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Pala Empire
The PALA EMPIRE was an imperial power during the Late Classical period on the Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
, which originated in the region of Bengal
Bengal
. It is named after its ruling dynasty, whose rulers bore names ending with the suffix of Pala, which meant "protector" in the ancient language of Prakrit
Prakrit
. They were followers of the Mahayana and Tantric schools of Buddhism
Buddhism
. The empire was founded with the election of Gopala as the emperor of Gauda in 750 CE. The Pala stronghold was located in Bengal
Bengal
and Bihar , which included the major cities of Vikrampura , Pataliputra
Pataliputra
, Gauda , Monghyr , Somapura , Ramvati ( Varendra ), Tamralipta and Jaggadala . The Palas were astute diplomats and military conquerors
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Jaggadala
JAGADDALA MAHAVIHARA (fl. late 11th century - mid-12th century) was a Buddhist
Buddhist
monastery and seat of learning in Varendra
Varendra
, a geographical unit in present north Bengal
Bengal
in Bangladesh. It was founded by the later kings of the Pāla dynasty , probably Ramapala (c. 1077-1120), most likely at a site near the present village of Jagdal in Dhamoirhat Upazila in the north-west Bangladesh
Bangladesh
on the border with India, near Paharapur. Some texts also spell the name JAGGADALA. Jagaddala CONTENTS * 1 Location * 2 History * 2.1 Founding * 2.2 Decline and end * 3 Excavation and UNESCO status * 4 Notes * 5 See also LOCATIONLittle is known about Jagaddala compared with the other mahaviharas of the era. For many years, its site was could not be ascertained. A.K.M
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War Elephant
A WAR ELEPHANT is an elephant that is trained and guided by humans for combat. Elephant
Elephant
Sword, also called tusk swords, which are pairs of blades specially designed to be attached to their tusks The war elephant's main use was to charge the enemy, breaking their ranks and instilling terror. ELEPHANTRY are military units with elephant-mounted troops. They were first employed in India
India
, the practice spreading out across south-east Asia and westwards into the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
. Their most famous use in the West was by the Greek King Pyrrhus of Epirus and in significant numbers by the armies of Carthage
Carthage
, including briefly by Hannibal . In the Mediterranean, improved tactics reduced the value of the elephant in battle, while their availability in the wild also decreased
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Tamralipta
TAMRALIPTA or TAMRALIPTI was the name of a city in ancient India, located on the Bay of Bengal
Bay of Bengal
. The Tamluk
Tamluk
town in present-day West Bengal
Bengal
is identified as the site of Tamralipti. It is believed that Tamralipti was the exit point of the Mauryan trade route for the south and south-east . Excavations at Moghalmari confirmed the presence of Buddhist vihars in the area which was mentioned by Chinese travelers Fa Hien and Xuanzang . It was located near Rupnarayana river. This place has been mentioned in Mahabharata as a place which Bhima acquired. It was linked by roads with the major towns of that time, i.e. Rajagriha, Shravasti, Pataliputra, Varanasi, Champa, Kaushambi and Taxila. SEE ALSO * Odisha
Odisha
* Kalinga REFERENCES * ^ Dilip K. Chakrabarti (2001)
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Bihar
BIHAR (/bᵻˈhɑːr/ ; Hindustani pronunciation: ) is an Indian state considered to be a part of Eastern as well as Northern India . It is the 13th-largest state of India, with an area of 94,163 km2 (36,357 sq mi). The third-largest state of India
India
by population, it is contiguous with Uttar Pradesh to its west, Nepal
Nepal
to the north, the northern part of West Bengal to the east, with Jharkhand to the south. The Bihar
Bihar
plain is split by the river Ganges
Ganges
which flows from west to east. Bihar
Bihar
is an amalgamation of three main distinct regions, these are Magadh , Mithila and Bhojpur . On November 15, 2000, southern Bihar
Bihar
was ceded to form the new state of Jharkhand
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Indian Subcontinent
The INDIAN SUBCONTINENT or the SUBCONTINENT, also called the INDIAN CONTINENT, is a southern region of Asia
Asia
, mostly situated on the Indian Plate and projecting southwards into the Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
from the Himalayas
Himalayas
. Geologically , the Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
is related to the land mass that rifted from Gondwana and merged with the Eurasian plate nearly 55 million years ago. Geographically , it is the peninsular region in south-central Asia
Asia
delineated by the Himalayas
Himalayas
in the north, the Hindu Kush in the west, and the Arakanese in the east
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Tantras
DIVISIONS * Samhita * Brahmana * Aranyaka * Upanishads
Upanishads
Upanishads
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Bay Of Bengal
Bangladesh
Bangladesh
India
India
Indonesia
Indonesia
Myanmar
Myanmar
Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
MAX. LENGTH 2,090 km (1,300 mi) MAX. WIDTH 1,610 km (1,000 mi) SURFACE AREA 2,172,000 km2 (839,000 sq mi) AVERAGE DEPTH 2,600 m (8,500 ft) MAX. DEPTH 4,694 m (15,400 ft)The BAY OF BENGAL is the largest bay in the world with waters flowing straight out of the Himalayas through Bangladesh. Roughly triangular, it is bordered by Bangladesh
Bangladesh
to the North, Myanmar
Myanmar
to the East, Sri Lanka and India
India
to the west. Countries dependent on the Bay
Bay
of Bengal straddle both South Asia
South Asia
and Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia

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Indian Philosophy
INDIAN PHILOSOPHY (Sanskrit : दर्शन or darśana) comprises the ancient philosophical traditions of the Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
. The schools of Indian philosophical thought are classified as either orthodox or heterodox – āstika or nāstika – depending on one of three alternate criteria: whether it believes the Vedas
Vedas
are a valid source of knowledge; whether the school believes in the premises of Brahman and Atman ; and whether the school believes in afterlife and Devas . There are six major schools of orthodox Hindu philosophy
Hindu philosophy
Nyaya
Nyaya
, Vaisheshika , Samkhya
Samkhya
, Yoga
Yoga
, Mīmāṃsā and Vedanta
Vedanta
, and five major heterodox schools—Jain , Buddhist , Ajivika
Ajivika
, Ajñana , and Cārvāka
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Islam
ISLAM (/ˈɪslɑːm/ ) is an Abrahamic monotheistic religion which professes that there is only one and incomparable God
God
( Allah ) and that Muhammad
Muhammad
is the last messenger of God. It is the world\'s second-largest religion and the fastest-growing major religion in the world , with over 1.8 billion followers or 24.1% of the global population, known as Muslims . Muslims make up a majority of the population in 49 countries. Islam
Islam
teaches that God
God
is merciful , all-powerful , unique , and has guided mankind through prophets , revealed scriptures and natural signs . The primary scriptures of Islam
Islam
are the Quran
Quran
, viewed by Muslims as the verbatim word of God, and the teachings and normative example (called the sunnah , composed of accounts called hadith ) of Muhammad
Muhammad
(c
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House Of Wisdom
The HOUSE OF WISDOM ( Arabic
Arabic
: بيت الحكمة‎‎; Bayt al-Hikma) was a major intellectual center during the Islamic Golden Age . The House of Wisdom
House of Wisdom
was founded as a library for private use by Caliph
Caliph
Harun al-Rashid
Harun al-Rashid
(reigned 786 – 809) and culminated in prominence under his son al-Ma\'mun (reigned 813–833) who is credited with its formal institution. Al-Ma'mun
Al-Ma'mun
is also credited with bringing many well-known scholars to share information, ideas, and culture in the House of Wisdom. Based in Baghdad
Baghdad
from the 9th to 13th centuries, beside Muslim
Muslim
scholars, people of Jewish or Christian background were allowed to study here
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Arab
ARABS ( Arabic
Arabic
: عَرَب‎‎ ; ( listen )) are a population inhabiting the Arab world . They primarily live in the Arab
Arab
states in Western Asia
Western Asia
, North Africa
North Africa
, the Horn of Africa
Horn of Africa
and western Indian Ocean islands . The Arabs are first mentioned in the mid-ninth century BC as tribal people in eastern and southern Syria, and the northern Arabian Peninsula. The Arabs appear to have been under the vassalage of the Neo-Assyrian Empire (911–612 BC), and the succeeding Neo-Babylonian (626–539 BC), Achaemenid (539–332 BC), Seleucid and Parthian empires
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Sculpture In South Asia
The first known SCULPTURE IN THE INDIAN SUBCONTINENT is from the Indus Valley civilization
Indus Valley civilization
(3300–1700 BC), found in sites at Mohenjo-daro
Mohenjo-daro
and Harappa . These include the famous small bronze female dancer. However such figures in bronze and stone are rare and greatly outnumbered by pottery figurines and stone seals, often of animals or deities very finely depicted. After the collapse of the Indus Valley civilization
Indus Valley civilization
there is little record of sculpture until the Buddhist era, apart from a hoard of copper figures of (somewhat controversially) c. 1500 BCE from Daimabad
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Indian Painting
Painting
Painting
of Radha
Radha
, the companion of the Hindu
Hindu
god Krishna
Krishna
. * Fresco from Ajanta caves
Ajanta caves
, c. 450–500 CE. * Raja Ravi Varma
Raja Ravi Varma
Shakuntala (1870); oil on canvas. * Hindu
Hindu
iconography are shown in Pattachitra
Pattachitra

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Nepal
NEPAL (/nəˈpɔːl/ ( listen ); Nepali : नेपाल Nepāl ), officially the FEDERAL DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF NEPAL (Nepali : सङ्घीय लोकतान्त्रिक गणतन्त्र नेपाल Sanghiya Loktāntrik Ganatantra Nepāl), is a landlocked central Himalayan country in South Asia
South Asia
. Nepal
Nepal
is divided into 7 states and 75 districts and 744 local units including 4 metropolises, 13 sub-metropolises, 246 municipal councils and 481 villages. It has a population of 26.4 million and is the 93rd largest country by area. Bordering China
China
in the north and India
India
in the south, east, and west, it is the largest sovereign Himalayan state . Nepal
Nepal
does not border Bangladesh
Bangladesh
, which is located within only 27 km (17 mi) of its southeastern tip
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Mahayana
MAHāYāNA ( Sanskrit
Sanskrit
for "Great Vehicle") is one of two (or three, under some classifications) main existing branches of Buddhism
Buddhism
and a term for classification of Buddhist philosophies and practice. The Buddhist tradition of Vajrayana is sometimes classified as a part of Mahayana
Mahayana
Buddhism, but some scholars may consider it as a different branch altogether. According to the teachings of Mahāyāna traditions, "Mahāyāna" also refers to the path of the Bodhisattva
Bodhisattva
seeking complete enlightenment for the benefit of all sentient being