financial obligation.[3] Historically, banks sought to ensure that they could always pay customers in coins when they presented banknotes for payment
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Perfin
In philately, a perfin is a stamp that has had initials or a name perforated across it to discourage theft. The name is a contraction of perforated initials or perforated insignia. They are also sometimes called SPIFS (Stamps Perforated with Initials of Firms and Societies).[1]Contents1 History 2 Officially prepared perfins 3 Collecting perfins 4 Postal stationery 5 Perfinned postal orders 6 Specimen stamps 7 Reply Coupons 8 References 9 Clubs 10 External linksHistory[edit] Great Britain was the first country to use perfins, beginning in 1868.[2] The practice spread quickly to Belgium (1872); Denmark, France, Germany and Switzerland (1876); and Austria (1877); the U.S. finally allowed perfins in 1908.[3] In Britain unused postage stamps could be redeemed for cash at the post office. By agreement with postal authorities, a perfin stamp on a letter could be used only by the owner of the perfin. Therefore, a stolen perforated stamp would be of no value to the unauthorized bearer
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Image Scanner
An image scanner—often abbreviated to just scanner, although the term is ambiguous out of context (barcode scanner, CT scanner etc.)—is a device that optically scans images, printed text, handwriting or an object and converts it to a digital image. Commonly used in offices are variations of the desktop flatbed scanner where the document is placed on a glass window for scanning. Hand-held scanners, where the device is moved by hand, have evolved from text scanning "wands" to 3D scanners used for industrial design, reverse engineering, test and measurement, orthotics, gaming and other applications
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Perforation
A perforation is a small hole in a thin material or web. There is usually more than one perforation in an organized fashion, where all of the holes are called a perforation. The process of creating perforations is called perforating, which involves puncturing the workpiece with a tool. Perforations are usually used to allow easy separation of two sections of the material, such as allowing paper to be torn easily along the line. Packaging
Packaging
with perforations in paperboard or plastic film is easy for consumers to open
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Universal Product Code
The Universal Product Code
Universal Product Code
(UPC) (redundantly: UPC code) is a barcode symbology that is widely used in the United States, Canada, Europe, Australia, New Zealand, and other countries for tracking trade items in stores. UPC (technically refers to UPC-A) consists of 12 numeric digits that are uniquely assigned to each trade item. Along with the related EAN barcode, the UPC is the barcode mainly used for scanning of trade items at the point of sale, per GS1
GS1
specifications.[1] UPC data structures are a component of GTINs and follow the global GS1 specification, which is based on international standards. But some retailers (clothing, furniture) do not use the GS1
GS1
system (rather other barcode symbologies or article number systems)
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Dielectric Constant
The relative permittivity of a material is its (absolute) permittivity expressed as a ratio relative to the permittivity of vacuum. Permittivity
Permittivity
is a material property that affects the Coulomb force between two point charges in the material. Relative permittivity
Relative permittivity
is the factor by which the electric field between the charges is decreased relative to vacuum. Likewise, relative permittivity is the ratio of the capacitance of a capacitor using that material as a dielectric, compared with a similar capacitor that has vacuum as its dielectric
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Atanasoff-Berry Computer
The Atanasoff–Berry Computer
Computer
(ABC) was the first automatic electronic digital computer, an early electronic digital computing device that has remained somewhat obscure. The ABC's priority is debated among historians of computer technology, because it was neither programmable, nor Turing-complete.[1] Conceived in 1937, the machine was built by Iowa State College mathematics and physics professor John Vincent Atanasoff
John Vincent Atanasoff
with the help of graduate student Clifford Berry
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Music Roll
A music roll is a storage medium used to operate a mechanical musical instrument. They are used for the player piano, mechanical organ, electronic carillon and various types of orchestrion. The vast majority of music rolls are made of paper. Other materials that have been utilized include thin card (Imhof-system), thin sheet brass (Telektra-system), composite multi-layered electro-conductive aluminium and paper roll (Triste-system) and, in the modern era, thin plastic or PET film. The music data is stored by means of perforations. The mechanism of the instrument reads these as the roll unwinds, using a pneumatic, mechanical or electrical sensing device called a tracker bar, and the mechanism subsequently plays the instrument. After a roll is played, it is necessary for it to be rewound before it can be played again. This necessitates a break in a musical performance
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Spindle (stationery)
A spindle (or colloquially, a spike) is an upright spike used to hold papers waiting for processing. "Spindling" or "spiking" is the act of spearing a paper document onto the spike. Spindling accumulates paperwork in a way that would not permit it to be blown about by the summer breeze common prior to the advent of air conditioning. When the spindle was full, a string would be put through the holes to bundle the papers together, and the bundle would be shipped to the archives.[1] Many spindles come with a plastic safety cap to prevent injury. Many early spindles have bases that are quite decorative
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