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Outline Of Physical Science
Physical science
Physical science
is a branch of natural science that studies non-living systems, in contrast to life science. It in turn has many branches, each referred to as a "physical science", together called the "physical sciences"
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History Of Analytical Chemistry
Analytical chemistry studies and uses instruments and methods used to separate, identify, and quantify matter.[1] In practice separation, identification or quantification may constitute the entire analysis or be combined with another method. Separation isolates analytes. Qualitative analysis identifies analytes, while quantitative analysis determines the numerical amount or concentration. Analytical chemistry consists of classical, wet chemical methods and modern, instrumental methods.[2] Classical qualitative methods use separations such as precipitation, extraction, and distillation. Identification may be based on differences in color, odor, melting point, boiling point, radioactivity or reactivity. Classical quantitative analysis uses mass or volume changes to quantify amount. Instrumental methods may be used to separate samples using chromatography, electrophoresis or field flow fractionation
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History Of Biomechanics
Biomechanics is the study of the structure and function of the mechanical aspects of biological systems, at any level from whole organisms to organs, cells and cell organelles,[1] using the methods of mechanics.[2]Contents1 Etymology 2 Method 3 Subfields3.1 Sports biomechanics 3.2 Continuum biomechanics 3.3 Biofluid mechanics 3.4 Biotribology 3.5 Comparative biomechanics 3.6 Plant biomechanics 3.7 Computational biomechanics4 History4.1 Antiquity 4.2 Renaissance 4.3 Industrial era5 Applications 6 See also 7 References 8 Further reading 9 External linksEtymology[edit] The word "biomechanics" (1899) and the related "biomechanical" (1856) come from the Ancient Greek βίος bios "life" and μηχανική, mēchanikē "mechanics", to refer to the study of the mechanical principles of living organisms, particularly their movement and structure.[3] Method[edit] Biomechanics is closely related to engineering, because it often uses traditional
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History Of Cosmology
Cosmology (from the Greek κόσμος, kosmos "world" and -λογία, -logia "study of") is the study of the origin, evolution, and eventual fate of the universe. Physical cosmology is the scientific study of the universe's origin, its large-scale structures and dynamics, and its ultimate fate, as well as the scientific laws that govern these areas.[2] The term cosmology was first used in English in 1656 in Thomas Blount's Glossographia,[3] and in 1731 taken up in Latin by German philosopher Christian Wolff, in Cosmologia Generalis.[4] Religious or mythological cosmology is a body of beliefs based on mythological, religious, and esoteric literature and traditions of creation myths and eschatology. Physical cosmology is studied by scientists, such as astronomers and physicists, as well as philosophers, such as metaphysicians, philosophers of physics, and philosophers of space and time
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History Of Physical Cosmology
Physical cosmology is the study of the largest-scale structures and dynamics of the Universe and is concerned with fundamental questions about its origin, structure, evolution, and ultimate fate.[1] Cosmology as a science originated with the Copernican principle, which implies that celestial bodies obey identical physical laws to those on Earth, and Newtonian mechanics, which first allowed us to understand those physical laws
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History Of Planetary Science
Planetary science or, more rarely, planetology, is the scientific study of planets (including Earth), moons, and planetary systems (in particular those of the Solar System) and the processes that form them. It studies objects ranging in size from micrometeoroids to gas giants, aiming to determine their composition, dynamics, formation, interrelations and history. It is a strongly interdisciplinary field, originally growing from astronomy and earth science,[1] but which now incorporates many disciplines, including planetary geology (together with geochemistry and geophysics), cosmochemistry, atmospheric science, oceanography, hydrology, theoretical planetary science, glaciology, and exoplanetology.[1] Allied disciplines include space physics, when concerned with the effects of the Sun on the bodies of the Solar System, and astrobiology. There are interrelated observational and theoretical branches of planetary science
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History Of Atomic, Molecular, And Optical Physics
Atomic, molecular, and optical physics (AMO) is the study of matter-matter and light-matter interactions; at the scale of one or a few atoms [1] and energy scales around several electron volts.[2]:1356[3] The three areas are closely interrelated. AMO theory includes classical, semi-classical and quantum treatments
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History Of Biophysics
Biophysics is an interdisciplinary science that applies the approaches and methods of physics to study biological systems. Biophysics covers all scales of biological organization, from molecular to organismic and populations. Biophysical research shares significant overlap with biochemistry, physical chemistry, nanotechnology, bioengineering, computational biology, biomechanics and systems biology. The term biophysics was originally introduced by Karl Pearson in 1892.[1][2]Contents1 Overview 2 History 3 Focus as a subfield 4 See also 5 References5.1 Citations 5.2 Sources6 External linksOverview[edit] Molecular biophysics typically addresses biological questions similar to those in biochemistry and molecular biology, seeking to find the physical underpinnings of biomolecular phenomena
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History Of Condensed Matter Physics
Condensed matter physics is a branch of physics that deals with the physical properties of condensed phases of matter,[1] where particles adhere to each other. Condensed matter physicists seek to understand the behavior of these phases by using physical laws. In particular, they include the laws of quantum mechanics, electromagnetism and statistical mechanics. The most familiar condensed phases are solids and liquids while more exotic condensed phases include the superconducting phase exhibited by certain materials at low temperature, the ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic phases of spins on crystal lattices of atoms, and the Bose–Einstein condensate found in ultracold atomic systems
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History Of Econophysics
Econophysics is an interdisciplinary research field, applying theories and methods originally developed by physicists in order to solve problems in economics, usually those including uncertainty or stochastic processes and nonlinear dynamics. Some of its application to the study of financial markets has also been termed statistical finance referring to its roots in statistical physics.Contents1 History 2 Basic tools 3 Influence 4 Main results 5 See also 6 References 7 Further reading7.1 Lectures8 External linksHistory[edit] Physicists' interest in the social sciences is not new; Daniel Bernoulli, as an example, was the originator of utility-based preferences
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History Of Electromagnetism
The history of electromagnetic theory begins with ancient measures to understand atmospheric electricity, in particular lightning.[1] People then had little understanding of electricity, and were unable to explain the phenomena.[2] Scientific understanding into the nature of electricity grew throughout the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries through the work of researchers such as Ampère, Coulomb, Faraday and Maxwell. In the 19th century it had become clear that electricity and magnetism were related, and their theories were unified: wherever charges are in motion electric current results, and magnetism is due to electric current.[3] The source for electric field is electric charge, whereas that for magnetic field is electric current (charges in motion).Contents1 Ancient and classical history 2 Middle Ages and the Renaissance 3 18th century3.1 Improving the electric machine 3.2 Electrics and non-electrics 3.3 Vitreous and resinous 3.4 Leyden jar 3.5 Late 18th cent
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History Of Geophysics
The historical development of geophysics has been motivated by two factors. One of these is the research curiosity of humankind related to Planet Earth and its several components, its events and its problems
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History Of Mechanics
Mechanics (Greek μηχανική) is that area of science which is concerned with the behaviour of physical bodies when subjected to forces or displacements, and the subsequent effects of the bodies on their environment. The scientific discipline has its origins in Ancient Greece with the writings of Aristotle and Archimedes[1][2][3] (see History of classical mechanics and Timeline of classical mechanics). During the early modern period, scientists such as Galileo, Kepler, and Newton, laid the foundation for what is now known as classical mechanics. It is a branch of classical physics that deals with particles that are either at rest or are moving with velocities significantly less than the speed of light
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History Of Classical Mechanics
This article deals with the history of classical mechanics.Contents1 Antiquity 2 Medieval thought 3 Modern age – formation of classical mechanics 4 Present 5 See also 6 Notes 7 ReferencesAntiquity[edit] Main article: Aristotelian physicsAristotle's laws of motion. In Physics
Physics
he states that objects fall at a speed proportional to their weight and inversely proportional to the density of the fluid they are immersed in. This is a correct approximation for objects in Earth's gravitational field moving in air or water.[1]The ancient Greek philosophers, Aristotle
Aristotle
in particular, were among the first to propose that abstract principles govern nature
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History Of Astronomy
Astronomy
Astronomy
is the oldest of the natural sciences, dating back to antiquity, with its origins in the religious, mythological, cosmological, calendrical, and astrological beliefs and practices of prehistory: vestiges of these are still found in astrology, a discipline long interwoven with public and governmental astronomy, and not completely disentangled from it until a few centuries ago in the Western World
Western World
(see astrology and astronomy)
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History Of Fluid Mechanics
The history of fluid mechanics, the study of how fluids move and the forces on them, dates back to the Ancient Greeks.Contents1 Antiquity1.1 Pre-history 1.2 Archimedes 1.3 The Alexandrian school 1.4 Sextus Julius Frontinus2 Middle Ages2.1 Islamicate physicists 2.2 Islamicate engineers3 Seventeenth and eighteenth centuries3.1 Castelli and Torricelli 3.2 Blaise Pascal 3.3 Mariotte and Guglielmini 3.4 Studies by Isaac Newton3.4.1 Friction and viscosity 3.4.2 Orifices 3.4.3 Waves3.5 Daniel Bernoulli 3.6 Jean le Rond d'Alembert 3.7 Leonhard Euler 3.8 Pierre Louis Georges Dubuat4 Nineteenth century4.1 Hermann von Helmholtz 4.2 Gaspard Riche de Prony 4.3 Johann Albert Eytelwein 4.4 Jean Nicolas Pierre Hachette and others 4.5 Andreas Rudolf Harlacher and others5 Twentieth century5.1 Developments in vortex dynamics6 Further reading 7 ReferencesAntiquity[edit] Pre-history[edit] A pragmatic, i
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