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Overdrive (mechanics)
Overdrive is a term used to describe the operation of an automobile cruising at sustained speed with reduced engine revolutions per minute (RPM), leading to better fuel consumption, lower noise, and lower wear.[1] Use of the term is confused, as it is applied to several different, but related, meanings.[1] The most fundamental meaning is that of an overall gear ratio between engine and wheels, such that the car is over-geared, and cannot reach its potential top speed, i.e. the car could travel faster if it were in a lower gear, with the engine turning at higher RPM.[1] The purpose of such a gear may not be immediately obvious. The power produced by an engine increases with the engine's RPM to a maximum, then falls away. The point of maximum power is somewhat lower than the absolute maximum RPM to which the engine is limited, the "redline" RPM. A car's speed is limited by the power required to drive it against air resistance, which increases with speed
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Gilbern
Gilbern, Gilbern
Gilbern
Sports Cars (Components) Ltd , was a Welsh car manufacturer from 1959 to 1973, based in Llantwit Fardre, Pontypridd, Glamorgan, Wales.Contents1 History 2 Gilbern
Gilbern
GT 3 Gilbern
Gilbern
Genie 4 Gilbern
Gilbern
Invader 5 T11 Concept 6 See also 7 References 8 External linksHistory[edit] Gilbern
Gilbern
Sports Cars (Components) Ltd was founded by Giles Smith (previously a butcher, who died in 2003) and Bernard Friese, a German engineer with experience in glass fibre mouldings,[1] and was one of the few cars to be made in Wales. Friese had made a one-off car for himself and the two partners used this as the basis for the first Gilbern
Gilbern
car
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British Leyland
British Leyland
British Leyland
was an automotive engineering and manufacturing conglomerate formed in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
in 1968 as British Leyland Motor Corporation Ltd (BLMC), following the merger of Leyland Motors and British Motor Holdings
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Torque
Torque, moment, or moment of force is rotational force.[1] Just as a linear force is a push or a pull, a torque can be thought of as a twist to an object. In three dimensions, the torque is a pseudovector; for point particles, it is given by the cross product of the position vector (distance vector) and the force vector. The symbol for torque is typically τ displaystyle tau , the lowercase Greek letter tau. When it is called moment of force, it is commonly denoted by M. The magnitude of torque of a rigid body depends on three quantities: the force applied, the lever arm vector[2] connecting the origin to the point of force application, and the angle between the force and lever arm vectors
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Epicyclic Gearing
An epicyclic gear train consists of two gears mounted so that the center of one gear revolves around the center of the other. A carrier connects the centers of the two gears and rotates to carry one gear, called the planet gear, around the other, called the sun gear. The planet and sun gears mesh so that their pitch circles roll without slip. A point on the pitch circle of the planet gear traces an epicycloid curve. In this simplified case, the sun gear is fixed and the planetary gear(s) roll around the sun gear. An epicyclic gear train can be assembled so the planet gear rolls on the inside of the pitch circle of a fixed, outer gear ring, or ring gear, sometimes called an annular gear
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Driveshaft
A drive shaft, driveshaft, driving shaft, propeller shaft (prop shaft), or Cardan shaft is a mechanical component for transmitting torque and rotation, usually used to connect other components of a drive train that cannot be connected directly because of distance or the need to allow for relative movement between them. As torque carriers, drive shafts are subject to torsion and shear stress, equivalent to the difference between the input torque and the load
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Europe
Europe
Europe
(Europa) is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere. It is bordered by the Arctic Ocean
Arctic Ocean
to the north, the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
to the west, Asia
Asia
to the east, and the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
to the south. It comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia. Europe
Europe
is most commonly considered to be separated from Asia
Asia
by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus
Caucasus
Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas and the waterways of the Turkish Straits.[7] Although the term "continent" implies physical geography, the land border is somewhat arbitrary and has been redefined several times since its first conception in classical antiquity
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United Kingdom
The United Kingdom
United Kingdom
of Great Britain
Great Britain
and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
(UK)[15] or Britain,[note 11] is a sovereign country located off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom
United Kingdom
includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, and many smaller islands.[16] Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
is the only part of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland
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Laycock Engineering
The Laycock Engineering Company Limited of Archer Road, Millhouses, Sheffield, Yorkshire, England was an engineering business established in 1884 by W S Laycock which made small and major components for railway rolling stock. After Laycock died in 1916 the business passed through the hands of Charron, a French automobile manufacturer, into receivership from where it was bought by Sheffield
Sheffield
engineer and shipbreaker Thos W Ward. Laycock was bought from Ward by a group of investors and put into the ownership of a new holding company, Birfield Limited, along with Hardy Spicer
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Edgar De Normanville
Captain Edgar Joseph de Normanville R.E. (1882-1968) was a British engineer who became a successful inventor and a technical journalist. Born in Leamington Spa 13 October 1882 eldest son of William de Normanville (1843-1928), a civil engineer, and his wife born Elizabeth Simonds[1][2] he was educated at Ampleforth College
Ampleforth College
and completed an engineering apprenticeship
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Ford Motor Company
Coordinates: 42°18′53″N 83°12′38″W / 42.31472°N 83.21056°W / 42.31472; -83.21056Ford Motor CompanyThe Ford World Headquarters
Ford World Headquarters
in Dearborn, Michigan, also known as the Glass HouseTypePublicTraded asNYSE: FS&P 100 ComponentS&P 500 ComponentIndustryAutomotiveFoundedJune 16, 1903; 116 years ago (1903-06-16)[1]FounderHenry FordHeadquartersDearborn, Michigan, U.S.Area servedWorldwideKey peopleWilliam Clay Ford Jr.(Executive Chairman)Jim Hackett(President & CEO)ProductsAutomo
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Jaguar (car)
Jaguar (UK: /ˈdʒæɡjuər/, US: /ˈdʒæɡwɑːr/) is the luxury vehicle brand of Jaguar Land Rover,[2][1] a British multinational car manufacturer with its headquarters in Whitley, Coventry, England and owned by the Indian company Tata Motors
Tata Motors
since 2008.[3] Jaguar Cars
Jaguar Cars
was the company that was responsible for the production of Jaguar cars until its operations were fully merged with those of Land Rover
Land Rover
to form Jaguar Land Rover
Jaguar Land Rover
on 1 January 2013. Jaguar's business was founded as the Swallow Sidecar Company
Swallow Sidecar Company
in 1922, originally making motorcycle sidecars before developing bodies for passenger cars. Under the ownership of S. S. Cars Limited the business extended to complete cars made in association with Standard Motor Co, many bearing Jaguar as a model name. The company's name was changed from S. S
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Front-engine, Rear-wheel Drive Layout
In automotive design, an FR, or front-engine, rear-wheel-drive layout is one where the engine is located at the front of the vehicle and driven wheels are located at the rear. This was the traditional automobile layout for most of the 20th century.[1] Modern designs commonly use the front-engine, front-wheel-drive layout (FF).Contents1 History 2 Front mid-engine, rear-wheel-drive layout2.1 Characteristics 2.2 Gallery3 ReferencesHistory[edit]Hyundai Genesis, a modern example of a front-engine, rear-wheel-drive layout sedanThe first FR car was an 1895 Panhard
Panhard
model, so this layout was known as the "Système Panhard" in the early years. The layout has the advantage of minimizing mechanical complexity, as it allows the transmission to be placed in-line with the engine output shaft, spreading weight under the vehicle
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Rootes Group
The Rootes Group
Rootes Group
or Rootes Motors Limited was a British automobile manufacturer and, separately a major motor distributors and dealers business. Run from London's West End they were respectively based in the Midlands and south of England
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Volvo Cars
Volvo
Volvo
Cars (Swedish: Volvo
Volvo
personvagnar), stylized as VOLVO in the logo, is a Swedish vehicle manufacturer established in 1927 and headquartered on Torslanda
Torslanda
in Gothenburg. Although often conflated with the Swedish-owned heavy truck and construction equipment conglomerate AB Volvo, also based in Gothenburg, the two firms have been independent since AB Volvo
Volvo
sold Volvo
Volvo
Cars to Ford Motor Company in 1999. Volvo
Volvo
Cars has been owned since 2010 by the Geely
Geely
Holding Group, a Chinese multinational automotive manufacturing company
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Land Rover
Land Rover
Land Rover
is a car brand that specialises in four-wheel-drive vehicles, owned by British multinational car manufacturer Jaguar Land Rover, which has been owned by India's Tata Motors
Tata Motors
since 2008.[4] The Land Rover
Land Rover
is regarded as a British icon, and was granted a Royal Warrant by King George VI
George VI
in 1951.[5][6] The Land Rover
Land Rover
name was originally used by the Rover Company
Rover Company
for the Land Rover
Land Rover
Series, launched in 1948
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