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Papal Bull
A papal bull is a type of public decree, letters patent, or charter issued by a pope of the Roman Catholic Church. It is named after the leaden seal (bulla) that was traditionally appended to the end in order to authenticate it.Contents1 History 2 Format 3 Seal 4 Content 5 See also 6 Notes 7 References 8 Further readingHistory[edit]Printed text of Pope
Pope
Leo X's Bull against the errors of Martin Luther, also known as Exsurge Domine, issued in June 1520Papal bulls have been in use at least since the 6th century, but the phrase was not used until around the end of the 13th century, and then only internally for unofficial administrative purposes
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Convocation
A convocation (from the Latin
Latin
convocare meaning "to call/come together", a translation of the Greek ἐκκλησία ekklēsia) is a group of people formally assembled for a special purpose, mostly ecclesiastical or academic.Student receiving academic degree from Azim Premji
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Silk
Silk
Silk
is a natural protein fiber, some forms of which can be woven into textiles. The protein fiber of silk is composed mainly of fibroin and is produced by certain insect larvae to form cocoons.[1] The best-known silk is obtained from the cocoons of the larvae of the mulberry silkworm Bombyx mori
Bombyx mori
reared in captivity (sericulture). The shimmering appearance of silk is due to the triangular prism-like structure of the silk fibre, which allows silk cloth to refract incoming light at different angles, thus producing different colors. Silk
Silk
is produced by several insects, like silk worms but generally only the silk of moth caterpillars has been used for textile manufacturing
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Cardinal Secretary Of State
The Secretary of State of His Holiness The Pope, commonly known as the Cardinal Secretary of State, presides over the Holy See
Holy See
Secretariat of State, which is the oldest and most important dicastery of the Roman Curia.[1] The Secretariat of State performs all the political and diplomatic functions of the Holy See
Holy See
and the Vatican City. The Secretary of State is sometimes described as the prime minister of the Holy See,[2] even though the nominal head of government of Vatican City is the President of the Pontifical Commission for Vatican City State. The Secretary of State is currently Cardinal Pietro Parolin.[3]Contents1 Duties 2 History 3 List3.1 Secretaries of State between 1551 and 1644 3.2 Cardinal Secretaries of State since 16444 See also 5 Notes 6 External linksDuties[edit] The Cardinal Secretary is appointed by the Pope, and serves as one of his principal advisors
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Obverse And Reverse
Obverse and its opposite, reverse, refer to the two flat faces of coins and some other two-sided objects, including paper money, flags, seals, medals, drawings, old master prints and other works of art, and printed fabrics. In this usage, obverse means the front face of the object and reverse means the back face. The obverse of a coin is commonly called heads, because it often depicts the head of a prominent person, and the reverse tails. In fields of scholarship outside numismatics, the term front is more commonly used than obverse, while usage of reverse is widespread. The equivalent terms used in codicology, manuscript studies, print studies and publishing are "recto" and "verso".Contents1 Identification 2 Modern coins 3 Specific currencies3.1 Coins of the European Union 3.2 Coins of Japan 3.3 Coins of the United Kingdom 3.4 Coins of the United States4 See also 5 ReferencesIdentification[edit]This section does not cite any sources
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Gold
Gold
Gold
is a chemical element with symbol Au (from Latin: aurum) and atomic number 79, making it one of the higher atomic number elements that occur naturally. In its purest form, it is a bright, slightly reddish yellow, dense, soft, malleable, and ductile metal. Chemically, gold is a transition metal and a group 11 element. It is one of the least reactive chemical elements and is solid under standard conditions. Gold
Gold
often occurs in free elemental (native) form, as nuggets or grains, in rocks, in veins, and in alluvial deposits. It occurs in a solid solution series with the native element silver (as electrum) and also naturally alloyed with copper and palladium
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Golden Bull
A golden bull or chrysobull was a decree issued by Byzantine Emperors and later by monarchs in Europe during the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
and Renaissance, most notably by the Holy Roman Emperors. The term was originally coined for the golden seal (a bulla aurea), attached to the decree, but came to be applied to the entire decree. Such decrees were known as golden bulls in western Europe and chrysobullos logos, or chrysobulls, in the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
(χρυσός, chrysos, being Greek for gold). For nearly eight hundred years, they were issued unilaterally, without obligations on the part of the other party or parties. However, this eventually proved disadvantageous as the Byzantines sought to restrain the efforts of foreign powers to undermine the empire
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Twelve Apostles
In Christian theology
Christian theology
and ecclesiology, the apostles (Greek: ἀπόστολος, translit. apóstolos, lit. 'one who is sent away'), particularly the Twelve Apostles
Twelve Apostles
(also known as the Twelve Disciples or simply the Twelve), were the primary disciples of Jesus, the central figure in Christianity. During the life and ministry of Jesus
Jesus
in the 1st century AD, the apostles were his closest followers and became the primary teachers of the gospel message of Jesus. The word disciple is sometimes used interchangeably with apostle; for instance, the Gospel of John
Gospel of John
makes no distinction between the two terms[citation needed]. In modern usage, prominent missionaries are often called apostles, a practice which stems from the Latin
Latin
equivalent of apostle, i.e. missio, the source of the English word missionary
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Paul Of Tarsus
Paul the Apostle
Paul the Apostle
(Latin: Paulus; Greek: Παῦλος, translit. Paulos, Coptic: ⲡⲁⲩⲗⲟⲥ; c. 5 – c. 67), commonly known as Saint
Saint
Paul and also known by his Jewish name Saul of Tarsus (Hebrew: שאול התרסי‎, translit. Sha'ul ha-Tarsi; Greek: Σαῦλος Ταρσεύς, translit. Saulos Tarseus),[4][5][6] was an apostle (though not one of the Twelve Apostles) who taught the gospel of the Christ
Christ
to the first century world.[7] Paul is generally considered one of the most important figures of the Apostolic Age[8][9] and in the mid-30s to the mid-50s AD he founded several churches in Asia Minor and Europe. He took advantage of his status as both a Jew
Jew
and a Roman citizen
Roman citizen
to minister to both Jewish and Roman audiences
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Nominative Case
The nominative case (abbreviated NOM), subjective case, straight case or upright case is one of the grammatical cases of a noun or other part of speech, which generally marks the subject of a verb or the predicate noun or predicate adjective, as opposed to its object or other verb arguments
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Hemp
Hemp, or industrial hemp (from Old English
Old English
hænep),[1] typically found in the northern hemisphere, is a variety of the Cannabis
Cannabis
sativa plant species that is grown specifically for the industrial uses of its
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Vellum
Vellum
Vellum
is prepared animal skin or "membrane" used as a material for writing on
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Monogram
A monogram is a motif made by overlapping or combining two or more letters or other graphemes to form one symbol. Monograms are often made by combining the initials of an individual or a company, used as recognizable symbols or logos. A series of uncombined initials is properly referred to as a cypher (e.g. a royal cypher) and is not a monogram.[1]Contents1 History 2 Christograms 3 Royal monograms 4 Individual monograms 5 Other monograms 6 Resistance symbols in wartime 7 Japanese 8 Gallery 9 See also 10 ReferencesHistory[edit]The "AD" monogram that Albrecht Dürer
Albrecht Dürer
used as a signatureMonograms first appeared on coins, as early as 350BC. The earliest known examples are of the names of Greek cities who issued the coins, often the first two letters of the city's name
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Benvenuto Cellini
Benvenuto Cellini
Benvenuto Cellini
(Italian pronunciation: [beɱveˈnuːto tʃelˈliːni]; 3 November 1500 – 13 February 1571) was an Italian goldsmith, sculptor, draftsman, soldier, musician, and artist who also wrote a famous autobiography and poetry. He was one of the most important artists of Mannerism. He is remembered for his skill in making pieces such as the Cellini Salt Cellar and Perseus
Perseus
with the Head of Medusa.Contents1 Biography1.1 Youth 1.2 Work in Rome 1.3 Ferrara
Ferrara
and France 1.4 Death in Florence 1.5 Personal relationships2 Artwork2.1 Statues 2.2 Decorative art and portraiture 2.3 Lost works3 In literature and music3.1 Autobiography 3.2 Other works 3.3 In the works of others4 References 5 Further reading 6 External linksBiography[edit] Youth[edit] Benvenuto Cellini
Benvenuto Cellini
was born in Florence, in present-day Italy
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Italian Scudo
The scudo (pl. scudi) was the name for a number of coins used in Italy until the 19th century. The name, like that of the French écu
French écu
and the Spanish and Portuguese escudo, was derived from the Latin
Latin
scutum ("shield"). From the 16th century,[1] the name was used in Italy
Italy
for large silver coins. Sizes varied depending on the issuing country. First scudo d'argento (silver shield) was issued in 1551 by Charles V (1519–1556) in Milan.[1] Under Maria Theresa and Joseph II the scudo d'argento had a weight of 23.10 g and a fineness of 896/1000.[2] In the Kingdom of Lombardy-Venetia
Kingdom of Lombardy-Venetia
(under the control of the Habsburg Austrian Empire), the Lombardy-Venetia scudo was equivalent to the Conventionsthaler and was subdivided into six lire. Before the Napoleonic Wars, the lira was subdivided into 20 soldi, each of 12 denari
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Pope Paul III
Pope
Pope
Paul III (Latin: Paulus III; 29 February 1468 – 10 November 1549), born Alessandro Farnese, was Pope
Pope
from 13 October 1534 to his death in 1549. He came to the papal throne in an era following the sack of Rome
Rome
in 1527 and rife with uncertainties in the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
following the Protestant Reformation. During his pontificate, and in the spirit of the Counter-Reformation, new Catholic religious orders and societies, such as the Jesuits, the Barnabites, and the Congregation of the Oratory, attracted a popular following. He convened the Council of Trent
Council of Trent
in 1545. He was a significant patron of the arts and employed nepotism to advance the power and fortunes of his family
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