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PAR 38
A PARABOLIC ALUMINIZED REFLECTOR LAMP (also PARCAN LIGHT, PARCAN, or simply PAR) is a type of electric lamp that is widely used in commercial, residential, and transportation illumination. Usage includes locomotive headlamps , aircraft landing lights, and residential and commercial recessed lights ("cans" in the United States). They are identical in principle to sealed beam automobile headlights . This article covers only their use in stage lighting . The lamps and their fixtures are widely used in theatre , concerts and motion picture production when a substantial amount of flat lighting is required for a scene . In situations where sunlight or other specular light is available, a white foam reflector is often used to accomplish the same effect as a PAR array. PAR cans are being replaced in some applications by LED PAR cans , which use less electric power and produce a wide array of saturated colors without the use of color filters, when white light is not needed
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Stage Lighting Accessories
STAGE LIGHTING ACCESSORIES are components manufactured for conventional (non-automated ) stage lighting instruments . Most conventional fixtures are designed to accept a number of different accessories designed to assist in the modification of the output. These accessories are intended to either provide relatively common functionality not originally provided in a fixture (such as beam shaping through barn doors ), or to extend the versatility of a lighting instrument by introducing features. Other accessories have been designed to overcome limitations or difficulties some fixtures present in specific applications. All stage lighting accessories fall into one of three distinct categories: components installed inside the fixture, components affixed to the front of the fixture (in front of the lens), or components mounted elsewhere on the exterior of a fixture (to the side, top or bottom)
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Stage Lighting Instrument
STAGE LIGHTING INSTRUMENTS (lanterns, or luminaires in Europe) are used in stage lighting to illuminate theatrical productions, concerts , and other performances taking place in live performance venues . They are also used to light television studios and sound stages . Many stagecraft terms vary between the United States and the United Kingdom. In the United States, lighting fixtures are often called "instruments" or "units". In the UK, they are called "lanterns" or "luminaires". This article mainly uses terms common to the United States
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Stagecraft
STAGECRAFT is the technical aspect of theatrical, film, and video production. It includes constructing and rigging scenery; hanging and focusing of lighting; design and procurement of costumes; make-up; stage management ; audio engineering ; and procurement of props . Stagecraft
Stagecraft
is distinct from the wider umbrella term of scenography . Considered a technical rather than an artistic field, it is primarily the practical implementation of a scenic designer 's artistic vision. In its most basic form, stagecraft may be executed by a single person (often the stage manager of a smaller production) who arranges all scenery, costumes, lighting, and sound, and organizes the cast. Regional theatres and larger community theatres will generally have a technical director and a complement of designers, each of whom has a direct hand in their respective designs
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Scene Shop
A SCENERY SHOP or SCENE SHOP is a specialized workshop found in many medium or large theaters, as well as many educational theatre settings. The primary function of a scene shop is to fabricate and assemble the flats , platforms , scenery wagons , and other scenic (set) pieces required for a performance. Commonly, a scene shop is also the location where most of the set painting is done, and is sometimes used to make props . Generally, the individuals who work in a scene shop are carpenters , although, in bigger shops, it is common for metalworkers to be employed for steel-construction set pieces which require welding and other machining . It is common for the individuals working in a scene shop to be knowledgeable in a wide variety of technical skills, developed over time as required for specific construction needs
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Theatrical Scenery
THEATRICAL SCENERY is that which is used as a setting for a theatrical production. Scenery may be just about anything, from a single chair to an elaborately re-created street, no matter how large or how small, whether the item was custom-made or is the genuine item, appropriated for theatrical use. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Contemporary scenery * 3 Types of scenery * 4 Gallery * 5 See also HISTORYThe history of theatrical scenery is as old as the theatre itself, and just as obtuse and tradition bound. What we tend to think of as 'traditional scenery', i.e. two-dimensional canvas -covered 'flats ' painted to resemble a three-dimensional surface or vista, is a relatively recent innovation and a significant departure from the more ancient forms of theatrical expression, which tended to rely less on the actual representation of space senerial and more on the conveyance of action and mood
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Fresnel Lantern
A FRESNEL LANTERN (pronounced frəˈnɛl or fruh-nel) is a common lantern used in theatre , which employs a Fresnel lens to wash light over an area of the stage . The lens produces a wider, soft-edged beam of light, which is commonly used for back light and top light. 1: Cross section of a Fresnel lens 2: Cross section of a conventional plano-convex lens of equivalent power The distinctive lens has a 'stepped' appearance instead of the 'full' or 'smooth' appearance of other lenses. This allows the lens to have a much greater curvature than would otherwise be practical. The lens focuses the light by tilting each ring of glass slightly more towards the center as the distance is increased from the center of the lens. If the glass were completely flat, this would cause a corresponding pattern of circles of light, so Fresnel lenses are usually stippled on the flat side
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Intelligent Lighting
INTELLIGENT LIGHTING refers to stage lighting that has automated or mechanical abilities beyond those of traditional, stationary illumination. Although the most advanced intelligent lights can produce extraordinarily complex effects, the intelligence lies with the programmer of the show rather than the instruments or the lighting operator . For this reason, intelligent lighting is also known as AUTOMATED LIGHTING, MOVING LIGHTS or MOVING HEADS. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Features * 3 Control * 4 Construction * 5 Usage * 6 Debate * 7 See also * 8 References HISTORYThere are many patents for intelligent lighting dating back from 1906, with Edmond Sohlberg of Kansas City, USA. The lantern used a carbon-arc bulb and was operated not by motors or any form of electronics, but by cords that were operated manually to control pan, tilt and zoom. 1925 saw the first use of electrical motors to move the fixture, and with it the beam position, by Herbet F
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Light-emitting Diode
A LIGHT-EMITTING DIODE (LED) is a two-lead semiconductor light source . It is a p–n junction diode that emits light when activated. When a suitable voltage is applied to the leads, electrons are able to recombine with electron holes within the device, releasing energy in the form of photons . This effect is called electroluminescence , and the color of the light (corresponding to the energy of the photon) is determined by the energy band gap of the semiconductor. LEDs are typically small (less than 1 mm2) and integrated optical components may be used to shape the radiation pattern . Appearing as practical electronic components in 1962, the earliest LEDs emitted low-intensity infrared light. Infrared
Infrared
LEDs are still frequently used as transmitting elements in remote-control circuits, such as those in remote controls for a wide variety of consumer electronics
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RGB Color Model
The RGB COLOR MODEL is an additive color model in which red , green and blue light are added together in various ways to reproduce a broad array of colors . The name of the model comes from the initials of the three additive primary colors , red, green and blue. The main purpose of the RGB color model
RGB color model
is for the sensing, representation and display of images in electronic systems, such as televisions and computers, though it has also been used in conventional photography . Before the electronic age , the RGB color model already had a solid theory behind it, based in human perception of colors . RGB is a device-dependent color model: different devices detect or reproduce a given RGB value differently, since the color elements (such as phosphors or dyes ) and their response to the individual R, G and B levels vary from manufacturer to manufacturer, or even in the same device over time
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Socapex
SOCAPEX is a brand of electrical connectors, known in the entertainment industry primarily for their 19-pin electrical connectors, commonly known as SOCAPEX CONNECTORS, and used in film, television, and stage lighting to terminate the ends of a multicable . They are wired with six hot/live pins, six neutral pins, six ground/earth pins, and a final central pin used to aid alignment of the male end of the connector with a female receptacle. The Socapex was first created by a company called Socapex in 1961, which later on became Amphenol Socapex. "Socapex" became a brand name owned by Amphenol Socapex, the term is now often applied to similar off-brand connectors as a genericized trademark . "Breakouts" are often used to connect fixtures to the cable
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Hydrargyrum Medium-arc Iodide
HYDRARGYRUM MEDIUM-ARC IODIDE, or HMI, is the trademark name of Osram 's brand of metal-halide gas discharge medium arc-length lamp, made specifically for film and entertainment applications. Hydrargyrum comes from the Latin name for the element mercury . An HMI lamp uses mercury vapour mixed with metal halides in a quartz -glass envelope, with two tungsten electrodes of medium arc separation. Unlike traditional lighting units using incandescent light bulbs , HMIs need electrical ballasts , which are separated from the head via a header cable, to limit current and supply the proper voltage. The lamp operates by creating an electrical arc between two electrodes within the bulb that excites the pressurized mercury vapour and metal halides, and provides very high light output with greater efficiency than incandescent lighting units. The efficiency advantage is near fourfold, with approximately 85–108 lumens per watt of electricity
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Set Construction
SET CONSTRUCTION is the process undertaken by a construction manager to build full-scale scenery, as specified by a production designer or art director working in collaboration with the director of a production to create a set for a theatrical, film or television production. The set designer produces a scale model , scale drawings, paint elevations (a scale painting supplied to the scenic painter of each element that requires painting), and research about props , textures, and so on
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Scenic Painting
THEATRICAL SCENIC PAINTING includes wide-ranging disciplines, encompassing virtually the entire scope of painting and craft techniques. An experienced scenic painter will have skills in landscape painting, figurative painting , trompe l\'oeil , and faux finishing , be versatile in different media such as acrylic , oil , and tempera paint, and be an accomplished gilder , plasterer , and sculptor . The techniques and specialized knowledge of the scenic painter in replicating an image to a large scale are largely different from those of the traditional studio artist.. In addition, he or she is often expected to make the finished product fire-proof , and to work quickly within a tight budget. Traditionally, scenic painters are drawn from the ranks of scenic designers, and in some cases designers paint their own works. Increasingly scenic painting is looked upon as a separate craft, and scenic painters are expected to subordinate their skills to those of the designer
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Stage Weight
A STAGE WEIGHT or BRACE WEIGHT is a heavy object used in a theatre to provide stability to a brace supporting objects such as scenery or to stabilize items such as lighting stands . REFERENCES * ^ Harrison, Martin (1998). The Language of Theatre. Psychology Press. p. 259. ISBN 0878300872
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Scenery Wagon
A SCENERY WAGON, also known as a stage wagon, is a mobile platform that is used to support and transport movable, three-dimensional theatrical scenery on a theater stage . In most cases, the scenery is constructed on top of the wagon such that the wagon, and the scenery it supports, forms a single, integrated structure. Heavy duty casters are mounted to the underside of the platform so that the entire assembly can be quickly moved onstage or offstage, so as to facilitate rapid scenery changes during live productions. Scenery wagons are built in a wide range of sizes, ranging from less than one square foot up to the size of the playing area of the stage. Scenery wagons comprise one of the four methods used to move scenery during the course of a theatre performance, the other three being "flying" (suspending) scenery from a fly system , elevating or lowering scenery on a stage lift , or "running" (manually carrying) the scenery
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