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Pandya
The PANDYAN OR PANDIYAN OR PANDIAN DYNASTY was an ancient Tamil dynasty , one of the three Tamil dynasties , the other two being the Chola
Chola
and the Chera . The kings of the three dynasties were referred to as the Three Crowned Kings of Tamilakam . The dynasty ruled parts of South India
South India
from around 600 BCE (Early Pandyan Kingdom ) to first half of 17th century CE. They initially ruled their country _ Pandya Nadu _ from Korkai
Korkai
, a seaport on the southernmost tip of the Indian Peninsula, and in later times moved to Madurai
Madurai
. Fish being their flag , Pandyas
Pandyas
were experts in water management, agriculture(mostly near river banks) and fisheries and they were eminent sailors and sea traders too. _Pandyan_ was well known since ancient times, with contacts, even diplomatic, reaching the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
. The Pandyan empire was home to temples including Meenakshi Amman Temple in Madurai
Madurai
, and Nellaiappar Temple
Nellaiappar Temple
built on the bank of the river Thamirabarani in Tirunelveli
Tirunelveli
. The Pandya
Pandya
kings were called either Jatavarman or Maravarman. They were Jains in their early ages but later became Shaivaites
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Pande
PANDEY ( Hindi : पाण्डेय), PANDE (Nepali : पाण्डे वा पाँडे) is a surname found among the communities of India and both Bahun and Chhetri communities of Nepal . Pande of Nepal belonged to THAR GHAR aristocracy group which assisted the rulers of Gorkha Kingdom . Deshpande and other variations of this surname, ending in "-pande", are found in the Deccan region of India
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Korkai
KORKAI is a small village in the Srivaikuntam taluk of Thoothukudi district in Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
, India
India
. It was called Pandya-Kavada in the Kapatapuram in Kalithogai. It is situated about 3 km north of the Thamirabarani River and about 6 km from the shore of Bay of Bengal . Korkai
Korkai
was the capital, principal center of trade and important port of the Early Pandyan Kingdom . At that time, it was located on the banks of the Tamraparani River and at the sea coast, forming a natural harbour. Due to excessive sedimentation, the sea has receded about 6 km in the past 2000 years, leaving Korkai
Korkai
well inland today. The famous urn burial site, Adichanallur , is located about 15 km. from Korkai. In ancient times, Korkai
Korkai
was a well known center of pearl fishery; it is mentioned often in the Sangam literature and in classical western literature. Ptolemy
Ptolemy
refers to the place as Kolkhai and says that it was an emporium. The _ Periplus _ says that the Pandyan kingdom extended from Comari towards the north, including Korkai, where the pearl fisheries were. The 2000-year-old 'Vanni' tree is in Korkai. Correct identification of Korkai
Korkai
by archaeological excavations came in 1838
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Madurai
MADURAI is a major city in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
. It is the administrative headquarters of Madurai District . Madurai
Madurai
is the third largest city by population in Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
, and is the 25th populated city in India. Located on the banks of River Vaigai , Madurai
Madurai
has been a major settlement for two millennia. Madurai
Madurai
has been selected as one of the hundred Indian cities to be developed as a smart city under Prime Minister Narendra Modi's flagship Smart Cities Mission. Madurai
Madurai
is closely associated with the Tamil language
Tamil language
, and the third Tamil Sangam
Tamil Sangam
, a major congregation of Tamil scholars said to have been held in the city. The recorded history of the city goes back to the 3rd century BCE, being mentioned by Megasthenes , the Greek ambassador to the Maurya empire , and Kautilya , a minister of the Mauryan emperor Chandragupta Maurya . Signs of human settlements and Roman trade links dating back to 300BC are evident from excavations by Archeological Survey of India
India
in Manalur
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Tenkasi
CONTENTS * 1 History of Tenkasi
Tenkasi
* 2 Demographics * 3 Politics * 4 Transport * 5 Top 10 places to visit Tenkasi
Tenkasi
* 6 Kasi Viswanathar Temple / Ulagamman Temple * 7 Courtallam
Courtallam
Falls/Kutralam Falls * 8 Ayikudi Balasubramanya Temple * 9 Kutralanathar Temple - Courtallam
Courtallam
* 10 Five Falls / Aintharuvi * 11 Pazhaya Courtallaruvi/ Old Courtallam
Courtallam
* 12 Tiger Falls or Puli Aruvi * 13 Thirumalai Kovil * 14 Thirumalapuram Rock-cut cave Temples * 15 Gundar Dam * 16 Geography * 17 References * 18 External links HISTORY OF TENKASITENKASI is one of the municipalities in the Tirunelveli district of Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
, India
India
. Tenkasi, South Banaras is also famous for its temple. The story of its temple is narrated in an inscription on a four sided pillar set up in front of the gopuram
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Tirunelveli
www.tirunelvelicorporation.com www.nellai.tn.nic.in TIRUNELVELI pronunciation (help ·info )), also known as NELLAI and historically (during British rule ) as TINNEVELLY, is a city in the South Indian state of Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
. It is the administrative headquarters of the Tirunelveli District . Tirunelveli
Tirunelveli
is located 700 km (430 mi) southwest of the state capital, Chennai
Chennai
and 58 km (36 mi) away from Thoothukudi . Tirunelveli
Tirunelveli
central street The city is located on the west bank of the Thamirabarani River ; its twin city Palayamkottai is on the east bank. Tirunelveli
Tirunelveli
is believed to be an ancient settlement; it has been ruled at different times by the Early Pandyas , the Medieval and Later Cholas , the later Pandyas, the Ma\'bar and Tirunelveli
Tirunelveli
sultanates, the Vijayanagar Empire , the Madurai Nayaks
Madurai Nayaks
, Chanda Sahib , the Carnatic kingdom and the British . The Polygar War , involving Palaiyakkarars led by Veerapandiya Kattabomman and forces of the British East India Company, was waged on the city's outskirts from 1797 to 1801
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Tamil Language
Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
Singapore
Singapore
India
India
: * Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
* Puducherry * Andaman line-height:1.1em; padding-right:0.5em;"> Recognised minority language in Malaysia
Malaysia
Mauritius
Mauritius
South Africa
South Africa
LANGUAGE CODES ISO 639-1 ta ISO 639-2 tam ISO 639-3 Variously: tam – Modern Tamil oty – Old Tamil ptq – Pattapu Bhashai LINGUIST LIST oty Old Tamil GLOTTOLOG tami1289 Modern Tamil
Modern Tamil
oldt1248 Old Tamil LINGUASPHERE 49-EBE-a THIS ARTICLE CONTAINS IPA PHONETIC SYMBOLS. Without proper rendering support , you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters. For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA . THIS ARTICLE CONTAINS INDIC TEXT . Without proper rendering support , you may see question marks or boxes , misplaced vowels or missing conjuncts instead of Indic text. Tamil is written in a non-Latin script
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Sanskrit
A few attempts at revival have been reported in Indian and Nepalese newspapers. India : 14135 Indians claimed Sanskrit to be their mother tongue in the 2001 Census of India : Nepal : 1669 Nepalis in 2011 Nepal census reported Sanskrit as their mother tongue. LANGUAGE FAMILY Indo-European * Indo-Iranian * Indo-Aryan * SANSKRIT EARLY FORM Vedic Sanskrit WRITING SYSTEM No native script. Written in various Brahmic scripts . LANGUAGE CODES ISO 639-1 sa ISO 639-2 san ISO 639-3 san GLOTTOLOG sans1269 SANSKRIT ( IAST : _Saṃskṛtam_; Devanagari : संस्कृतम्; IPA : ) is the primary liturgical language of Hinduism ; a philosophical language of Hinduism , Sikhism , Buddhism , and Jainism ; and a literary language and lingua franca of ancient and medieval India and Nepal . As a result of transmission of Hindu and Buddhist culture to Southeast Asia and parts of Central Asia , it was also a language of high culture in some of these regions during the early-medieval era
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Hinduism
HINDUISM is a religion, or a way of life, widely practiced in the Indian subcontinent . Hinduism has been called the oldest religion in the world, and some practitioners and scholars refer to it as _Sanātana Dharma _, "the eternal tradition," or the "eternal way," beyond human history. Scholars regard Hinduism as a fusion or synthesis of various Indian cultures and traditions, with diverse roots and no founder. This " Hindu synthesis" started to develop between 500 BCE and 300 CE following the Vedic period (1500 BCE to 500 BCE). Although Hinduism contains a broad range of philosophies, it is linked by shared concepts, recognisable rituals, cosmology , shared textual resources , and pilgrimage to sacred sites . Hindu texts are classified into Shruti ("heard") and Smriti ("remembered"). These texts discuss theology , philosophy , mythology , Vedic yajna , Yoga , agamic rituals , and temple building , among other topics. Major scriptures include the Vedas and Upanishads , the Bhagavad Gita , and the Agamas . Sources of authority and eternal truths in its texts play an important role, but there is also a strong Hindu tradition of the questioning of this authority, to deepen the understanding of these truths and to further develop the tradition
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Jainism
JAINISM (/ˈdʒeɪnɪzəm/ or /ˈdʒaɪnɪzəm/ ), traditionally known as JAIN DHARMA, is an ancient Indian religion . Jainism followers are called "Jains", a word derived from the Sanskrit word _jina _ (victor) and connoting the path of victory in crossing over life's stream of rebirths through an ethical and spiritual life. Jains trace their history through a succession of twenty-four victorious saviors and teachers known as _Tirthankaras _, with the first being Rishabhanatha , who is believed to have lived millions of years ago, and twenty-fourth being the Mahavira around 500 BCE. Jains believe that Jainism is an eternal _dharma _ with the Tirthankaras guiding every cycle of the Jain cosmology. The main religious premises of Jainism are _ahimsa _ ("non-violence"), _anekantavada _ ("many-sidedness"), _aparigraha _ ("non-attachment") and _asceticism _. Followers of Jainism take five main vows: _ahimsa _ ("non-violence"), _satya _ ("truth"), _asteya _ ("not stealing"), _brahmacharya _ ("celibacy or chastity"), and _aparigraha _ ("non-attachment"). These principles have impacted Jain culture in many ways, such as leading to a predominantly vegetarian lifestyle that avoids harm to animals and their life cycles. _ Parasparopagraho Jivanam _ ("the function of souls is to help one another") is the motto of Jainism
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Monarchy
A MONARCHY is a form of government in which a group, generally a family representing a dynasty , embodies the country's national identity and its head, the monarch , exercises the role of sovereignty. The actual power of the monarch may vary from purely symbolic (crowned republic ), to partial and restricted (_constitutional_ monarchy ), to completely autocratic (_absolute_ monarchy ). Traditionally the monarch's post is inherited and lasts until death or abdication. In contrast, elective monarchies require the monarch to be elected. Both types have further variations as there are widely divergent structures and traditions defining monarchy. For example, in some elected monarchies only pedigrees are taken into account for eligibility of the next ruler, whereas many hereditary monarchies impose requirements regarding the religion, age, gender, mental capacity, etc. Occasionally this might create a situation of rival claimants whose legitimacy is subject to effective election. There have been cases where the term of a monarch's reign is either fixed in years or continues until certain goals are achieved: an invasion being repulsed, for instance. Richard I of England being anointed during his coronation in Westminster Abbey , from a 13th-century chronicle. Monarchic rule was the most common form of government until the 19th century
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Kadungon
KADUNGON was a Pandya king who revived the Pandya rule in South India in the 7th century CE. Along with the Pallava king Simhavishnu , he is credited with ending the Kalabhra rule, marking the beginning of a new era in the Tamil speaking region. Most historians, including R. C. Majumdar , state the period of Kadungon rule as 590–620 CE. The Sangam literature mentions the early Pandya dynasty , which is believed to have gone into obscurity during the Kalabhra interregnum . The last known king of this dynasty was Ugrapperuvaludi . Kadungon is the next known Pandyan king. Not much information is available about him. Most of the knowledge about him comes from the Velvikudi (or Velvikkud) inscription of the Pandya king Parantaka Nedunchadaiyan (also Nedunjadaiyan or Nedunchezhiyan). According to this inscription, Kadungon defeated several petty chieftains and destroyed "the bright cities of unbending foes". It describes him as the one who liberated the Pandya country from the Kalabhras and emerged as a "resplendent sun from the dark clouds of the Kalabhras". His defeat of Kalabhras (who were probably Jains or Buddhists ) was hailed as the triumph of Brahminism . Kadungon's title was "Pandyadhiraja", and his capital was Madurai
Madurai
. He was succeeded by his son Avani Sulamani . REFERENCES * ^ Majumdar, Ramesh Chandra (1987)
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Jatavarman Parakrama Pandyan
JATAVARMAN PARAKRAMA PANDYAN was a ruler of the Pandyan dynasty between 1473 and 1506. He was known by the regnal title of AZHAGAN PERUMAL, while his inscriptions start with PUMISAIVVANITAI (in Tamil) and SAMASTABHUVAIKAVIRA (in Sanskrit). He made additions to the temple at Tenkasi and claimed military victories against Kerala . REFERENCES * ^ Nilakanta Sastri, Kallidaikurichi Aiyah (1972). The Pāṇḍyan Kingdom from the Earliest Times to the Sixteenth Century. Madras: Swathi Publications. p. 249. * ^ Kalidos, Raju (1976). History and Culture of the Tamils: From Prehistoric Times to the President's Rule. West Mambalam: Vijay Publications. p. 190. Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Jatavarman_Parakrama_Pandyan additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy .® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc
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Iron Age
The IRON AGE is an archaeological era , referring to a period of time in the prehistory and protohistory of the Old World ( Afro-Eurasia ) when the dominant toolmaking material was iron . It is commonly preceded by the Bronze Age in Europe and Asia and the Stone Age in Africa, with exceptions. Meteoric iron has been used by humans since at least 3200 BC. Ancient iron production did not become widespread until the ability to smelt iron ore , remove impurities and regulate the amount of carbon in the alloy were developed. The start of the Iron Age proper is considered by many to fall between around 1200 BC and 600 BC, depending on the region
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