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PDF
The Portable Document
Document
Format (PDF) is a file format developed in the 1990s to present documents, including text formatting and images, in a manner independent of application software, hardware, and operating systems.[3][4] Based on the PostScript
PostScript
language, each PDF file encapsulates a complete description of a fixed-layout flat document, including the text, fonts, vector graphics, raster images and other information needed to display it
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PDF (other)
Disambiguation usually refers to word-sense disambiguation, the process of identifying which meaning of a word is used in context. Disambiguation may also refer to:Sentence boundary disambiguation, the problem in natural language processing of deciding where sentences begin and end Syntactic disambiguation, the problem of resolving syntactic ambiguity Memory disambiguation, a set of microprocessor execution techniquesMusic[edit]Ø (Disambiguation), a 2010 album by Underoath Disambiguation (Pandelis Karayorgis album), a 2002 album by Pandelis Karayorgis and Mat ManeriSee also[edit]Ambiguity, an attribute of any concept, idea, statement or claim whose meaning, intention or interpretation cannot be definitively resolvedThis disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Disambiguation. If an internal link led you here, you may wish to change the link to point directly to the
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String (computer Science)
In computer programming, a string is traditionally a sequence of characters, either as a literal constant or as some kind of variable. The latter may allow its elements to be mutated and the length changed, or it may be fixed (after creation). A string is generally understood as a data type and is often implemented as an array data structure of bytes (or words) that stores a sequence of elements, typically characters, using some character encoding
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Normative
Normative generally means relating to an evaluative standard. Normativity is the phenomenon in human societies of designating some actions or outcomes as good or desirable or permissible and others as bad or undesirable or impermissible. A norm in this normative sense means a standard for evaluating or making judgments about behavior or outcomes. Normative is sometimes also used, somewhat confusingly, to mean relating to a descriptive standard: doing what is normally done or what most others are expected to do in practice. In this sense a norm is not evaluative, a basis for judging behavior or outcomes; it is simply a fact or observation about behavior or outcomes, without judgment
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Interpreter (computing)
In computer science, an interpreter is a computer program that directly executes, i.e. performs, instructions written in a programming or scripting language, without requiring them previously to have been compiled into a machine language program. An interpreter generally uses one of the following strategies for program execution:parse the source code and perform its behavior directly; translate source code into some efficient intermediate representation and immediately execute this; explicitly execute stored precompiled code[1] made by a compiler which is part of the interpreter system.Early versions of Lisp programming language
Lisp programming language
and Dartmouth BASIC would be examples of the first type. Perl, Python, MATLAB, and Ruby are examples of the second, while UCSD Pascal
UCSD Pascal
is an example of the third type
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Lexical Analysis
In computer science, lexical analysis, lexing or tokenization is the process of converting a sequence of characters (such as in a computer program or web page) into a sequence of tokens (strings with an assigned and thus identified meaning). A program that performs lexical analysis may be termed a lexer, tokenizer,[1] or scanner, though scanner is also a term for the first stage of a lexer. A lexer is generally combined with a parser, which together analyze the syntax of programming languages, web pages, and so forth.Contents1 Applications 2 Lexeme 3 Token 4 Lexical grammar 5 Tokenization5.1 Scanner 5.2 Evaluator 5.3 Obstacles 5.4 Software6 Lexer generator6.1 List of lexer generators7 Phrase structure7.1 Line continuation 7.2 Semicolon insertion 7.3 Off-side rule8 Context-sensitive lexing 9 Notes 10 References10.1 Sources11 External linksApplications[edit] A lexer forms the first phase of a compiler frontend in modern processing
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Interpreted Programming Language
An interpreted language is a type of programming language for which most of its implementations execute instructions directly and freely, without previously compiling a program into machine-language instructions. The interpreter executes the program directly, translating each statement into a sequence of one or more subroutines already compiled into machine code. The terms interpreted language and compiled language are not well defined because, in theory, any programming language can be either interpreted or compiled. In modern programming language implementation it is increasingly popular for a platform to provide both options. Interpreted languages can also be contrasted with machine languages. Functionally, both execution and interpretation mean the same thing — fetching the next instruction/statement from the program and executing it
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Application Software
An application program (app or application for short) is a computer program designed to perform a group of coordinated functions, tasks, or activities for the benefit of the user. Examples of an application include a word processor, a spreadsheet, an accounting application, a web browser, a media player, an aeronautical flight simulator, a console game or a photo editor
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Royalty-free
Royalty-free, or RF, refers to the right to use copyright material or intellectual property without the need to pay royalties or license fees for each use, per each copy or volume sold or some time period of use or sales.Contents1 Computer standards 2 Photography
Photography
and Illustrations 3 See also 4 ReferencesComputer standards[edit] Many computer industry standards, especially those developed and submitted by industry consortiums or individual companies, involve royalties for the actual implementation of these standards. These royalties are typically charged on a "per port"/"per device" basis, where the manufacturer of end-user devices has to pay a small fixed fee for each device sold, and also include a substantial annual fixed fee. With millions of devices sold each year, the royalties can amount to several millions of dollars, which is a significant burden for the manufacturer
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Open Format
An open format is a file format for storing digital data, defined by a published specification usually maintained by a standards organization, and which can be used and implemented by anyone. For example, an open format can be implemented by both proprietary and free and open-source software, using the typical software licenses used by each. In contrast to open formats, closed formats are considered trade secrets
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Media Type
A media type (also MIME type and content type)[1] is a two-part identifier for file formats and format contents transmitted on the Internet. The Internet
Internet
Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) is the official authority for the standardization and publication of these classifications. Media types were originally defined in Request for Comments 2045 in November 1996 as a part of MIME (Multipurpose Internet
Internet
Mail Extensions) specification, for denoting type of email message content and attachments;[2] hence the name MIME type. Media types are also used by other internet protocols such as HTTP[3] and document file formats such as HTML,[4] for similar purpose.Contents1 Naming1.1 Common examples 1.2 Registration trees1.2.1 Standards tree 1.2.2 Vendor tree 1.2.3 Personal or Vanity tree 1.2.4 Unregistered x
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Array Data Type
Language support for array types may include certain built-in array data types, some syntactic constructions (array type constructors) that the programmer may use to define such types and declare array variables, and special notation for indexing array elements.[1] For example, in the Pascal programming language, the declaration type MyTable = array [1..4,1..2] of integer, defines a new array data type called MyTable. The declaration var A: MyTable then defines a variable A of that type, which is an aggregate of eight elements, each being an integer variable identified by two indices. In the Pascal program, those elements are denoted A[1,1], A[1,2], A[2,1],… A[4,2].[2] Special
Special
array types are often defined by the language's standard libraries. Dynamic lists are also more common and easier to implement than dynamic arrays
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Stream (computing)
In computer science, a stream is a sequence of data elements made available over time. A stream can be thought of as items on a conveyor belt being processed one at a time rather than in large batches. Streams are processed differently from batch data – normal functions cannot operate on streams as a whole, as they have potentially unlimited data, and formally, streams are codata (potentially unlimited), not data (which is finite). Functions that operate on a stream, producing another stream, are known as filters, and can be connected in pipelines, analogously to function composition. Filters may operate on one item of a stream at a time, or may base an item of output on multiple items of input, such as a moving average.Contents1 Examples 2 Applications 3 Other uses 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksExamples[edit] The term "stream" is used in a number of similar ways:"Stream editing", as with sed, awk, and perl
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Software Release Life Cycle
A software release life cycle is the sum of the stages of development and maturity for a piece of computer software: ranging from its initial development to its eventual release, and including updated versions of the released version to help improve software or fix software bugs still present in the software.Contents1 History 2 Stages of development2.1 Pre-alpha 2.2 Alpha 2.3 Beta2.3.1 Open and closed beta2.4 Release candidate3 Release3.1 Release to manufacturing (RTM) 3.2 General availability (GA) 3.3 Release to web (RTW)4 Support4.1 End-of-life5 See also 6 References 7 BibliographyHistory[edit] Usage of the "alpha/beta" test terminology originated at IBM. As long ago as the 1950s (and probably earlier), IBM used similar terminology for their hardware development. "A" test was the verification of a new product before public announcement. "B" test was the verification before releasing the product to be manufactured
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Random Access
In computer science, random access (more precisely and more generally called direct access) is the ability to access any item of data from a population of addressable elements roughly as easily and efficiently as any other, no matter how many elements may be in the set. It is typically contrasted to sequential access. For example, data might be stored notionally in a single sequence like a row, in two dimensions like rows and columns on a surface, or in multiple dimensions. However, given all the coordinates, a program can access each record about as quickly and easily as any other. In this sense the choice of data item is arbitrary in the sense that no matter which item is sought, all that is needed to find it, is its address, that is to say, the coordinates at which it is located, such as its row and column (or its track and record number on a magnetic drum)
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Uniform Type Identifier
A Uniform Type Identifier
Uniform Type Identifier
(UTI) is a text string used on software provided by Apple Inc.
Apple Inc.
to uniquely identify a given class or type of item. Apple provides built-in UTIs to identify common system objects – document or image file types, folders and application bundles, streaming data, clipping data, movie data – and allows third party developers to add their own UTIs for application-specific or proprietary uses. Support for UTIs was added in the Mac OS X
Mac OS X
10.4 operating system, integrated into the Spotlight desktop search technology, which uses UTIs to categorize documents. One of the primary design goals of UTIs was to eliminate the ambiguities and problems associated with inferring a file's content from its MIME type, filename extension, or type or creator code.[1] UTIs use a reverse-DNS naming structure
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