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Oxford English Dictionary
The _OXFORD ENGLISH DICTIONARY_ (_OED_) is a descriptive dictionary of the English language , published by the Oxford University Press . It traces the historical development of the English language, providing a comprehensive resource to scholars and academic researchers, as well as describing usage in its many variations throughout the world. The second edition came to 21,728 pages in 20 volumes, published in 1989. Work began on the dictionary in 1857, but it was not until 1884 that it began to be published in unbound fascicles as work continued on the project, under the name of _A New English Dictionary on Historical Principles; Founded Mainly on the Materials Collected by The Philological Society_. In 1895, the title _The Oxford English Dictionary_ (_OED_) was first used unofficially on the covers of the series, and in 1928 the full dictionary was republished in ten bound volumes. In 1933, the title _The Oxford English Dictionary_ fully replaced the former name in all occurrences in its reprinting as twelve volumes with a one-volume supplement. More supplements came over the years until 1989, when the second edition was published. Since 2000, a third edition of the dictionary has been underway, approximately a third of which is now complete. The first electronic version of the dictionary was made available in 1988
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Oxford Dictionary Of English
The OXFORD DICTIONARY OF ENGLISH (ODE) is a single-volume English dictionary published by Oxford University Press
Oxford University Press
, first published in 1998 as THE NEW OXFORD DICTIONARY OF ENGLISH (NODE). The word "new" was dropped from the title with the Second Edition in 2003. This dictionary is not based on the Oxford English Dictionary
Oxford English Dictionary
and should not be mistaken for a new or updated version of the OED. It is a completely new dictionary which strives to represent as faithfully as possible the current usage of English words. The Revised Second Edition contains 355,000 words, phrases, and definitions, including biographical references and thousands of encyclopaedic entries. The Third Edition was published in August 2010, with some new words, including "vuvuzela ". It is currently the largest single-volume English-language dictionary published by Oxford University Press
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OED (other)
OED is the Oxford English Dictionary, a descriptive dictionary of the English language. OED or OED may also refer to: * Oed, a subdivision of Melk District
Melk District
, Austria * Oed-Öhling , a town in Amstetten District, Austria * Oedipus Records (discography code), a record label * Orion Air Charter (ICAO code), in the List of airline codes (O) * Online Etymology Dictionary , an online dictionary that describes the origins of English-language words This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title OED. If an internal link led you here, you may wish to change the link to point directly to the intended article. Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=OED_(other) additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy .® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc
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United Kingdom
The UNITED KINGDOM OF GREAT BRITAIN AND NORTHERN IRELAND, commonly known as the UNITED KINGDOM (UK) or BRITAIN, is a sovereign country in western Europe. Lying off the north-western coast of the European mainland , the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
includes the island of Great Britain
Great Britain
, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland
Ireland
and many smaller islands. Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
is the only part of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
that shares a land border with another sovereign state‍—‌the Republic of Ireland
Ireland
. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
, with the North Sea to its east, the English Channel to its south and the Celtic Sea to its south-south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world . The Irish Sea lies between Great Britain
Great Britain
and Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres (93,600 sq mi), the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world and the 11th-largest in Europe
Europe
. It is also the 21st-most populous country , with an estimated 65.1 million inhabitants
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English Language
ENGLISH /ˈɪŋɡlɪʃ/ (_ listen ) is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca _. Named after the Angles , one of the Germanic tribes that migrated to England , it ultimately derives its name from the Anglia (Angeln) peninsula in the Baltic Sea . It is closely related to the Frisian languages , but its vocabulary has been significantly influenced by other Germanic languages particularly Norse (a North Germanic language ), as well as by Latin and Romance languages , particularly French . English has developed over the course of more than 1,400 years. The earliest forms of English, a set of Anglo-Frisian dialects brought to Great Britain by Anglo-Saxon settlers in the 5th century, are called Old English . Middle English began in the late 11th century with the Norman conquest of England , and was a period in which the language was influenced by French. Early Modern English began in the late 15th century with the introduction of the printing press to London and the King James Bible , and the start of the Great Vowel Shift . Through the worldwide influence of the British Empire , modern English spread around the world from the 17th to mid-20th centuries
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Descriptive Linguistics
In the study of language , DESCRIPTION or DESCRIPTIVE LINGUISTICS is the work of objectively analyzing and describing how language is actually used (or how it was used in the past) by a group of people in a speech community. All academic research in linguistics is descriptive; like all other sciences, its aim is to describe the linguistic world as it is, without the bias of preconceived ideas about how it ought to be. Modern descriptive linguistics is based on a structural approach to language, as exemplified in the work of Leonard Bloomfield and others. Linguistic description is often contrasted with linguistic prescription , which is found especially in education and in publishing. Prescription seeks to define standard language forms and give advice on effective language use, and can be thought of as a presentation of the fruits of descriptive research in a learnable form, though it also draws on more subjective aspects of language aesthetics. Prescription and description are complementary, but have different priorities and sometimes are seen to be in conflict. Descriptivism is the belief that description is more significant or important to teach, study, and practice than prescription
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Dictionary
A DICTIONARY is a collection of words in one or more specific languages , often arranged alphabetically (or by radical and stroke for ideographic languages), which may include information on definitions , usage, etymologies , phonetics , pronunciations , translation, etc. or a book of words in one language with their equivalents in another, sometimes known as a lexicon . It is a lexicographical product which shows inter-relationships among the data. A broad distinction is made between general and specialized dictionaries . Specialized dictionaries include words in specialist fields, rather than a complete range of words in the language. Lexical items that describe concepts in specific fields are usually called terms instead of words, although there is no consensus whether lexicology and terminology are two different fields of study. In theory, general dictionaries are supposed to be semasiological , mapping word to definition , while specialized dictionaries are supposed to be onomasiological , first identifying concepts and then establishing the terms used to designate them. In practice, the two approaches are used for both types. There are other types of dictionaries that do not fit neatly into the above distinction, for instance bilingual (translation) dictionaries , dictionaries of synonyms (thesauri ), and rhyming dictionaries. The word dictionary (unqualified) is usually understood to refer to a general purpose monolingual dictionary
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Oxford University Press
OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press . It is a department of the University of Oxford and is governed by a group of 15 academics appointed by the vice-chancellor known as the delegates of the press. They are headed by the secretary to the delegates, who serves as OUP's chief executive and as its major representative on other university bodies. Oxford University has used a similar system to oversee OUP since the 17th century. The university became involved in the print trade around 1480, and grew into a major printer of Bibles, prayer books, and scholarly works. OUP took on the project that became the _ Oxford English Dictionary _ in the late 19th century, and expanded to meet the ever-rising costs of the work. As a result, the last hundred years has seen Oxford publish children's books, school text books, music, journals, the World's Classics series, and a best-selling range of English language teaching texts to match its academic and religious titles. Moves into international markets led to OUP opening its own offices outside the United Kingdom , beginning with New York City in 1896
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Serial (literature)
In literature, a SERIAL is a printed format by which a single larger work, often a work of narrative fiction, is published in sequential installments. The installments are also known as numbers, parts or fascicles, and are either issued as separate publications or within sequential issues of the same periodical publication . CONTENTS * 1 Early history * 2 19th and early 20th centuries * 3 Late 20th and early-21st centuries * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links EARLY HISTORYThe growth of moveable type in the 17th century prompted episodic and often disconnected narratives such as L\'Astrée and Le Grand Cyrus . At that time, books remained a premium item, so to reduce the price and expand the market, publishers produced large works in lower-cost installments called fascicles. 19TH AND EARLY 20TH CENTURIESSerialized fiction surged in popularity during Britain's Victorian era , due to a combination of the rise of literacy, technological advances in printing, and improved economics of distribution. :34 Most Victorian novels first appeared as installments in monthly or weekly periodicals. :13 The wild success of Charles Dickens
Charles Dickens
's The Pickwick Papers , first published in 1836, is widely considered to have established the viability and appeal of the serialized format within periodical literature. During that era, the line between "quality" and "commercial" literature was not distinct
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Deutsches Wörterbuch
The DEUTSCHES WöRTERBUCH (German: , The German Dictionary), abbreviated DWB, is the largest and most comprehensive dictionary of the German language in existence. Encompassing modern High German vocabulary in use since 1450, it also includes loanwords adopted from other languages into German. Entries cover the etymology , meanings , attested forms , synonyms , usage peculiarities, and regional differences of words found throughout the German speaking world . The dictionary's historical linguistics approach, illuminated by examples from primary source documents, makes it to German what the Oxford English Dictionary is to English . The first completed DWB lists over 330,000 headwords in 67,000 print columns spanning 32 volumes. The Deutsches Wörterbuch
Deutsches Wörterbuch
was begun by the Brothers Grimm in 1838 and the initial volumes were published in 1854. Unfinished at the time of their deaths, the dictionary was finally completed by a succession of later scholars and institutions in 1961. In 1971, a 33rd supplement volume was published containing 25,000 additional entries. New research projects began in 2004 to expand and update the oldest parts of the dictionary to modern academic standards
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James Murray (lexicographer)
SIR JAMES AUGUSTUS HENRY MURRAY (/ˈmʌri/ ; 7 February 1837 – 26 July 1915) was a Scottish lexicographer and philologist . He was the primary editor of the Oxford
Oxford
English Dictionary (OED) from 1879 until his death. CONTENTS * 1 Life and learning * 2 Murray and the OED * 3 Honorary degrees * 4 References * 5 Further reading * 6 External links LIFE AND LEARNINGSir James Murray was born in the village of Denholm near Hawick in the Scottish Borders , the eldest son of a draper, Thomas Murray. A precocious child with a voracious appetite for learning, he left school at the age of fourteen because his parents were not able to afford to send him to local fee-paying schools. At the age of seventeen he became a teacher at Hawick Grammar School and three years later was headmaster of the Subscription Academy there. In 1856 he was one of the founders of the Hawick Archaeological Society. In 1861, Murray met a music teacher, Maggie Scott, whom he married the following year. Two years later, they had a daughter Anna, who shortly after died of tuberculosis . Maggie, too, fell ill with tuberculosis , and on the advice of doctors, the couple moved to London
London
to escape the Scottish winters
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Megabyte
The MEGABYTE is a multiple of the unit byte for digital information. Its recommended unit symbol is MB. The unit prefix _mega_ is a multiplier of 1000000 (106) in the International System of Units (SI). Therefore, one megabyte is one million bytes of information. This definition has been incorporated into the International System of Quantities . However, in the computer and information technology fields, several other definitions are used that arose for historical reasons of convenience. A common usage has been to designate one megabyte as 1048576bytes (220 B), a measurement that conveniently expresses the binary multiples inherent in digital computer memory architectures. However, most standards bodies have deprecated this usage in favor of a set of binary prefixes , in which this quantity is designated by the unit mebibyte (MiB). Less common is a convention that used the megabyte to mean 1000×1024 (1024000) bytes. CONTENTS * 1 Definitions * 2 Examples of use * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links DEFINITIONSThe megabyte is commonly used to measure either 10002 bytes or 10242 bytes. The interpretation of using base 1024 originated as a compromise technical jargon for the byte multiples that needed to be expressed by the powers of 2 but lacked a convenient name. As 1024 (210) approximates 1000 (103), roughly corresponding to the SI prefix kilo- , it was a convenient term to denote the binary multiple
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Headword
A HEADWORD, HEAD WORD, LEMMA, or sometimes CATCHWORD is the word under which a set of related dictionary or encyclopaedia entries appear. The headword is used to locate the entry, and dictates its alphabetical position. Depending on the size and nature of the dictionary or encyclopedia, the entry may include alternative meanings of the word, its etymology and pronunciation , compound words or phrases that contain the headword, and encyclopedic information about the concepts represented by the word. For example, the headword bread may contain the following (simplified) definitions: BREAD (noun) * A common food made from the combination of flour , water and yeast * Money (slang) (verb) * To coat in breadcrumbs — TO KNOW WHICH SIDE YOUR BREAD IS BUTTERED to know how to act in your own best interests. The Academic Dictionary
Dictionary
of Lithuanian contains around 500,000 headwords. The Oxford English Dictionary
Dictionary
(OED) has around 273,000 headwords, while Merriam-Webster
Merriam-Webster
's Third New International Dictionary
Dictionary
has about 470,000. The Deutsches Wörterbuch
Deutsches Wörterbuch
(DWB), the largest lexicon of the German language
German language
, has around 330,000 headwords. These values are cited by the dictionary makers, and may not use exactly the same definition of a headword
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Pronunciation
PRONUNCIATION is the way a word or a language is spoken, or the manner in which someone utters a word. If one is said to have "correct pronunciation", then it refers to both within a particular dialect . A word can be spoken in different ways by various individuals or groups, depending on many factors, such as: the duration of the cultural exposure of their childhood, the location of their current residence, speech or voice disorders , their ethnic group , their social class , or their education . 1. Nose; 2. Lips; 3. Teeth; 4. Palate; 5. LINGUISTIC TERMINOLOGYSyllables are counted as units of sound (phones ) that they use in their language . The branch of linguistics which studies these units of sound is phonetics . Phones which play the same role are grouped together into classes called phonemes ; the study of these is phonemics or phonematics or phonology . Phones as components of articulation are usually described using the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA)
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Etymology
ETYMOLOGY (/ˌɛt.ɪˈmɒl.ə.dʒi/ ) is the study of the history of words , their origins, and how their form and meaning have changed over time. By extension, the term "the etymology (of a word)" means the origin of the particular word. For a language such as Greek with a long written history , etymologists make use of texts in these languages and texts about the languages to gather knowledge about how words were used during earlier periods of their history and when they entered the languages in question. Etymologists also apply the methods of comparative linguistics to reconstruct information about languages that are too old for any direct information to be available. By analyzing related languages with a technique known as the comparative method , linguists can make inferences about their shared parent language and its vocabulary. In this way, word roots have been found that can be traced all the way back to the origin of, for instance, the Indo-European language family . Even though etymological research originally grew from the philological tradition, currently much etymological research is done on language families where little or no early documentation is available, such as Uralic and Austronesian . The word _etymology_ is derived from the Greek word ἐτυμολογία (_etumología_), itself from ἔτυμον (_étumon_), meaning "true sense", and the suffix _-logia_, denoting "the study of"
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Quotation
A QUOTATION is the repetition of one expression as part of another one, particularly when the quoted expression is well-known or explicitly attributed by citation to its original source, and it is indicated by (punctuated with) quotation marks . A quotation can also refer to the repeated use of units of any other form of expression, especially parts of artistic works: elements of a painting , scenes from a movie or sections from a musical composition . CONTENTS * 1 Reasons for using quotations * 2 Common quotation sources * 3 Quotations and the Internet
Internet
* 4 United Kingdom
United Kingdom
copyright law * 5 Misquotations * 6 See also * 7 References REASONS FOR USING QUOTATIONSQuotations are used for a variety of reasons: to illuminate the meaning or to support the arguments of the work in which it is being quoted, to provide direct information about the work being quoted (whether in order to discuss it, positively or negatively), to pay homage to the original work or author , to make the user of the quotation seem well-read, and/or to comply with copyright law. Quotations are also commonly printed as a means of inspiration and to invoke philosophical thoughts from the reader. COMMON QUOTATION SOURCESFamous quotations are frequently collected in books that are sometimes called quotation dictionaries or treasuries
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