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Palace Museum
The Forbidden City
The Forbidden City
is a palace complex in central Beijing, China. The former Chinese imperial palace from the Ming dynasty
Ming dynasty
to the end of the Qing dynasty—the years 1420 to 1912, it now houses the Palace Museum. The Forbidden City
The Forbidden City
served as the home of emperors and their households as well as the ceremonial and political center of Chinese government for almost 500 years. Constructed from 1406 to 1420, the complex consists of 980 buildings[2] and covers 72 hectares (over 180 acres).[3][4] The palace exemplifies traditional Chinese palatial architecture,[5] and has influenced cultural and architectural developments in East Asia
East Asia
and elsewhere
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Wu Sangui
Wu Sangui
Wu Sangui
(Chinese: 吳三桂; pinyin: Wú Sānguì; Wade–Giles: Wu San-kuei; courtesy name Changbai (長白) or Changbo (長伯); 1612 – 2 October 1678) was a Chinese military general who was instrumental in the fall of the Ming Dynasty
Dynasty
and the establishment of the Qing Dynasty
Dynasty
in 1644
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North Star
Polaris, designated Alpha Ursae Minoris (α Ursae Minoris, abbreviated Alpha UMi, α UMi), commonly the North Star or Pole Star, is the brightest star in the constellation of Ursa Minor. It is very close to the north celestial pole, making it the current northern pole star. The revised Hipparcos
Hipparcos
parallax gives a distance to Polaris
Polaris
of about 433 light-years (133 parsecs), while calculations by other methods derive distances around 30% closer. Polaris
Polaris
is a multiple star, comprising the main star ( Polaris
Polaris
Aa, a yellow supergiant) in orbit with a smaller companion ( Polaris
Polaris
Ab); the pair in orbit with Polaris
Polaris
B (discovered in August 1779 by William Herschel)
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Transliterations Of Manchu
There are several systems for transliteration of the Manchu alphabet which is used for the Manchu and Xibe languages. These include the Möllendorff transliteration system invented by the German linguist Paul Georg von Möllendorff, BabelPad
BabelPad
transliteration (used for ease of input, not for formal transcription), the transliteration of the A Comprehensive Manchu-Chinese Dictionary (CMCD), and Abkai Transliteration (former: Daicing Transliteration)
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Ming Dynasty
The Ming dynasty
Ming dynasty
(/mɪŋ/)[2] was the ruling dynasty of China
China
– then known as the Great Ming Empire
Empire
– for 276 years (1368–1644) following the collapse of the Mongol-led Yuan dynasty. The Ming, described by Edwin O. Reischauer, John K. Fairbank and Albert M. Craig as "one of the greatest eras of orderly government and social stability in human history",[3] was the last imperial dynasty in China ruled by ethnic Han Chinese
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Emperor Of China
The Emperor or Huangdi (Chinese: 皇帝; pinyin:  Huángdì) was the secular imperial title of the Chinese sovereign
Chinese sovereign
reigning between the founding of the Qin dynasty
Qin dynasty
that unified China
China
in 221 BC, until the abdication of Puyi
Puyi
in 1912 following the Xinhai Revolution
Xinhai Revolution
and the establishment of the Republic of China, although it was later restored twice in two failed revolutions in 1916 and 1917. The holy title of Chinese emperor was the Son of Heaven
Son of Heaven
(Chinese: 天子; pinyin: tiānzǐ), a title much more elder than the Emperor of China
China
that predates the Zhou Dynasty
Zhou Dynasty
and recognized as the ruler of "All under Heaven" (i.e., the whole world)
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Acres
The acre is a unit of land area used in the imperial and US customary systems. It is defined as the area of 1 chain by 1 furlong (66 by 660 feet), which is exactly equal to ​1⁄640 of a square mile, 43,560 square feet, approximately 4,047 m2, or about 40% of a hectare. The acre is commonly used in many countries, including the United Kingdom, the United States, Canada, India, Ghana, and others. The international symbol of the acre is ac. The most commonly used acre today is the international acre. In the United States both the international acre and the US survey acre are in use, but differ by only two parts per million; see below. The most common use of the acre is to measure tracts of land
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East Asia
East Asia
Asia
or Northeast Asia
Northeast Asia
is the eastern subregion of the Asian continent, which can be defined in either geographical[3] or pan-ethno-cultural[4] terms.[5][6] Geographically and geopolitically, the region constitutes Mainland China, Hong Kong, Macau, Japan, Mongolia, North Korea, South Korea, and Taiwan.[7][8][9][10][11][3][12][13][14][15] The region was the cradle of various ancient civilizations such as Ancient China, ancient Japan, ancient Korea, and the Mongol Empire.[16][17] East Asia
Asia
was one of the cradles of world civilization, with China, an ancient East Asian civilization being one of the earliest cradles of civilization in human history
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UNESCO
The United Nations
United Nations
Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO;[2] French: Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) based in Paris
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Chinese Civil War
Chinese Communist victoryMajor combat ended, but no armistice or peace treaty signed Small pockets of insurgency continued through the 1960sTerritorial changes Communist Party of China
Communist Party of China
takeover of mainland China
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Pinyin
Hanyu Pinyin
Hanyu Pinyin
Romanization
Romanization
(simplified Chinese: 汉语拼音; traditional Chinese: 漢語拼音), often abbreviated to pinyin, is the official romanization system for Standard Chinese
Standard Chinese
in mainland China
China
and to some extent in Taiwan. It is often used to teach Standard Mandarin Chinese, which is normally written using Chinese characters. The system includes four diacritics denoting tones. Pinyin
Pinyin
without tone marks is used to spell Chinese names and words in languages written with the Latin alphabet, and also in certain computer input methods to enter Chinese characters. The pinyin system was developed in the 1950s by many linguists, including Zhou Youguang,[1] based on earlier form romanizations of Chinese
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Chinese Astrology
Chinese astrology
Chinese astrology
is based on the traditional astronomy and calendars. The development of Chinese astrology
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Pe̍h-ōe-jī
Southern MinAmoy TaiwaneseCreator Walter Henry Medhurst Elihu Doty John Van Nest TalmageTime periodsince the 1830sParent systemsEgyptian hieroglyphsProto-SinaiticPhoenician alphabetGreek alphabetLatin alphabetPe̍h-ōe-jīChild systemsTLPA Taiwanese Romanization SystemThis article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode
Unicode
characters. For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA. Pe̍h-ōe-jī
Pe̍h-ōe-jī
(pronounced [peʔ˩ ue˩ dzi˨] ( listen), abbreviated POJ, literally vernacular writing, also known as Church Romanization) is an orthography used to write variants of Southern Min
Southern Min
Chinese, particularly Taiwanese Southern Min
Southern Min
and Amoy Hokkien
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Celestial Emperor
The Jade
Jade
Emperor (Chinese: 玉皇; pinyin: Yù Huáng or 玉帝, Yù Dì) in Chinese culture, traditional religions and myth is one of the representations of the first god (太帝 tài dì). In Taoist theology he is Yuanshi Tianzun, one of the Three Pure Ones, the three primordial emanations of the Tao. He is also the Cao Đài ("Highest Power") of Caodaism
Caodaism
known as Ngọc Hoàng Thượng đế
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Three Enclosures
Traditional Chinese astronomy
Chinese astronomy
has a system of dividing the celestial sphere into asterisms or constellations, known as "officials" (Chinese 星官 xīng guān).[1] The Chinese asterisms are generally smaller than the constellations of Hellenistic tradition. The Song dynasty
Song dynasty
(13th-century) Suzhou planisphere shows a total of 283 asterisms, comprising a total of 1,565 individual stars.[2] The asterisms are divided into four groups, the Twenty-Eight Mansions
Twenty-Eight Mansions
(二十八宿, Èrshíbā Xiù) along the ecliptic, and the Three Enclosures
Three Enclosures
of the northern sky
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Ming Dynasty Painting
During the Ming dynasty (1368–1644), Chinese painting progressed further basing on the achievements in painted art during the earlier Song dynasty and Yuan dynasty. The painting techniques which were invented and developed before the Ming period became classical during this period. More colours were used in painting during the Ming dynasty. Seal brown became much more widely used, and even over-used during this period. Many new painting skills/techniques were innovated and developed, calligraphy was much more closely and perfectly combined with the art of painting. Chinese painting reached another climax in the mid and late Ming
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