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Panama
Coordinates : 9°N 80°W / 9°N 80°W / 9; -80 Republic of Panama República de Panamá (Spanish ) Flag Coat of arms MOTTO: "Pro Mundi Beneficio" "For the Benefit of the World" ANTHEM: Himno Istmeño (Spanish ) Hymn of the Isthmus Capital and largest city Panama City
Panama City
8°58′N 79°32′W / 8.967°N 79.533°W / 8.967; -79.533 OFFICIAL LANGUAGES Spanish <
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Purchasing Power Parity
PURCHASING POWER PARITY (PPP) is an economic theory that states that the exchange rate between two currencies is equal to the ratio of the currencies' respective purchasing power . Theories that invoke purchasing power parity assume that in some circumstances (for example, as a long-run tendency) it would cost exactly the same number of, for example, US dollars to buy euros and then to use the difference in value to buy a market basket of goods as it would cost to directly purchase the market basket of goods with dollars. A fall in either currency's purchasing power would lead to a proportional decrease in that currency's valuation on the foreign exchange market . The concept of purchasing power parity allows one to estimate what the exchange rate between two currencies would have to be in order for the exchange to be at par with the purchasing power of the two countries' currencies
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Gross Domestic Product
GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT (GDP) is a monetary measure of the market value of all final goods and services produced in a period (quarterly or yearly) of time . Nominal GDP estimates are commonly used to determine the economic performance of a whole country or region, and to make international comparisons. Nominal GDP per capita
GDP per capita
does not, however, reflect differences in the cost of living and the inflation rates of the countries; therefore using a basis of GDP per capita
GDP per capita
at purchasing power parity (PPP) is arguably more useful when comparing differences in living standards between different nations
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Separation
SEPARATION may refer to: * Separation (United States military) , the process by which a service member leaves active duty * Separation (air traffic control) , rules to minimise the risk of collision between aircraft in flight * Separation mastering , in music recordingCONTENTS* 1 Literature, film, and music * 1.1 Film * 1.2 Books * 1.3 Music * 2 Science * 3 Law and society * 4 Politics * 5 See also LITERATURE, FILM, AND MUSICFILM * <
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Gini Coefficient
In economics , the GINI COEFFICIENT (sometimes expressed as a GINI RATIO or a normalized GINI INDEX) (/dʒini/ jee-nee ) is a measure of statistical dispersion intended to represent the income or wealth distribution of a nation's residents, and is the most commonly used measure of inequality. It was developed by the Italian statistician and sociologist Corrado Gini and published in his 1912 paper Variability and Mutability (Italian : Variabilità e mutabilità). The Gini coefficient
Gini coefficient
measures the inequality among values of a frequency distribution (for example, levels of income ). A Gini coefficient of zero expresses perfect equality, where all values are the same (for example, where everyone has the same income)
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Human Development Index
The HUMAN DEVELOPMENT INDEX (HDI) is a composite statistic of life expectancy , education , and per capita income indicators, which are used to rank countries into four tiers of human development . A country scores higher HDI when the lifespan is higher, the education level is higher, and the GDP per capita
GDP per capita
is higher. The HDI was developed by Indian Economist Amartya Sen and Pakistani economist Mahbub ul Haq , often framed in terms of whether people are able to "be" and "do" desirable things in their life, and was published by the United Nations Development Programme
United Nations Development Programme
. The 2010 Human Development Report introduced an Inequality-adjusted Human Development Index
Human Development Index
(IHDI)
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Country Code Top-level Domain
A COUNTRY CODE TOP-LEVEL DOMAIN (CCTLD) is an Internet
Internet
top-level domain generally used or reserved for a country , sovereign state, or dependent territory identified with a country code . All ASCII
ASCII
ccTLD identifiers are two letters long, and all two-letter top-level domains are ccTLDs. In 2010, the Internet
Internet
Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) began implementing internationalized country code top-level domains , consisting of language-native characters when displayed in an end-user application. Creation and delegation of ccTLDs is described in RFC 1591 , corresponding to ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 country codes
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ISO 3166
ISO 3166 is a standard published by the International Organization for Standardization
Standardization
(ISO) that defines codes for the names of countries , dependent territories , special areas of geographical interest, and their principal subdivisions (e.g., provinces or states ). The official name of the standard is Codes for the representation of names of countries and their subdivisions. CONTENTS * 1 Parts * 2 Editions * 3 ISO 3166 Maintenance Agency * 3.1 Members * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links PARTSIt consists of three parts: * ISO 3166-1 , Codes for the representation of names of countries and their subdivisions – Part 1: Country
Country
codes, defines codes for the names of countries, dependent territories, and special areas of geographical interest
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Coordinated Universal Time
COORDINATED UNIVERSAL TIME abbreviated to UTC, is the primary time standard by which the world regulates clocks and time. It is within about 1 second of mean solar time at 0° longitude ; it does not observe daylight saving time . For most purposes, UTC is considered interchangeable with Greenwich Mean Time
Greenwich Mean Time
(GMT), but GMT
GMT
is no longer precisely defined by the scientific community. The first Coordinated Universal Time was informally adopted on 1 January 1960, but the official abbreviation of UTC and the official English name of Coordinated Universal Time (along with the French equivalent), was not adopted until 1967. The system was adjusted several times, including a brief period where time coordination radio signals broadcast both UTC and "Stepped Atomic Time
Time
(SAT)" until a new UTC was adopted in 1970 and implemented in 1972
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Constitutional Republic
A REPUBLIC (Latin : res publica ) is a form of government in which the country is considered a "public matter", not the private concern or property of the rulers. The primary positions of power within a republic are not inherited. It is a form of government under which the head of state is not a monarch . In American English, the definition of a republic can also refer specifically to a government in which elected individuals represent the citizen body. and a republic that exercise power according to the rule of law with a constitution including separation of powers with a separate elected chief executive (a constitutional republic) or representative democracy (a democratic republic )
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Independence
INDEPENDENCE is a condition of a nation , country , or state in which its residents and population, or some portion thereof, exercise self-government , and usually sovereignty , over the territory. The opposite of independence is a dependent territory . CONTENTS* 1 Definition of independence * 1.1 Distinction between independence and autonomy * 2 Declarations of independence * 3 Historical overview * 4 Continents * 5 Notes * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 Article note DEFINITION OF INDEPENDENCEWhether the attainment of independence is different from revolution has long been contested, and has often been debated over the question of violence as a legitimate means to achieving sovereignty. While some revolutions seek and achieve national independence, others aim only to redistribute power — with or without an element of emancipation, such as in democratization — within a state, which as such may remain unaltered
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Ethnic Groups
An ETHNIC GROUP, or an ETHNICITY, is a category of people who identify with each other based on similarities such as common ancestry , language , society , culture or nation . Ethnicity is usually an inherited status based on the society in which one lives. Membership of an ethnic group tends to be defined by a shared cultural heritage , ancestry , origin myth , history , homeland , language or dialect , symbolic systems such as religion , mythology and ritual , cuisine , dressing style, art , and physical appearance . Ethnic groups, derived from the same historical founder population , often continue to speak related languages and share a similar gene pool . By way of language shift , acculturation , adoption and religious conversion , it is sometimes possible for individuals or groups to leave one ethnic group and become part of another (except for ethnic groups emphasizing racial purity as a key membership criterion)
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Geographic Coordinate System
A GEOGRAPHIC COORDINATE SYSTEM is a coordinate system used in geography that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols. The coordinates are often chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position , and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position . A common choice of coordinates is latitude , longitude and elevation . To specify a location on a two-dimensional map requires a map projection
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Spain
Coordinates : 40°N 4°W / 40°N 4°W / 40; -4 Kingdom of Spain Reino de España (Spanish ) 6 other official names * ARAGONESE : Reino d'Espanya ASTURIAN : Reinu d'España BASQUE : Espainiako Erresuma CATALAN : Regne d'Espanya GALICIAN : Reino de España OCCITAN : Reiaume d'Espanha Flag Coat of arms MOTTO: "Plus Ultra " (Latin ) "Further Beyond" ANTHEM: " Marcha Real " (Spanish ) "Royal March" Location of Spain
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Mulatto
MULATTO is a term used to refer to persons born of one white parent and one black parent or to persons born of a mulatto parent or parents. In English, the term is today generally confined to historical contexts
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Demonym
A DEMONYM (/ˈdɛmənɪm/ ; δῆμος dẽmos "people, tribe", ὄόνομα ónoma "name") is a word that identifies residents or natives of a particular place, which is derived from the name of that particular place. It is a neologism (i.e., a recently minted term); previously GENTILIC was recorded in English dictionaries, e.g., the Oxford
Oxford
English Dictionary and Chambers Twentieth Century Dictionary. Examples of demonyms include a Swahili for a person of the Swahili coast , the colloquial Kiwi for a person from New Zealand
New Zealand
, and a Cochabambino for a person from the city of Cochabamba
Cochabamba
. Demonyms do not always clearly distinguish place of origin or ethnicity from place of residence or citizenship, and many demonyms overlap with the ethnonym for the ethnically dominant group of a region
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