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Outline Of Judaism
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Judaism : CONTENTS* 1 History of Judaism * 1.1 Pre-monarchic period * 1.2 Monarchic period * 1.2.1 United monarchy * 1.2.2 Divided monarchy * 1.2.2.1 Kingdom of Judah * 1.2.2.1.1 Kings of Judah * 1.2.2.1.2 Major events * 1.2.2.2 Kingdom of
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Outline (list)
An OUTLINE, also called a HIERARCHICAL OUTLINE, is a list arranged to show hierarchical relationships and is a type of tree structure . An outline is used to present the main points (in sentences) or topics (terms) of a given subject. Each item in an outline may be divided into additional sub-items. If an organizational level in an outline is to be sub-divided, it shall have at least two subcategories, as advised by major style manuals in current use. An outline may be used as a drafting tool of a document, or as a summary of the content of a document or of the knowledge in an entire field. It is not to be confused with the general context of the term "outline", which a summary or overview of a subject, presented verbally or written in prose (for example, The Outline of History
The Outline of History
is not an outline of the type presented below). The outlines described in this article are lists, and come in several varieties
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Judaism
JUDAISM (from Latin : _Iudaismus_, derived from Greek Ἰουδαϊσμός, originally from Hebrew יהודה‎, _Yehudah_, "Judah "; in Hebrew: יהדות‎, _Yahadut_, the distinctive characteristics of the Judean ethnos ) is an ancient monotheistic Abrahamic religion , with the Torah as its foundational text (part of the larger text known as the Tanakh or the Hebrew Bible ), and supplemental oral tradition represented by later texts such as the Midrash and the Talmud . It encompasses the religion , philosophy , culture and way of life of the Jewish people . Judaism is considered by religious Jews to be the expression of the covenantal relationship that God established with the Children of Israel . With between 14.5 and 17.4 million adherents worldwide, Judaism is the tenth-largest religion in the world
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Origins Of Judaism
The ORIGINS OF JUDAISM lie in the Bronze Age
Bronze Age
polytheistic Ancient Semitic religions , specifically Canaanite religion
Canaanite religion
, a syncretization with elements of Babylonian religion
Babylonian religion
and of the worship of Yahweh reflected in the early prophetic books of the Hebrew Bible
Hebrew Bible
. During the Iron Age I, the Israelite religion became distinct from other Canaanite religions due to the unique monolatristic (proto-monotheistic) worship of Yahweh
Yahweh
. During the Babylonian captivity
Babylonian captivity
of the 6th and 5th centuries BCE (Iron Age II), certain circles within the exiled Judahites in Babylon redefined pre-existing ideas about monotheism , election , divine law and Covenant into a strict monotheistic theology which came to dominate the former Judah in the following centuries
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Jewish History
JEWISH HISTORY (or the HISTORY OF THE JEWISH PEOPLE) is the history of the Jews
Jews
, and their religion and culture , as it developed and interacted with other peoples, religions and cultures. Although Judaism as a religion first appears in Greek records during the Hellenistic period (323 BCE – 31 BCE) and the earliest mention of Israel
Israel
is inscribed on the Merneptah Stele dated 1213–1203 BCE, religious literature tells the story of Israelites going back at least as far as c. 1500 BCE. The Jewish diaspora began with the Assyrian conquest and continued on a much larger scale with the Babylonian conquest. Jews
Jews
were also widespread throughout the Roman Empire, and this carried on to a lesser extent in the period of Byzantine rule in the central and eastern Mediterranean. In 638 CE the Byzantine Empire lost control of the Levant
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Ugaritic Mythology
CANAANITE RELIGION refers to the group of Ancient Semitic religions practiced by the Canaanites living in the ancient Levant
Levant
from at least the early Bronze Age through the first centuries of the Common Era . Part of a series on RELIGIONS OF THE ANCIENT NEAR EAST * Anatolia * Ancient Egypt * Arabia * Canaan * Persia * Mesopotamia * Sumer * Semitic * v * t * e Canaanite religion was polytheistic , and in some cases monolatristic
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Ancient Semitic Religion
ANCIENT SEMITIC RELIGION encompasses the polytheistic religions of the Semitic peoples from the ancient Near East and Northeast Africa . Since the term _Semitic_ itself represents a rough category when referring to cultures, as opposed to languages, the definitive bounds of the term "ancient Semitic religion" are only approximate. Semitic traditions and their pantheons fall into regional categories: Canaanite religions of the Levant , Sumerian tradition -inspired Assyro-Babylonian religion of Mesopotamia , and pre-Islamic Arabian polytheism . Semitic polytheism possibly transitioned into Abrahamic monotheism by way of the god El , whose name "El" is a word for "god" in Hebrew, cognate to Islam 's Allah
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Elohim
ELOHIM ( Hebrew
Hebrew
: אֱלֹהִים‎ ’ĕlōhîm) is one of the names of God in the Hebrew
Hebrew
Bible and worshipped as part of the Western monotheistic tradition; the term is also used in the Hebrew
Hebrew
Bible to refer to groups of other gods. The notion of divinity underwent radical changes in the early period of Israelite identity. The ambiguity of the term elohim is the result of such changes, cast in terms of "vertical translatability", i.e. the re-interpretation of the gods of the earliest recalled period as the national god of monolatrism as it emerged in the 7th to 6th century BCE in the Kingdom of Judah and during the Babylonian captivity , and further in terms of monotheism by the emergence of Rabbinical Judaism in the 2nd century CE
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Asherah
ASHERAH (/ˈæʃərə/ ; Ugaritic : 𐎀𐎘𐎗𐎚 : \'ṯRT; Hebrew : אֲשֵׁרָה‎‎), in ancient Semitic religion , is a mother goddess who appears in a number of ancient sources. She appears in Akkadian
Akkadian
writings by the name of AšRATU(M), and in Hittite as ASERDU(S) or ASERTU(S). Asherah
Asherah
is generally considered identical with the Ugaritic goddess ʼAṯIRAT. Asherah
Asherah
is identified as the queen consort of the Sumerian god Anu
Anu
, and Ugaritic El , the oldest deities of their respective pantheons , as well as Yahweh, the god of Israel and Judah. This role gave her a similarly high rank in the Ugaritic pantheon . Despite her association with Yahweh
Yahweh
in extra-biblical sources, Yahweh
Yahweh
in the Bible commands the destruction of her shrines so as to maintain purity of worship to Yahweh
Yahweh
Himself
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Anu
ANU (Akkadian : 𒀭𒀭 D AN, _Anu‹m ›_; Sumerian : 𒀭 AN, from 𒀭 _an_ "sky, heaven") is the earliest attested sky-father deity . In Sumerian religion , he was also " King of the Gods ", "Lord of the Constellations , Spirits and Demons ", and "Supreme Ruler of the Kingdom of Heaven", where Anu himself wandered the highest Heavenly Regions . He was believed to have the power to judge those who had committed crimes, and to have created the stars as soldiers to destroy the wicked. His attribute was the Royal Tiara . His attendant and vizier was the god Ilabrat
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El
EL, EL or EL may refer to: CONTENTS * 1 Religion * 2 Arts, entertainment, and media * 2.1 Fictional entities * 2.2 Literature * 2.3 Music * 2.4 Other media * 3 Science and technology * 3.1 Computing * 3.2 Other uses in science and technology * 4 Sport * 4.1 Transportation * 5 Other uses * 6 See also RELIGION * El (deity)
El (deity)
, a Semitic word for GodARTS, ENTERTAINMENT, AND MEDIA<
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Baal
BAAL (/ˈbeɪəl/ ), properly BAʿAL ( Ugaritic : 𐎁𐎓𐎍; Phoenician : 𐤁𐤏𐤋; Biblical Hebrew : בעל‎‎, pronounced ), was a title and honorific meaning "lord " in the Northwest Semitic languages spoken in the Levant during antiquity . From its use among people, it came to be applied to gods. Scholars previously associated the theonym with solar cults and with a variety of unrelated patron deities , but inscriptions have shown that the name Baʿal was particularly associated with the storm and fertility god Hadad and his local manifestations. The Hebrew Bible , compiled and curated over a span of centuries, includes early use of the term in reference to God (known to them as Yahweh ), generic use in reference to various Levantine deities, and finally pointed application towards Hadad, who was decried as a false god
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Yahweh
YAHWEH (/ˈjɑːhweɪ/ , or often /ˈjɑːweɪ/ in English; Hebrew : יהוה‎) was the national god of the Iron Age
Iron Age
kingdoms of Israel (Samaria) and Judah . His exact origins are disputed, although they reach back to the early Iron Age
Iron Age
and even the Late Bronze : his name may have begun as an epithet of El , head of the Bronze Age
Bronze Age
Canaanite pantheon , but the earliest plausible mentions are in Egyptian texts that place him among the nomads of the southern Transjordan . In the oldest biblical literature he is a typical ancient Near Eastern "divine warrior" who leads the heavenly army against Israel's enemies; he later became the main god of the Kingdom of Israel (Samaria) and of Judah , and over time the royal court and temple promoted Yahweh as the god of the entire cosmos, possessing all the positive qualities previously attributed to the other gods and goddesses
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National God
NATIONAL GODS are a class of guardian divinities or deities whose special concern is the safety and well-being of an ethnic group (nation ), and of that group's leaders. This is contrasted with other guardian figures such as family gods responsible for the well-being of individual clans or professions, or personal gods who are responsible for the well-being of individuals. These guardian roles augment the functions that a divinity might otherwise have (wisdom, health, war, and so on). CONTENTS * 1 National gods * 2 In antiquity * 3 Modern period * 4 See also * 5 References NATIONAL GODSIn antiquity (and to some extent continuing today), religion was a characteristic of regional culture, together with language, customs, traditions, etc
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Iron Age
The IRON AGE is an archaeological era , referring to a period of time in the prehistory and protohistory of the Old World ( Afro-Eurasia ) when the dominant toolmaking material was iron . It is commonly preceded by the Bronze Age in Europe and Asia and the Stone Age in Africa, with exceptions. Meteoric iron has been used by humans since at least 3200 BC. Ancient iron production did not become widespread until the ability to smelt iron ore , remove impurities and regulate the amount of carbon in the alloy were developed. The start of the Iron Age proper is considered by many to fall between around 1200 BC and 600 BC, depending on the region
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Kingdom Of Israel (united Monarchy)
The UNITED MONARCHY is the name given to the Israelite kingdom of Israel
Israel
and Judah, duri