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Pancasila (politics)
PANCASILA (pantʃaˈsila) is the official, foundational philosophical theory of the Indonesian state. Pancasila comprises two Old Javanese words originally derived from Sanskrit
Sanskrit
: "pañca" ("five") and "sīla" ("principles")
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Communist Party Of Indonesia
The COMMUNIST PARTY OF INDONESIA (Indonesian : Partai Komunis Indonesia, PKI) was a communist party in Indonesia
Indonesia
that existed throughout the mid-20th century. It was the largest non-ruling communist party in the world prior to being eradicated in 1965 and banned in the following year. The PKI was a legal party made up of unarmed civilians operating openly in Indonesia’s political system
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Masyumi
MASYUMI PARTY (Indonesian : Partai Majelis Syuro Muslimin Indonesia) (Council of Indonesian Muslim Associations) was a major Islamic political party in Indonesia
Indonesia
during the Liberal Democracy Era in Indonesia
Indonesia
. It was banned in 1960 by President Sukarno
Sukarno
for supporting the PRRI rebellion. Masyumi was the name given to an organization established by the occupying Japanese in 1943 in an attempt to control Islam
Islam
in Indonesia. Following the Indonesian Declaration of Independence
Indonesian Declaration of Independence
, on 7 November 1945 a new organization called Masyumi was formed. In less than a year it became the largest political party in Indonesia. It included the Islamic organizations such as Nahdlatul Ulama and Muhammadiyah
Muhammadiyah

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Sarekat Islam
SAREKAT ISLAM, formerly Islamists Trade Union (Indonesian: Sarekat Dagang Islam), was a cooperative of Javanese batik traders in the Dutch East Indies
Dutch East Indies
and a predecessor of independent Indonesia
Indonesia
. The group was founded by Haji Samanhudi , a dealer of batik , in 1905 in Surakarta
Surakarta
or 1912. Sarekat Dagang Islam, or Union of Islamic Traders, had as its goal the empowerment of local merchants, especially in the batik industry. The establishment of the organization was inspired by the Jamiat Kheir organization. As Sarekat Dagang Islam grew, it was reorganized under the name Sarekat Islam. Sarekat Islam's general office was in Surabaya
Surabaya
. Early prominent figures of Sarekat Islam
Sarekat Islam
included H.O.S. Cokroaminoto and Haji Agus Salim
Agus Salim
. H.O.S
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Indonesian National Party
The INDONESIAN NATIONAL PARTY (Indonesian : Partai Nasional Indonesia, PNI) is the name used by several political parties in Indonesia
Indonesia
from 1927 until the present day. CONTENTS * 1 Pre-independence * 2 Post-independence * 3 References * 4 Notes PRE-INDEPENDENCEOn July 4, 1927, Sukarno
Sukarno
, a young engineer at the time, and members of the Algemeene Studie Club formed a movement called the Indonesian National Association. In May 1928, the name was changed to the Indonesian National Party. The organization's aim was economic and political independence for the Indonesian archipelago. This would be achieved by non-cooperation with the Dutch colonial regime . By the end of 1929, the organization had 10,000 members. This alarmed the authorities, and Sukarno
Sukarno
and seven party leaders were arrested in December 1929
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Pantheism
PANTHEISM is the belief that all reality is identical with divinity , or that everything composes an all-encompassing, immanent god. Pantheists do not believe in a distinct personal or anthropomorphic god , and hold a broad range of doctrines differing with regards to the forms of and relationships between divinity and reality. Pantheism
Pantheism
was popularized in Western culture
Western culture
as a theology and philosophy based on the work of the 17th-century philosopher Baruch Spinoza , :p.7 particularly his book Ethics
Ethics
, published in 1677. The term "pantheism" was coined by Joseph Raphson in 1697 and has since been used to describe the beliefs of a variety of people and organizations
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Representative Democracy
REPRESENTATIVE DEMOCRACY (also INDIRECT DEMOCRACY, REPRESENTATIVE REPUBLIC, or PSEPHOCRACY) is a type of democracy founded on the principle of elected officials representing a group of people, as opposed to direct democracy . Nearly all modern Western-style democracies are types of representative democracies; for example, the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
is a constitutional monarchy , Ireland is a parliamentary republic , and the United States
United States
is a federal republic . Representative democracy
Representative democracy
is often presented as the most efficient form of democracy possible in mass societies. It arguably allows for efficient ruling by a sufficiently small number of people on behalf of the larger number. Government efficiency can be judged based on metric of cost effectiveness and time effectiveness
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Social Welfare
WELFARE is the provision of a minimal level of well-being and social support for citizens without current means to support basic needs. In most developed countries, welfare is largely provided by the government from tax income, and to a lesser extent by NGOs , charities , informal social groups, religious groups, and inter-governmental organizations. Social security
Social security
expands on this concept, especially in welfare states , by providing all inhabitants with various social services such as universal healthcare , unemployment insurance , student financial aid (in addition to free post-secondary education ), and others. In its 1952 Social Security (Minimum Standards) Convention (nr. 102) , the International Labour Organization
International Labour Organization
(ILO) defined the traditional contingencies covered by social security
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Welfare State
The WELFARE STATE is a concept of government in which the state plays a key role in the protection and promotion of the social and economic well-being of its citizens. It is based on the principles of equality of opportunity , equitable distribution of wealth , and public responsibility for those unable to avail themselves of the minimal provisions for a good life. The general term may cover a variety of forms of economic and social organization. The sociologist T.H. Marshall described the modern welfare state as a distinctive combination of democracy , welfare , and capitalism . Modern welfare states include Germany, France, the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and the Netherlands, as well as the Nordic countries
Nordic countries
, such as Iceland, Sweden, Norway, Denmark, and Finland
Finland
which employ a system known as the Nordic model
Nordic model

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Communism
In political and social sciences , COMMUNISM (from Latin
Latin
communis, "common, universal") is the philosophical, social, political, and economic ideology and movement whose ultimate goal is the establishment of the communist society , which is a socioeconomic order structured upon the common ownership of the means of production and the absence of social classes , money , and the state . Communism
Communism
includes a variety of schools of thought, which broadly include Marxism
Marxism
, anarchism (anarchist communism ), and the political ideologies grouped around both
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Anti-colonial Nationalism
NATIONALISM is a political, social, and economic system characterized by promoting the interests of a particular nation, particularly with the aim of gaining and maintaining self-governance , or full sovereignty , over the group's homeland . The political ideology therefore holds that a nation should govern itself, free from unwanted outside interference, and is linked to the concept of self-determination . Nationalism
Nationalism
is further oriented towards developing and maintaining a national identity based on shared characteristics such as culture, language, race, religion, political goals or a belief in a common ancestry. Nationalism
Nationalism
therefore seeks to preserve the nation's culture. It often also involves a sense of pride in the nation's achievements, and is closely linked to the concept of patriotism
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Second World War
Allied victory * Collapse of Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
* Fall of Japanese and Italian Empires * Dissolution of the League of Nations * Creation of the United Nations
United Nations
* Emergence of the United States
United States
and the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
as superpowers * Beginning of the Cold War (more... ) PARTICIPANTS ALLIES AXIS COMMANDERS AND LEADERS MAIN ALLIED LEADERS Joseph Stalin Franklin D
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Islamism
Politics
Politics
portal Islam
Islam
portal * v * t * e ISLAMISM is a concept whose meaning has been debated in both public and academic contexts. The term can refer to diverse forms of social and political activism advocating that public and political life should be guided by Islamic principles, or more specifically to movements which call for full implementation of sharia . It is commonly used interchangeably with the terms POLITICAL ISLAM or Islamic fundamentalism . In Western media usage the term tends to refer to groups who aim to establish a sharia-based Islamic state, often with implication of violent tactics and human rights violations, and has acquired connotations of political extremism. Islamist movements have "arguably altered the Middle East more than any trend since the modern states gained independence", redefining "politics and even borders" according to Robin Wright
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Christianity
CHRISTIANITY is a monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus
Jesus
Christ
Christ
, who serves as the focal point of the Christian
Christian
faith . It is the world\'s largest religion , with over 2.4 billion followers, or 33% of the global population, known as Christians
Christians
. Christians
Christians
make up a majority of the population in 158 countries and territories . They believe that Jesus
Jesus
is the Son of God and the savior of humanity whose coming as the Messiah
Messiah
(the Christ
Christ
) was prophesied in the Old Testament . Christian theology is summarized in creeds such as the Apostles\' Creed
Creed
and Nicene Creed
Creed

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Islam
ISLAM (/ˈɪslɑːm/ ) is an Abrahamic monotheistic religion which professes that there is only one and incomparable God
God
( Allah ) and that Muhammad
Muhammad
is the last messenger of God. It is the world\'s second-largest religion and the fastest-growing major religion in the world , with over 1.8 billion followers or 24.1% of the global population, known as Muslims . Muslims make up a majority of the population in 49 countries. Islam
Islam
teaches that God
God
is merciful , all-powerful , unique , and has guided mankind through prophets , revealed scriptures and natural signs . The primary scriptures of Islam
Islam
are the Quran
Quran
, viewed by Muslims as the verbatim word of God, and the teachings and normative example (called the sunnah , composed of accounts called hadith ) of Muhammad
Muhammad
(c
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Hinduism
HINDUISM is a religion, or a way of life, widely practiced in the Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
. Hinduism
Hinduism
has been called the oldest religion in the world, and some practitioners and scholars refer to it as Sanātana Dharma , "the eternal tradition," or the "eternal way," beyond human history. Scholars regard Hinduism
Hinduism
as a fusion or synthesis of various Indian cultures and traditions, with diverse roots and no founder. This " Hindu