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Palaeolithic
The Paleolithic
Paleolithic
or Palaeolithic /ˌpæliːəˈlɪθɪk/ is a period in human prehistory distinguished by the original development of stone tools that covers c. 95% of human technological prehistory.[1] It extends from the earliest known use of stone tools by hominins c. 3.3 million years ago, to the end of the Pleistocene
Pleistocene
c. 11,650 cal BP.[2] The Paleolithic
Paleolithic
is followed in Europe by the Mesolithic, although the date of the transition varies geographically by several thousand years. During the Paleolithic, hominins grouped together in small societies such as bands, and subsisted by gathering plants and fishing, hunting or scavenging wild animals.[3] The Paleolithic
Paleolithic
is characterized by the use of knapped stone tools, although at the time humans also used wood and bone tools
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Afontova Gora
Afontova Gora
Afontova Gora
is a Late Upper Paleolithic
Upper Paleolithic
Siberian complex of archaeological sites located on the left bank of the Yenisei River near the city of Krasnoyarsk, Russia. Afontova Gora
Afontova Gora
has cultural and genetic links to the people from Mal'ta-Buret'. The complex was first excavated in 1884 by I. T
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Trialetian
Trialetian
Trialetian
is the name for an Upper Paleolithic- Epipaleolithic
Epipaleolithic
stone tool industry from the area south of the Caucasus Mountains[1] and to the northern Zagros Mountains. It is tentatively dated to the period between 16,000 / 13,000 BP and 8,000 BP.[2] The name of the archaeological culture derives from sites in the district of Trialeti in south Georgian Khrami
Khrami
river basin. These sites include Barmaksyzkaya and Edzani-Zurtaketi,.[3] In Edzani, an Upper Paleolithic
Paleolithic
site, a significant percentage of the artifacts are made of obsidian.[4] The Caucasian-Anatolian area of Trialetian
Trialetian
culture was adjacent to the Iraqi-Iranian Zarzian culture
Zarzian culture
to the east and south as well as the Levantine Natufian to the southwest.[5] Alan H
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Khormusan
Khormusan industry was a Paleolithic
Paleolithic
archeological industry in Egypt and Sudan dated at 42,000 to 18,000 BP.[1] The Khormusan industry in Egypt began between 42,000 and 32,000 BP.[2] Khormusans developed tools not only from stone but also from animal bones and hematite.[2] They also developed small arrow heads resembling those of Native Americans,[2] but no bows have been found.[2] The end of the Khormusan industry came around 18,000 BP. with the appearance of other cultures in the region, including the Gemaian.[3] References[edit]^ Goder-Goldberger, Mae (2013). "The Khormusan: Evidence for an MSA East African industry in Nubia". Quaternary International. 300: 182–94. Bibcode:2013QuInt.300..182G. doi:10.1016/j.quaint.2012.11.031.  ^ a b c d "Ancient Egyptian Culture: Paleolithic
Paleolithic
Egypt". Emuseum. Minnesota: Minnesota State University
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Glyptodon
Glyptodon
Glyptodon
(from Greek for "grooved or carved tooth" – Greek γλυπτός sculptured + ὀδοντ-, ὀδούς tooth[4]) was a genus of large, armored mammals of the subfamily Glyptodontinae (glyptodonts or glyptodontines) – relatives of armadillos – that lived during the Pleistocene
Pleistocene
epoch. It was roughly the same size and weight as a Volkswagen Beetle, though flatter in shape
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Lincombian-Ranisian-Jerzmanowician
Lincombian-Ranisian-Jerzmanowician (LRJ) was a culture or technocomplex dating to the Middle to Late Paleolithic, about 43,000 years ago. It is characterised by leaf points made on long blades, which are thought to have been made by the last Neanderthals, although some researchers have suggested that it could be a culture of the first European homo sapiens sapiens. It is rarely found, but extends across northwest Europe from Wales to Poland.[1][2] References[edit]^ Ashton, Nick (2017). Early Humans. London: William Collins. p. 315. ISBN 978-0-00-815035-8.  ^ Flas, Damien (5 December 2011). "The Middle to Upper Paleolithic transition in Northern Europe: the Lincombian-Ranisian-Jerzmanowician and the issue of acculturation of the last Neanderthals". World Archaeology
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Kebaran
PaleolithicLower Paleolithic Late Stone AgeHomo Control of fire Stone toolsMiddle Paleolithic Middle Stone Age Homo
Homo
neanderthalensis Homo
Homo
sapiens Recent African origin of modern humansUpper Paleolithic Late Stone AgeBehavioral modernity, Atlatl, Origin of the domestic dogEpipaleolithic MesolithicMicroliths, Bow, CanoeNatufian Khiamian Tahunian Heavy Neolithic Shepherd Neolithic Trihedral Neolithic Pre- Pottery
Pottery
NeolithicNeolithic Neolithic
Neolithic
Revolution, Domestication Pottery
Pottery
NeolithicPottery↓ Chalcolithicv t eThe Kebaran or Kebarian culture was an archaeological culture in the eastern Mediterranean
Mediterranean
area (c. 18,000 to 12,500 BP), named after its type site, Kebara Cave
Kebara Cave
south of Haifa
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Ahmarian
Ahmarian culture[1][2][3][4][5][6][7] was a Paleolithic
Paleolithic
archeological industry in Levant
Levant
dated at 46,000-42,000 BP and thought to be related to Levantine Emiran
Emiran
and younger European Aurignacian
Aurignacian
cultures. Ahmarian is considered to be the likely source of first modern humans who migrated to Europe to form Aurignacian
Aurignacian
culture. Although European Bohunician culture that may be linked to Emiran
Emiran
and Ahmarian itself and dated at 48,000 BP may predate it.[8] References[edit]^ "Archaeologists carbon dated a cave in Israel to reveal details about the two first modern human cultures". 28 December 2017.  ^ "Variability in Early Ahmarian lithic technology and its implications for the model of a Levantine origin of the Protoaurignacian"
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Bohunician
Bohunician industry was a paleolithic archeological industry in South-Central and East Europe. The earliest artifacts assigned to this culture are dated using radiocarbon dating at 48,000 BP. Which may make the earliest presence of modern humans in Europe predating Aurignacian
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Emiran
PaleolithicLower Paleolithic Late Stone AgeHomo Control of fire Stone toolsMiddle Paleolithic Middle Stone Age Homo
Homo
neanderthalensis Homo
Homo
sapiens Recent African origin of modern humansUpper Paleolithic Late Stone AgeBehavioral modernity, Atlatl, Origin of the domestic dogEpipaleolithic MesolithicMicroliths, Bow,
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Magdalenian
The Magdalenian
Magdalenian
(also Madelenian; French: Magdalénien) refers to one of the later cultures of the Upper Paleolithic
Upper Paleolithic
in western Europe, dating from around 17,000
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Halfan Culture
The Halfan industry is one of the Late Epipalaeolithic
Epipalaeolithic
industries of the Nile Valley
Nile Valley
that began to appear by 19,000-17,000 BP.[1] It is one of the earliest known backed-bladelet industries in Northern Africa, largely dating between 19,000 and 14,000 BP in Nubia
Nubia
and Egypt.[2] The Halfan was formerly seen as the parent culture of the Iberomaurusian
Iberomaurusian
industry in the Maghreb. Since the earliest Iberomaurusian
Iberomaurusian
is dated to ≥ 23,950 BP, it is more likely that the Halfan culture is descended from Ibero-maurusian culture. The Halfan culture is believed to have descended from the Khormusan Culture [3] [4] which depended on specialized hunting, fishing, and collecting techniques for survival. The Halfan people survived on a diet of large herd animals and the Khormusan tradition of fishing
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Mousterian
The Mousterian
Mousterian
(or Mode III) is a techno-complex (archaeological industry) of flint lithic tools associated primarily with Neanderthals, as well as with the earliest anatomically modern humans in Eurasia. The Mousterian
Mousterian
largely defines the latter part of the Middle Paleolithic, the middle of the West Eurasian Old Stone Age. It lasted roughly from 160,000 BP to 40,000 BP.Contents1 Naming 2 Characteristics 3 Locations 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksNaming[edit] The culture was named after the type site of Le Moustier, a rock shelter in the Dordogne
Dordogne
region of France.[3] Similar flintwork has been found all over unglaciated Europe
Europe
and also the Near East
Near East
and North Africa
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Epigravettian
Georges Laplace (fr), 1958 (broader-than-modern meaning)[2] Broglio, Laplace et al., 1963 (modern meaning, as “Tardigravettiano”)[3]The Epigravettian
Epigravettian
(Greek: epi "above, on top of", and Gravettian) was one of the last archaeological industries of the European Upper Paleolithic. It arose after the Last Glacial Maximum
Last Glacial Maximum
around ~21,000 cal. BP. It is related to the Gravettian, of which it is considered a continuation by some scholars (e.g. G. Laplace). In this sense, the Epigravettian
Epigravettian
is simply the Gravettian
Gravettian
after ~21,000 BP, when the Solutrean
Solutrean
had replaced the Gravettian
Gravettian
in most of France and Spain. Its known range extends from southeast France to the western shores of the Volga River, Russia, with a large number of sites in Italy
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Hamburg Culture
The Hamburg
Hamburg
culture or Hamburgian (15,500-13,100 BP) was a Late Upper Paleolithic
Paleolithic
culture of reindeer hunters in northwestern Europe during the last part of the Weichsel Glaciation beginning during the Bölling interstadial.[1] Sites are found close to the ice caps of the time.[2] The Hamburg
Hamburg
Culture has been identified at many places, for example, the settlement at Meiendorf and Ahrensburg[3] north of Hamburg, Germany. It is characterized by shouldered points and zinken tools, which were used as chisels when working with antler. In later periods tanged Havelte-type points appear, sometimes described as most of all a northwestern phenomenon
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Clactonian
The Clactonian
Clactonian
is the name given by archaeologists to an industry of European flint tool manufacture that dates to the early part of the interglacial period known as the Hoxnian, the Mindel-Riss or the Holstein stages (c. 400,000 years ago). Clactonian
Clactonian
tools were made by Homo heidelbergensis.[1] It is named after 400,000-year-old finds made by Hazzledine Warren in a palaeochannel at Clacton-on-Sea
Clacton-on-Sea
in the English county of Essex
Essex
in 1911. The artefacts found there included flint chopping tools, flint flakes and the tip of a worked wooden shaft along with the remains of a giant elephant and hippopotamus
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