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Pala Empire
The Pala Empire
Pala Empire
was an imperial power during the Late Classical period on the Indian subcontinent,[3] which originated in the region of Bengal. It is named after its ruling dynasty, whose rulers bore names ending with the suffix of Pala ("protector" in Sanskrit). They were followers of the Mahayana
Mahayana
and Tantric schools of Buddhism. The empire was founded with the election of Gopala as the emperor of Gauda in 750 CE.[4] The Pala stronghold was located in Bengal
Bengal
and Bihar, which included the major cities of Vikrampura, Pataliputra, Gauda, Monghyr, Somapura, Ramvati (Varendra), Tamralipta
Tamralipta
and Jaggadala. The Palas were astute diplomats and military conquerors. Their army was noted for its vast war elephant corps. Their navy performed both mercantile and defensive roles in the Bay of Bengal
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Arab
Historically: Arabian mythology (Hubal · al-Lāt · Al-‘Uzzá · Manāt · Other Goddesses) Predominantly: Islam (Sunni · Shia · Sufi · Ibadi · Alawite · Ismaili) Sizable minority: Christianity (Eastern Orthodox · Maronite · Coptic Orthodox · Greek Orthodox · Greek Catholic · Chaldean Christian) Smaller minority: Other monotheistic religions (Druze · Bahá'í Faith · Sabianism · Bábism · Mandaeism)Related ethnic groupsOther Afroasiatic-speaking peoplesa Arab
Arab
ethnicity should not be confused with non- Arab
Arab
ethnicities that are also native to the Arab
Arab
world.[30] b Not all Arabs
Arabs
are Muslims
Muslims
and not all Muslims
Muslims
are Arabs
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Vajrayana
New branches:Blue Lotus AssemblyGateway of the Hidden FlowerNew Kadampa BuddhismShambhala BuddhismTrue Awakening TraditionHistoryTantrismMahasiddhaSahajaPursuitBuddhahood BodhisattvaKalachakraPracticesGeneration stage Completion stagePhowaTantric techniques: Fourfold division:KriyayogaCharyayogaYogatantraAnuttarayogatantraTwofold division:Inner TantrasOuter TantrasThought forms and visualisation:MandalaMantraMudraThangkaYantraYoga: Deity
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Buddhism
Buddhism
Buddhism
(/ˈbʊdɪzəm, ˈbuː-/)[1][2] is a religion[3][4] and dharma that encompasses a variety of traditions, beliefs and spiritual practices largely based on original teachings attributed to the Buddha and resulting interpreted philosophies. Buddhism
Buddhism
originated in Ancient India
India
sometime between the 6th and 4th centuries BCE, from where it spread through much of Asia, whereafter it declined in India
India
during the Middle Ages. Two major extant branches of Buddhism
Buddhism
are generally recognized by scholars: Theravada
Theravada
(Pali: "The School of the Elders") and Mahayana
Mahayana
(Sanskrit: "The Great Vehicle")
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Sculpture In South Asia
The first known sculpture in the Indian subcontinent is from the Indus Valley civilization (3300–1700 BC), found in sites at Mohenjo-daro and Harappa. These include the famous small bronze female dancer. However such figures in bronze and stone are rare and greatly outnumbered by pottery figurines and stone seals, often of animals or deities very finely depicted. After the collapse of the Indus Valley civilization there is little record of sculpture until the Buddhist era, apart from a hoard of copper figures of (somewhat controversially) c
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Indian Painting
Indian painting
Indian painting
has a very long tradition and history in Indian art. The earliest Indian paintings were the rock paintings of pre-historic times, the petroglyphs as found in places like Bhimbetka
Bhimbetka
rock shelter
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Bihar
Bihar
Bihar
(/bɪˈhɑːr/; Hindustani pronunciation: [bɪˈɦaːr]) is an Indian state
Indian state
considered to be a part of Eastern[11][12] as well as Northern India.[13][14][15] It is the 13th-largest state of India, with an area of 94,163 km2 (36,357 sq mi). The third-largest state of India
India
by population, it is contiguous with Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh
to its west, Nepal
Nepal
to the north, the northern part of West Bengal
West Bengal
to the east, with Jharkhand
Jharkhand
to the south
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Tamralipta
Tamralipta
Tamralipta
or Tamralipti was the name of a city in ancient India, located on the Bay of Bengal. The Tamluk
Tamluk
town in present-day West Bengal
Bengal
is identified as the site of Tamralipti.[1] It is believed that Tamralipti was the exit point of the Mauryan
Mauryan
trade route for the south and south-east.[2] Excavations at Moghalmari confirmed the presence of Buddhist vihars in the area which was mentioned by Chinese travelers Fa Hien
Fa Hien
and Xuanzang.[3] It was located near Rupnarayana river. This place has been mentioned in Mahabharata as a place which Bhima
Bhima
acquired. It was linked by roads with the major towns of that time, i.e. Rajagriha, Shravasti, Pataliputra, Varanasi, Champa, Kaushambi and Taxila. [4] See also[edit]Odisha KalingaReferences[edit]^ Dilip K. Chakrabarti (2001)
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Islam
Islam
Islam
(/ˈɪslɑːm/)[note 1] is an Abrahamic monotheistic religion teaching that there is only one God
God
(Allah)[1] and that Muhammad
Muhammad
is the messenger of God.[2][3] It is the world's second-largest religion[4] and the fastest-growing major religion in the world,[5][6][7] with over 1.8 billion followers or 24.1% of the global population,[8] known as Muslims.[9] Muslims make up a majority of the population in 50 countries.[4] Islam
Islam
teaches that God
God
is merciful, all-powerful, unique[10] and has guided mankind through prophets, revealed scriptures and natural signs.[3][11] The primary scriptures of Islam
Islam
are the Quran, viewed by Muslims as the verbatim word of God, and the teachings and normative example (called the sunnah, composed of accounts called hadith) of Muhammad
Muhammad
(c
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Monarchy
A monarchy is a form of government in which a group, generally a family representing a dynasty (aristocracy), embodies the country's national identity and its head, the monarch, exercises the role of sovereignty. The actual power of the monarch may vary from purely symbolic (crowned republic), to partial and restricted (constitutional monarchy), to completely autocratic (absolute monarchy). Traditionally the monarch's post is inherited and lasts until death or abdication. In contrast, elective monarchies require the monarch to be elected.[1] Both types have further variations as there are widely divergent structures and traditions defining monarchy. For example, in some[which?] elected monarchies only pedigrees are taken into account for eligibility of the next ruler, whereas many hereditary monarchies impose requirements regarding the religion, age, gender, mental capacity, etc
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Shaivism
Shiva
Shiva
- ShaktiSadasiva Rudra Bhairava Parvati Durga KaliGanesha Murugan OthersScriptures and textsAgamas and TantrasVedas SvetasvataraTirumurai Shivasutras VachanasPhilosophyThree ComponentsPati Pashu PasamThree bondagesAnava Karma Maya 36 Tattvas YogaPracticesVibhuti Rudraksha Panchakshara Bilva Maha Shivaratri Yamas-Niyamas Guru-Linga-JangamSchoolsAdi MargamPashupata Kalamukha Kapalika <
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Mahayana
Mahāyāna (/ˌmɑːhəˈjɑːnə/; Sanskrit
Sanskrit
for "great vehicle") is one of two (or three, under some classifications) main existing branches of Buddhism
Buddhism
and a term for classification of Buddhist philosophies and practice
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Nepal
Nepal
Nepal
(/nəˈpɔːl/ ( listen);[12] Nepali: नेपाल  Nepāl [neˈpal]), officially the Federal Democratic Republic
Republic
of Nepal
Nepal
(Nepali: सङ्घीय लोकतान्त्रिक गणतन्त्र नेपाल Sanghiya Loktāntrik Ganatantra Nepāl),[13] is a landlocked country in South Asia
South Asia
located in the Himalaya. With an estimated population of 26.4 million, it is 48th largest country by population and 93rd largest country by area.[2][14] It borders China
China
in the north and India
India
in the south, east, and west while Bangladesh
Bangladesh
is located within only 27 km (17 mi) of its southeastern tip and Bhutan
Bhutan
is separated from it by the Indian state of Sikkim
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Pali
Pali
Pali
(Pāli) or Magadhan is a Prakrit
Prakrit
language native to the Indian subcontinent
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Prakrit
The Prakrits (Sanskrit: प्राकृती prākṛta, Shauraseni: pāuda, Jain Prakrit: pāua) are any of several Middle Indo-Aryan languages.[2][3] The Ardhamagadhi (or simply Magadhi) Prakrit, which was used extensively to write the scriptures of Jainism, is often considered to be the definitive form of Prakrit, while others are considered variants thereof. Prakrit
Prakrit
grammarians would give the full grammar of Ardhamagadhi first, and then define the other grammars with relation to it
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Sanskrit
A few attempts at revival have been reported in Indian and Nepalese newspapers. India: 14,135 Indians claimed Sanskrit
Sanskrit
to be their mother tongue in the 2001 Census of India:[2] Nepal: 1,669 Nepalis
Nepalis
in 2011
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