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Pandya
The PANDYAN OR PANDIYAN OR PANDIAN DYNASTY was an ancient Tamil dynasty , one of the three Tamil dynasties , the other two being the Chola
Chola
and the Chera . The kings of the three dynasties were referred to as the Three Crowned Kings of Tamilakam . The dynasty ruled parts of South India
South India
from around 600 BCE (Early Pandyan Kingdom ) to first half of 17th century CE. They initially ruled their country Pandya Nadu from Korkai , a seaport on the southernmost tip of the Indian Peninsula, and in later times moved to Madurai
Madurai
. Fish being their flag , Pandyas were experts in water management, agriculture(mostly near river banks) and fisheries and they were eminent sailors and sea traders too
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Delhi Sultanate
The DELHI SULTANATE was a Muslim
Muslim
sultanate based mostly in Delhi
Delhi
that stretched over large parts of the Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
for 320 years (1206–1526). Five dynasties ruled over the Delhi
Delhi
Sultanate sequentially: the Mamluk dynasty (1206–90), the Khalji dynasty (1290–1320), the Tughlaq dynasty (1320–1414), the Sayyid dynasty (1414–51), and the Lodi dynasty (1451–1526). The sultanate is noted for being one of the few states to repel an attack by the Mongol Empire , and enthroned one of the few female rulers in Islamic history, Razia Sultana , who reigned from 1236 to 1240. Qutb al-Din Aibak , a former Turkic Mamluk slave of Muhammad Ghori , was the first sultan of Delhi, and his Mamluk dynasty conquered large areas of northern India
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Monarchy
A MONARCHY is a form of government in which a group, generally a family representing a dynasty (aristocracy ), embodies the country's national identity and its head, the monarch , exercises the role of sovereignty. The actual power of the monarch may vary from purely symbolic (crowned republic ), to partial and restricted (constitutional monarchy ), to completely autocratic (absolute monarchy ). Traditionally the monarch's post is inherited and lasts until death or abdication. In contrast, elective monarchies require the monarch to be elected. Both types have further variations as there are widely divergent structures and traditions defining monarchy. For example, in some elected monarchies only pedigrees are taken into account for eligibility of the next ruler, whereas many hereditary monarchies impose requirements regarding the religion, age, gender, mental capacity, etc
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Iron Age
Iron Age metallurgy Ancient iron production Ancient history Mediterranean , Greater Persia , South Asia , China Historiography Greek , Roman , Chinese , Medieval The IRON AGE is the final epoch of the three-age system , preceded by the Stone Age ( Neolithic ) and the Bronze Age . It is an archaeological era in the prehistory and protohistory of Europe
Europe
and the Ancient Near East , and by analogy also used of other parts of the Old World . The three-age system was introduced in the first half of the 19th century for the archaeology of Europe
Europe
in particular, and by the later 19th century expanded to the archaeology of the Ancient Near East
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Madrasian Culture
The MADRASIAN CULTURE is a prehistoric archaeological culture of India
India
, dated to the Lower Paleolithic , the earliest subdivision of the Stone Age
Stone Age
. It belongs to the Acheulian industry , and some scholars consider the distinction between the Madrasian and the broader, regional Acheulian tradition defunct. The culture is characterized by bifacial handaxes and cleavers , but also includes flake tools , microliths and other chopping tools. Most were made from quartzite . The Madrasian was named for its type site of Attirampakkam , near to the city of Madras (now known as Chennai
Chennai
), discovered by British archaeologist and geologist Robert Bruce Foote in 1863. The oldest tools at Attirampakkam have been dated to 1.5 million years ago using cosmic-ray exposure dating
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Sanskrit
A few attempts at revival have been reported in Indian and Nepalese newspapers. India
India
: 14,135 Indians claimed Sanskrit
Sanskrit
to be their mother tongue in the 2001 Census of India
India
: Nepal
Nepal
: 1,669 Nepalis in 2011 Nepal census reported Sanskrit
Sanskrit
as their mother tongue. LANGUAGE FAMILY Indo-European * Indo-Iranian * Indo-Aryan * SANSKRIT EARLY FORM Vedic Sanskrit WRITING SYSTEM Devanagari
Devanagari
(official) Also written in various Brahmic scripts
Brahmic scripts

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Riwat
Coordinates : 33°30′N 73°12′E / 33.5°N 73.2°E / 33.5; 73.2 Riwat
Riwat
Shown within Pakistan
Pakistan
LOCATION Soan Valley , Punjab COORDINATES 33°30′N 73°12′E / 33.5°N 73.2°E / 33.5; 73.2 HISTORY PERIODS Lower Palaeolithic SITE NOTES DISCOVERED 1983 ARCHAEOLOGISTS * Robin Dennell * Bridget Allchin * F. Raymond Allchin RIWAT ( Rawat, Murree ) is a Paleolithic
Paleolithic
site in Punjab , northern Pakistan
Pakistan
. Another site, called Riwat Site 55 , shows a later occupation dated to around 45,000 years ago. CONTENTS * 1 Discovery * 2 Assemblage * 3 Site * 4 See also * 5 References DISCOVERY Riwat
Riwat
was discovered by the British Archaeological Mission to Pakistan, directed by F
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Naming Conventions Of Ancient Tamil Country
NAMING CONVENTIONS OF THE TAMILAKAM in the Sangam literature
Sangam literature
have been one of the foremost concerns of Tamilology . The Surnames of the Caṅkam Age: Literary Cēramān is the dynastic name; Yāṇaikkat 'Elephant-eyed' is a distinctive feature; Cēi is the iyatpeyar, or proper name; and Irumporai is an appellate. Another example is Malayamān Cōzhiya Ēnati Tirukkaṇṇan. Malayamān is the dynastic name; Cōzhiya, "of the Chola Nadu
Chola Nadu
; 'Ēnati" is the title of conferred by the King to the chief of the army in a ceremony known as Ēnatippatiyam; and Tirukkaṇṇan is his iyatpeyar, or proper name. DYNASTIC NAMEPoets spoke to kings about the need for children for carrying on the family or dynastic name. The dynastic or family name acts as a prefix and occurs before the actual name
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Sambuvaraya
The SAMBHUVARAYA chieftains once ruled the Tonda Mandalam region of South India. Among them was Edirili Chola Sambhuvaraya, a vassal under Rajadhiraja Chola II and Kulotunga Chola III, who ruled the northern part of Tondamandalam, now comprising the districts of Vellore
Vellore
, Tiruvannamalai
Tiruvannamalai
, Kancheepuram
Kancheepuram
, Kadalur Tiruvallur , Nellore , and Chittoor . CONTENTS * 1 Origin * 2 Rajagambhiram fort * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 Further reading * 6 External links ORIGINThe Sambhuvaraya capital was at Marudaraya Padaveedu, now known as Padavedu in Polur
Polur
u taluk , Tiruvannamala district , Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
. Padaveedu (also spelt Padavedu) is the site of the popular Sri Yellamma temple (Renuka Parameswari temple)
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Pande
PANDEY ( Hindi
Hindi
: पाण्डेय), PANDE (Nepali : पाण्डे वा पाँडे) is a surname found among the communities of India
India
and both Bahun and Chhetri
Chhetri
communities of Nepal
Nepal
. Pande of Nepal
Nepal
belonged to THAR GHAR aristocracy group which assisted the rulers of Gorkha Kingdom . Deshpande and other variations of this surname, ending in "-pande", are found in the Deccan
Deccan
region of India
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Velirs
The VELIR were a royal house of minor dynastic kings and aristocratic chieftains in Tamilakam
Tamilakam
in the early historic period of South India
South India
. They were vassals and rivals of the Ventars (Chera , Chola
Chola
and Pandya
Pandya
kings). They had close relations with them through marriages and coronation rights. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Velir chiefs * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links HISTORYAccording to the Tholkappiyam , the earliest work of Tamil literature, the Velirs came from the city of Dwarka
Dwarka
under the leadership of sage Agastya
Agastya
and may have belonged to the Yadava
Yadava
clan
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South Asian Stone Age
The SOUTH ASIAN STONE AGE covers the Palaeolithic
Palaeolithic
, Mesolithic and Neolithic
Neolithic
periods in South Asia
South Asia
. Evidence for the most ancient anatomically modern Homo sapiens
Homo sapiens
in South Asia
South Asia
has been found in the cave sites of Batadombalena and Belilena in Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
. In Mehrgarh
Mehrgarh
, in what is today western Pakistan
Pakistan
, the Neolithic
Neolithic
began c
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Hinduism
ARTS * Bharatanatyam
Bharatanatyam
* Kathak * Kathakali
Kathakali
*
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Tamil Language
Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
Singapore
Singapore
India
India
: * Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
* Puducherry * Andaman line-height:1.1em; padding-right:0.5em;"> Recognised minority language in Malaysia
Malaysia
Mauritius
Mauritius
South Africa
South Africa
LANGUAGE CODES ISO 639-1 ta ISO 639-2 tam ISO 639-3 Variously: tam – Modern Tamil oty – Old Tamil ptq – Pattapu Bhashai LINGUIST LIST oty Old Tamil GLOTTOLOG tamil1289 Modern Tamil oldt1248 Old Tamil LINGUASPHERE 49-EBE-a THIS ARTICLE CONTAINS IPA PHONETIC SYMBOLS. Without proper rendering support , you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode
Unicode
characters
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Outline Of South Asian History
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to the history of South Asia: HISTORY OF SOUTH ASIA – SOUTH ASIA includes the contemporary political entities of the Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
and associated islands, therefore, its history includes the histories of India , Pakistan , Bangladesh , Nepal , Afghanistan , Bhutan , and the island nations of Sri Lanka and the Maldives
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Early Cholas
The CHOLAS of the pre and post Sangam period
Sangam period
(400 BCE – 200 CE) were one of the three main kingdoms of the ancient Tamil country . Their early capitals were Urayur and Kaveripattinam . Along with Pandyas and Cheras , Chola
Chola
history goes back to the period where the history is covered with the mists of time. Although we hear the exploits of a number of Cholas of this period through Sangam literature
Sangam literature
and later folklore , it is hard to elucidate exact histories with any amount of certainty
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