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Papal Bull
A PAPAL BULL is a specific kind of public decree, letters patent , or charter issued by a pope of the Roman Catholic Church . It is named after the leaden seal (_bulla _) that was traditionally appended to the end in order to authenticate it. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Format * 3 Seal * 4 Content * 5 See also * 6 Notes * 7 References * 8 Further reading HISTORY _ Printed text of Pope Leo X 's Bull against the errors of Martin Luther _, also known as _ Exsurge Domine _, issued in June 1520 Papal bulls have been in use at least since the 6th century, but the phrase was not used until around the end of the 13th century, and then only internally for unofficial administrative purposes. However, it had become official by the 15th century, when one of the offices of the Apostolic Chancery was named the "register of bulls" ("_registrum bullarum_")
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List Of Papal Bulls
This is a LIST OF PAPAL BULLS, listed by the year in which each was issued. The decrees of some papal bulls were often tied to the circumstances of time and place, and may have been adjusted, attenuated, or abrogated by subsequent popes as situations changed. LIST This list is incomplete ; you can help by expanding it . YEAR BULL ISSUER DESCRIPTION 1059 In nomine Domini
In nomine Domini
("In the name of the Lord") Nicholas II Establishing cardinal-bishops as the sole electors of the pope. 1079 Libertas ecclesiae ("The liberty of the Church") Gregory VII About Church's independence from imperial authority and interference. 1079 Antiqua sanctorum patrum ("The old (traces of the) holy fathers") Gregory VII Granted the church of Lyon primacy over the churches of Gaul. 1095 (March 16) Cum universis sancte Urban II The king or queen of Aragon could not be excommunicated without an express order from the pope
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Pope Urban VIII
POPE URBAN VIII (Latin : _Urbanus VIII_; baptised 5 April 1568 – 29 July 1644), reigned as Pope from 6 August 1623 to his death in 1644. He expanded the papal territory by force of arms and advantageous politicking, and was also a prominent patron of the arts and a reformer of Church missions. However, the massive debts incurred during his pontificate greatly weakened his successors, who were unable to maintain the papacy's longstanding political and military influence in Europe. He was also involved in a controversy with Galileo and his theory on heliocentrism during his reign. He is the most recent pope to date to take the pontifical name of _Urban_ upon being elected as pope
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Bulla (seal)
A BULLA (from Latin bulla, "bubble, blob", plural BULLAE) is an inscribed clay or soft metal (such as lead or tin) or bitumen or wax token used in commercial and legal documentation as a form of identification and for tamper-proofing whatever is attached to it (or, in the historical form, contained in it). In their oldest attested form, as used in the ancient Near and Middle East of the 8th millennium BCE onwards, bullae were hollow ball-like clay envelopes that contained other smaller tokens that identified the quantity and types of goods being recorded. In this form, bullae represent one of the earliest forms of specialization in the ancient world, and likely required skill to create. :24 From about the 4th millennium BCE onwards, as communications on papyrus and parchment became widespread, bullae evolved into simpler tokens that were attached to the documents with cord, and impressed with a unique sign (i.e
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Pope Benedict XVI
POPE BENEDICT XVI ( Latin : _Benedictus XVI_; Italian : _Benedetto XVI_; German : _Benedikt XVI_; born JOSEPH ALOISIUS RATZINGER; German pronunciation: ; born 16 April 1927) served as Pope from 2005 until his resignation in 2013. Benedict's election occurred in the 2005 papal conclave that followed the death of Pope John Paul II . Since his resignation, Benedict holds the title Pope Emeritus. Ordained as a priest in 1951 in his native Bavaria , Ratzinger established himself as a highly regarded university theologian by the late 1950s and was appointed a full professor in 1958. After a long career as an academic and professor of theology at several German universities, he was appointed Archbishop of Munich and Freising and Cardinal by Pope Paul VI in 1977, an unusual promotion for someone with little pastoral experience
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Military Ordinariate Of Bosnia And Herzegovina
The MILITARY ORDINARIATE OF BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA (Croatian : Vojni ordinarijat u Bosni i Hercegovini) is a military ordinariate of the Roman Catholic Church
Roman Catholic Church
. Immediately subject to the Holy See
Holy See
, it provides pastoral care to Roman Catholics serving in Armed Forces of Bosnia and Herzegovina and their families. HISTORY Magni aestimamus It was created as a military ordinariate by pope Benedict XVI on 1 February 2011 by apostolic bull Magni aestimamus. ORDINARIES MILITARY BISHOPS OF BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA FROM UNTIL INCUMBENT NOTES 2011 present TOMO VUKšIć Appointed the Military Ordinary of the Bosnia and Herzegovina by Pope Benedict XVI on 1 February 2011. SOURCES: REFERENCES * ^ "Military Ordinariate of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Military". Catholic-Hierarchy.org . David M. Cheney. Retrieved 21 January 2015
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Letters Patent
LETTERS PATENT (always in the plural) are a type of legal instrument in the form of a published written order issued by a monarch , president , or other head of state, generally granting an office, right, monopoly , title, or status to a person or corporation . Letters patent
Letters patent
can be used for the creation of corporations or government offices, or for the granting of city status or a coat of arms . Letters patent
Letters patent
are issued for the appointment of representatives of the Crown , such as governors and governors-general of Commonwealth realms , as well as appointing a Royal Commission . In the United Kingdom they are also issued for the creation of peers of the realm
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Charter
A CHARTER is the grant of authority or rights , stating that the granter formally recognizes the prerogative of the recipient to exercise the rights specified. It is implicit that the granter retains superiority (or sovereignty ), and that the recipient admits a limited (or inferior) status within the relationship, and it is within that sense that charters were historically granted, and that sense is retained in modern usage of the term. The word entered the English language from the Old French _charte_ (ultimately from the Greek Latin "χάρτης" word for "paper"). It has come to be synonymous with the document that lays out the granting of rights or privileges
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Pope
The POPE ( Latin : _papa_ from Greek : πάππας _pappas_, a child's word for "father"), also known as the PONTIFF, is the Bishop of Rome , and therefore ex officio the leader of the worldwide Catholic Church . The primacy of the Roman bishop is largely derived from his role as the apostolic successor to Saint Peter , to whom Jesus is supposed to have given the keys of Heaven and the powers of "binding and loosing", naming him as the "rock" upon which the church would be built. The Pope is also head of state of Vatican City , a sovereign city-state entirely enclaved within Rome. The current pope is Francis , who was elected on 13 March 2013, succeeding Benedict XVI . The office of the pope is the PAPACY
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Roman Catholic Church
The CATHOLIC CHURCH, also known as the ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH, is the largest Christian Church
Christian Church
, with more than 1.29 billion members worldwide. As one of the oldest religious institutions in the world, it has played a prominent role in the history and development of Western civilisation . Headed by the Bishop of Rome
Rome
, known as the Pope
Pope
, the church's doctrines are summarised in the Nicene Creed . Its central administration, the Holy See
Holy See
, is in the Vatican City
Vatican City
, enclaved within Rome
Rome
, Italy
Italy

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Seal (emblem)
A SEAL is a device for making an impression in wax , clay, paper, or some other medium, including an embossment on paper, and is also the impression thus made. The original purpose was to authenticate a document, a wrapper for one such as a modern envelope, or the cover of a container or package holding valuables or other objects. The seal-making device is also referred to as the seal matrix or die; the imprint it creates as the SEAL IMPRESSION (or, more rarely, the sealing). If the impression is made purely as a relief resulting from the greater pressure on the paper where the high parts of the matrix touch, the seal is known as a dry seal; in other cases ink or another liquid or liquefied medium is used, in another color than the paper. In most traditional forms of dry seal the design on the seal matrix is in intaglio (cut below the flat surface) and therefore the design on the impressions made is in relief (raised above the surface)
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Pope Leo X
POPE LEO X (11 December 1475 – 1 December 1521), born GIOVANNI DI LORENZO DE\' MEDICI, was Pope from 9 March 1513 to his death in 1521. The second son of Lorenzo the Magnificent , ruler of the Florentine Republic , he was elevated to the cardinalate in 1489. Following the death of Pope Julius II , Giovanni was elected pope after securing the backing of the younger members of the Sacred College . Early on in his rule he oversaw the closing sessions of the Fifth Council of the Lateran , but failed sufficiently to implement the reforms agreed. In 1517 he led a costly war that succeeded in securing his nephew as duke of Urbino , but which damaged the papal finances. He later only narrowly escaped a plot by some cardinals to poison him. He is probably best remembered for granting indulgences for those who donated to reconstruct St
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Martin Luther
MARTIN LUTHER (/ˈluːθər/ ; German: ( listen ); 10 November 1483 – 18 February 1546), O.S.A. , was a German professor of theology , composer, priest, monk and a seminal figure in the Protestant Reformation . Luther came to reject several teachings and practices of the Roman Catholic Church . He strongly disputed the Catholic view on indulgences as he understood it to be, that freedom from God's punishment for sin could be purchased with money. Luther proposed an academic discussion of the practice and efficacy of indulgences in his _ Ninety-five Theses _ of 1517. His refusal to renounce all of his writings at the demand of Pope Leo X in 1520 and the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V at the Diet of Worms in 1521 resulted in his excommunication by the Pope and condemnation as an outlaw by the Emperor
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Exsurge Domine
EXSURGE DOMINE (Latin for "Arise O Lord") is a papal bull promulgated on 15 June 1520 by Pope Leo X
Pope Leo X
. It was written in response to the teachings of Martin Luther
Martin Luther
which opposed the views of the Church. It censured forty one propositions extracted from Luther's 95 theses
95 theses
and subsequent writings, and threatened him with excommunication unless he recanted within a sixty-day period commencing upon the publication of the bull in Saxony
Saxony
and its neighboring regions. Luther refused to recant and responded instead by composing polemical tracts lashing out at the papacy and by publicly burning a copy of the bull on 10 December 1520. As a result, Luther was excommunicated in 1521
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Apostolic Chancery
The APOSTOLIC CHANCERY (Latin : ''CANCELLARIA APOSTOLICA\'\'; also known as the "Papal" or "Roman Chanc(ell)ery") was a dicastery of the Roman Curia
Roman Curia
at the service of the Supreme Pontiff of the Roman Catholic Church
Catholic Church
. The principal and presiding official was the Cardinal CHANCELLOR OF HOLY ROMAN CHURCH who was always Cardinal-Priest of the Basilica di San Lorenzo in Damaso
San Lorenzo in Damaso
. The original, principal function of the office was to collect money to maintain the Papal Army . Pope Pius VII reformed the office when Emperor Napoleon I of France obviated the need for Papal armies. In the early 20th century the office collected money for missionary work. Bl. Pope Paul VI
Pope Paul VI
abrogated the Cancellaria Apostolica on 27 February 1973. Its obligations were transferred to the Secretariat of State
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Pope Leo IX
POPE LEO IX (21 June 1002 – 19 April 1054), born BRUNO OF EGISHEIM-DAGSBURG, was Pope
Pope
from 12 February 1049 to his death in 1054. He was a German aristocrat and a powerful ruler of central Italy while holding the papacy. He is regarded as a saint by the Roman Catholic Church
Catholic Church
, his feast day celebrated on 19 April. Leo IX is widely considered the most historically significant German Pope
Pope
of the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
. CONTENTS * 1 Early life * 2 Papacy * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 Further reading * 6 External links EARLY LIFE Leo IX portrayed in a contemporary manuscript He was born to Count Hugh and Heilwig and was a native of Eguisheim
Eguisheim
, Upper Alsace
Alsace
(present day Alsace
Alsace
, France
France
)
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