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Panama
Coordinates : 9°N 80°W / 9°N 80°W / 9; -80 Republic of Panama _República de Panamá_ (Spanish ) Flag Coat of arms MOTTO: "Pro Mundi Beneficio" "For the Benefit of the World" ANTHEM: _ Himno Istmeño
Himno Istmeño
_ (Spanish ) Hymn of the Isthmus Capital and largest city Panama City
Panama City
8°58′N 79°32′W / 8.967°N 79.533°W / 8.967; -79.533 OFFICIAL LANGUAGES Spanish ETHNIC GROUPS * 65%
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Panama (other)
PANAMA
PANAMA
(or PANAMá) is a republic in Central America
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Geographic Coordinate System
A GEOGRAPHIC COORDINATE SYSTEM is a coordinate system used in geography that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols. The coordinates are often chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position , and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position . A common choice of coordinates is latitude , longitude and elevation . To specify a location on a two-dimensional map requires a map projection
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Spanish Language
(see many more ) REGULATED BY Association of Spanish Language Academies ( Real Academia Española and 22 other national Spanish language academies) LANGUAGE CODES ISO 639-1 es ISO 639-2 spa ISO 639-3 spa GLOTTOLOG stan1288 LINGUASPHERE 51-AAA-b Spanish language in the world SPANISH (/ˈspænᵻʃ/ (_ listen ); español_ (help ·info )), also called CASTILIAN (/kæˈstɪliən/ (_ listen ), castellano_ (help ·info )), is a Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers around the world. It is usually considered the world\'s second-most spoken native language , after Mandarin Chinese . Spanish is a part of the Ibero-Romance group of languages , which evolved from several dialects of Vulgar Latin in Iberia after the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century
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Flag Of Panama
The FLAG OF PANAMA was made by María de la Ossa de Amador and was officially adopted by the "ley 48 de 1925". The Panamanian flag day is celebrated on November 4, one day after Panamanian separation from Colombia . The first flag proposed in 1903 consisted of thirteen horizontal stripes of alternating red and yellow, with a blue canton containing two golden suns, joined by a narrow line to depict the oceans to be united by the Panama Canal (see the depiction below). However, this was not accepted by the Panamanian leader, Manuel Amador Guerrero , whose family designed a new flag. The stars and quarters are said to stand for the rival political parties, and the white for the peace in which they operate. Blue was the color of the Conservatives, and red the color of the Liberals. CONTENTS* 1 History * 1.1 Bunau-Varilla proposal * 1.2 María de la Ossa de Amador proposal * 2 Description * 3 References * 4 External links HISTORYBUNAU-VARILLA PROPOSAL Reconstruction of the Bunau-Varilla design The wife of Philippe-Jean Bunau-Varilla designed the first serious proposal for a Panamanian flag. Madame Bunau-Varilla's design was based on the flag of the United States , possibly on account of that country's hand in Panamanian independence
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Coat Of Arms Of Panama
The PANAMANIAN COAT OF ARMS is a heraldic symbol for Panama . These arms were adopted provisionally and then definitively by the same laws that adopted the Panamanian flag . DESCRIPTIONThe center section contains the Isthmus of Panama . The chief or top part of the coat of arms comprises two quarters. The top left over a field of silver a sword and a rifle. In 1904, the arms were made official by Law 64 of 4 June 1904 signed by the President of Assembly Genaro Ortega , and sanctioned by the President the Republic, Manuel Amador Guerrero . The official description of the heraldic design is as follows: * "It rests on a green field, symbol of the vegetation; it is of pointed form and it is intervened as far as the division. The center shows the Isthmus with its seas and sky, in which the moon begins to rise above the waves and the sun begins to hide behind the mountain, marking thereby the solemn hour of the declaration of our independence
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Himno Istmeño
HIMNO ISTMEñO (English : Isthmian Hymn) is the national anthem of Panama
Panama
(Spanish : Himno Nacional de Panamá). The music was written by Santos A. Jorge, and the lyrics by Jeronimo de la Ossa . The song is directed to the average, working-class Panamanian with such lyrics as "Ahead the shovel and pick; At work without any more dilation". The usual length of the singing of the anthem is Chorus, Stanza I Con ardientes fulgores de gloria Se ilumina la nueva nación! Es preciso cubrir con un velo Del pasado el calvario y la cruz; Y que adorne el azul de tu cielo De concordia la espléndida luz. El progreso acaricia tus lares. Al compás de sublime canción, Ves rugir a tus pies ambos mares Que dan rumbo a tu noble misión. (CORO) En tu suelo cubierto de flores A los besos del tibio terral, Terminaron guerreros fragores; Sólo reina el amor fraternal. Adelante la pica y la pala, Al trabajo sin más dilación, Y seremos así prez y gala De este mundo feraz de Colón. (CORO) ENGLISHAt last we reached victory In the joyous field of the union; With ardent fires of glory A new nation is alight. (Repeat last 2 lines.) It is necessary to cover with a veil The past times of Calvary and cross; Let now the blue skies be adorned with The splendid light of the concord
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Panama City
PANAMA CITY (Spanish: _Ciudad de Panamá_; pronounced ) is the capital and largest city of the Republic of Panama
Panama
. It has an urban population of 430,299, and its population totals 880,691 with 1,526,421 in its metropolitan area. The city is located at the Pacific entrance of the Panama Canal
Panama Canal
, in the province of Panama. The city is the political and administrative center of the country, as well as a hub for international banking and commerce. It is considered a "Beta-" world city , one of three Central American cities listed in this category. Panama's Tocumen International Airport , the largest and busiest airport in Central America , offers daily flights to major international destinations. Panama
Panama
was chosen as the 2003 American Capital of Culture jointly with Curitiba
Curitiba
, Brazil
Brazil
. It is among the top five places for retirement in the world, according to _International Living_ magazine. The city of Panama
Panama
was founded on August 15, 1519, by Spanish conquistador Pedro Arias Dávila . The city was the starting point for expeditions that conquered the Inca Empire in Peru
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Panamanian Spanish
PANAMANIAN SPANISH is geographically defined as the form of Spanish spoken in the country of Panama in Central America . The variations among different speaker groups of the same language can be lexical (vocabulary), phonological (pronunciation), morphological (word forms), or in the use of syntax (grammar). Historically , Panama and Colombia were part of the same political entity. Colombia, governed from the Real Audiencia of Panama during the 16th century, then part of Castilla de Oro , with its capital in Panama, during the 17th century, and after independence from Spain, Panama voluntarily became part of the Republic of Gran Colombia along with Venezuela and Ecuador, with its capital in Bogota. From the colonial times and periods and also during most of the 19th century and until 1903, and even though there are still lexical similarities shared by the two countries (e.g., _pelao_ in both Colombia and Panama means "kid" or "child"), phonetically Panamanian Spanish is more closely associated with the Spanish as spoken in the coastal areas around the Caribbean , specifically Cuba , Puerto Rico , the Dominican Republic and the Atlantic coast of Colombia and Venezuela
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Ethnic Groups
An ETHNIC GROUP or ETHNICITY is a category of people who identify with each other based on similarities such as common ancestral , language , social , cultural or national experiences . Ethnicity is often an inherited status based on the society in which one lives. In some cases, it can be adopted if a person moves into another society. Membership of an ethnic group tends to be defined by a shared cultural heritage , ancestry , origin myth , history , homeland , language or dialect , symbolic systems such as religion , mythology and ritual , cuisine , dressing style, art , and physical appearance . Ethnic groups, derived from the same historical founder population , often continue to speak related languages and share a similar gene pool . By way of language shift , acculturation , adoption and religious conversion , it is sometimes possible for individuals or groups to leave one ethnic group and become part of another (except for ethnic groups emphasizing racial purity as a key membership criterion). Ethnicity is often used synonymously with ambiguous terms such as nation or people . In English, it can also have the connotation of something exotic (cf. " White ethnic ", "ethnic restaurant", etc.), generally related to cultures of more recent immigrants, who arrived after the founding population of an area was established
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Mestizo
MESTIZO (/mɛˈstizoʊ/ ; Peninsular Spanish : , Latin American Spanish , Philippine Spanish : ) is a term traditionally used in Spain, the Philippines, parts of Central America, especially in Belize and Latin America
Latin America
which originally meant a person of combined European and Amerindian or Pacific Islander descent, regardless of where the person was born. The term was used as an ethnic/racial category in the casta system that was in use during the Spanish Empire
Spanish Empire
's control of their New World colonies. Nowadays though, particularly in Latin America , Mestizo
Mestizo
has become more of a cultural term, with culturally mainstream Latin Americans regarded or termed as Mestizos regardless of their actual ancestry, and with the term "Indian" being reserved exclusively for people who have maintained a separate ethnic identity, language, tribal affiliation, etc. Consequently, today, the vast majority of Spanish speaking Latin Americans are regarded as Mestizos, although because of this newer, culturally based definition, this term cannot be taken as indicative of actual ancestry. The term MESTIZAJE – taking as its root _mestizo_ or "mixed" – is the Spanish word for miscegenation , the general process of mixing ancestries
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Indigenous Peoples Of Panama
INDIGENOUS PEOPLES OF PANAMA, or NATIVE PANAMANIANS, are the native peoples of Panama . According to the 2010 census, they make up 12.3% of the overall population. The Guaymí and Ngöbe-Buglé comprise half of the indigenous peoples of Panama. Many of the tribes live on _comarca indígenas _, which are administrative regions for an area with a substantial Indian populations. Three _comarcas_ ( Comarca Emberá-Wounaan , Kuna Yala , Ngöbe-Buglé ) exist as equivalent to a province, with two smaller _comarcas_ ( Kuna de Madugandí and Kuna de Wargandí ) subordinate to a province and considered equivalent to a _corregimiento _ (municipality). CONTENTS * 1 Indigenous groups * 2 Languages * 3 Notes * 4 External links INDIGENOUS GROUPS * Bokota , Bocas Del Toro * Embera , southeastern Darién Province * Guaymí (including the Movere and Murire peoples), mainly Chiriquí Province * Kuna , Darién Province and Caribbean side. * Ngöbe-Buglé , mainly Chiriquí Province * Talamanca * Teribe * Wounaan , southeastern Darién Province LANGUAGESSome native peoples speak Spanish , while many more retain their traditional languages
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Afro-Panamanian
AFRO-PANAMANIANS are Panamanians of African descent, and constitute 15% of the population. The Afro-Panamanian population can be broken into the "Afro-Colonial", Afro-Panamanians descended from slaves brought to Panama during the colonial period and the "Afro-Antillean", West Indian immigrants from Trinidad , Martinique , Guadeloupe , Dominica , Grenada , Barbados and Jamaica , brought in to build the Panama Canal . Afro-Panamanians can be found in the towns and cities of Colón , Cristóbal and Balboa , the Río Abajo area of Panama City , the Canal Zone, and the province of Bocas del Toro . CONTENTS * 1 Early Period * 2 Origins * 2.1 Theories about the African origins of the slaves in relation to current African countries * 2.2 African ethnic groups and their arrival to Panama * 2.3 Afro-Antillean migration waves (1849 - 1910) * 3 Cimarrones * 4 Slavery * 5 Independence * 6 Antillean * 7 Modern status * 8 Notable Afro-Panamanians * 9 References EARLY PERIODThe first Africans to arrive in Panama came with Vasco Núñez de Balboa , in 1513. Panama was a very important territory because it had the shortest route from the Atlantic to the Pacific
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Mulatto
MULATTO is a term used to refer to persons born of one white parent and one black parent or to persons born of a mulatto parent or parents. In English, the term is today generally confined to historical contexts. English speakers of mixed white and black ancestry seldom choose to identify themselves as "mulatto." CONTENTS * 1 Etymology * 2 Africa
Africa
* 2.1 Afro-European clans * 3 Latin America
Latin America
and the Caribbean
Caribbean
* 3.1 Brazil
Brazil
* 3.2 Haiti
Haiti
* 3.3 Puerto Rico
Puerto Rico
* 4 United States
United States
* 4.1 Antebellum era * 4.2 Contemporary era * 5 Colonial references * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 Further reading * 9 External links ETYMOLOGY Juan de Pareja by Diego Velázquez , 1650 The English term, mulatto, is believed to derive from the Spanish and Portuguese mulato. The origin of mulato is uncertain. The term may derive from mula (old Galician-Portuguese , from the Latin
Latin
mūlus), meaning mule , the hybrid offspring of a horse and a donkey . The Real Academia Española traces its origin to mulo in the sense of hybridity; originally used to refer to any mixed race person
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White Panamanians
This article is about the demographic features of the population of Panama
Panama
, including population density , ethnicity , education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population. CONTENTS* 1 Population
Population
* 1.1 Structure of the population * 1.2 Population
Population
distribution * 2 Ethnic groups * 2.1 Indigenous * 2.2 Chinese * 2.3 African Panamanians * 3 Languages * 4 Religion * 5 Vital statistics * 6 See also * 7 References POPULATION Panama's population, (1961-2003). Panama's population was 3,678,000 people in 2010, compared to 860,000 in 1950. The proportion of the population aged below 15 in 2010 was 29%. 64.5% of the population were aged between 15 and 65, with 6.6% of the population being 65 years or older
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