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Outline Of Chocolate
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to CHOCOLATE : CONTENTS* 1 What is chocolate? * 1.1 What type of thing is chocolate? * 1.2 What is chocolate made of? * 1.2.1 Necessary ingredients * 1.2.1.1 Substances found in cacao * 1.2.1.2 Source of the cocao bean * 1.2.2 Optional ingredients * 1.2.3 Ingredients of white chocolate * 2 Types * 3 Production methods * 4 Producers and trade organizations * 5 Brands * 6 Edibles * 6.1 Drinks * 7 History * 8 Effects on health * 9 Other articles * 10 References * 11 External links WHAT IS CHOCOLATE? * CHOCOLATE – raw or processed food produced from the seed of the tropical Theobroma cacao
Theobroma cacao
tree
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Sugar
SUGAR is the generic name for sweet, soluble carbohydrates , many of which are used in food. There are various types of sugar derived from different sources. Simple sugars are called monosaccharides and include glucose (also known as dextrose), fructose , and galactose . The "table sugar" or "granulated sugar" most customarily used as food is sucrose , a disaccharide of glucose and fructose. Sugar
Sugar
is used in prepared foods (e.g., cookies and cakes ) and it is added to some foods and beverages (e.g., coffee and tea ). In the body, sucrose is hydrolysed into the simple sugars fructose and glucose. Other disaccharides include maltose from malted grain, and lactose from milk . Longer chains of sugars are called oligosaccharides or polysaccharides . Some other chemical substances, such as glycerol may also have a sweet taste, but are not classified as sugars. Diet food substitutes for sugar , include aspartame and sucralose , a chlorinated derivative of sucrose
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Vanilla
VANILLA is a flavoring derived from orchids of the genus Vanilla
Vanilla
, primarily from the Mexican species, FLAT-LEAVED VANILLA (V. planifolia ). The word vanilla, derived from vainilla, the diminutive of the Spanish word vaina (vaina itself meaning sheath or pod), is translated simply as "little pod". Pre-Columbian Mesoamerican
Mesoamerican
people cultivated the vine of the vanilla orchid, called tlilxochitl by the Aztecs . Spanish conquistador Hernán Cortés
Hernán Cortés
is credited with introducing both vanilla and chocolate to Europe in the 1520s. Initial attempts to cultivate vanilla outside Mexico
Mexico
and Central America proved futile because of the symbiotic relationship between the vanilla orchid and its natural pollinator, the local species of Melipona
Melipona
bee
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Milk
MILK is a white liquid produced by the mammary glands of mammals . It is the primary source of nutrition for infant mammals (including humans who breastfeed) before they are able to digest other types of food. Early-lactation milk contains colostrum , which carries the mother's antibodies to its young and can reduce the risk of many diseases. It contains many other nutrients including protein and lactose . As an agricultural product, milk is extracted from non-human mammals during or soon after pregnancy. Dairy
Dairy
farms produced about 730 million tonnes of milk in 2011, from 260 million dairy cows. India
India
is the world's largest producer of milk, and is the leading exporter of skimmed milk powder, yet it exports few other milk products. The ever increasing rise in domestic demand for dairy products and a large demand-supply gap could lead to India
India
being a net importer of dairy products in the future
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Caramel
CARAMEL (/ˈkærəmɛl/ or r- ) is a medium to dark-brown confectionery product made by heating a variety of sugars . It can be used as a flavoring in puddings and desserts , as a filling in bonbons , or as a topping for ice cream and custard . The process of caramelization consists of heating sugar slowly to around 170 °C (340 °F). As the sugar heats, the molecules break down and re-form into compounds with a characteristic color and flavor. A variety of candies , desserts, and confections are made with caramel: brittles , nougats , pralines , crème brûlée , crème caramel , and caramel apples . Ice creams sometimes are flavored with or contain swirls of caramel
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Peanuts
PEANUTS is a syndicated daily and Sunday American comic strip written and illustrated by Charles M. Schulz
Charles M. Schulz
, which ran from October 2, 1950, to February 13, 2000, continuing in reruns afterward. The comic strip is the most popular and influential in the history of comic strips, with 17,897 strips published in all, making it "arguably the longest story ever told by one human being". At its peak, Peanuts
Peanuts
ran in over 2,600 newspapers, with a readership of 355 million in 75 countries, and was translated into 21 languages. It helped to cement the four-panel gag strip as the standard in the United States, and together with its merchandise earned Schulz more than $1 billion. Reprints of the strip are still syndicated and run in almost every U.S. newspaper. The strip focuses entirely on a social circle of young children, where adults exist but are rarely seen or heard
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Lecithin
LECITHIN (from the Greek lekithos, "egg yolk") is a generic term to designate any group of yellow-brownish fatty substances occurring in animal and plant tissues, which are amphiphilic - they attract both water and fatty substances (and so are both hydrophilic and lipophilic ), and are used for smoothing food textures, dissolving powders (emulsifying), homogenizing liquid mixtures, and repelling sticking materials. Lecithins are mixtures of glycerophospholipids including phosphatidylcholine , phosphatidylethanolamine , phosphatidylinositol , and phosphatidic acid . Lecithin
Lecithin
was first isolated in 1845 by the French chemist and pharmacist Theodore Gobley . In 1850, he named the phosphatidylcholine lécithine
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Children In Cocoa Production
The widespread use of CHILDREN IN COCOA PRODUCTION is controversial, not only for the concerns about child labor and exploitation, but also because, as of 2015, up to 19,000 children working in Côte d\'Ivoire , the world's biggest producer of cocoa , may have been victims of trafficking or slavery . Most attention on this subject has focused on West Africa
West Africa
, which collectively supplies 69 percent of the world's cocoa, and Côte d'Ivoire
Côte d'Ivoire
in particular, which supplies 35 percent of the world's cocoa. Thirty percent of children under age 15 in sub-Saharan Africa are child laborers, mostly in agricultural activities including cocoa farming. It is estimated that more than 1.8 million children in West Africa
West Africa
are involved in growing cocoa. Major chocolate producers, such as Nestle
Nestle
, buy cocoa at commodities exchanges where Ivorian cocoa is mixed with other cocoa
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Cacao Tree
THEOBROMA CACAO, also called the CACAO TREE and the COCOA TREE, is a small (4–8 m (13–26 ft) tall) evergreen tree in the family Malvaceae , native to the deep tropical regions of Central and South America. Its seeds, cocoa beans , are used to make cocoa mass , cocoa powder , confectionery , ganache and chocolate . Floral diagram showing partial inflorescence CONTENTS * 1 Description * 2 Taxonomy and nomenclature * 3 Distribution and domestication * 4 History of cultivation * 4.1 Currency
Currency
system * 5 Mythology * 6 Modern history * 7 Cultivation * 8 Pests * 9 Conservation * 10 Genome
Genome
* 11 See also * 12 Notes * 13 References * 14 External links DESCRIPTIONLeaves are alternate, entire, unlobed, 10–40 cm (3.9–15.7 in) long and 5–20 cm (2.0–7.9 in) broad. The flowers are produced in clusters directly on the trunk and older branches; this is known as cauliflory
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Criollo (cocoa Bean)
The COCOA BEAN, also called CACAO BEAN, COCOA (/ˈkoʊ.koʊ/ ), and CACAO (/kəˈkaʊ/ ), is the dried and fully fermented seed of Theobroma cacao
Theobroma cacao
, from which cocoa solids and, because of the seed's fat, cocoa butter can be extracted. The beans are the basis of chocolate , and of such Mesoamerican foods as mole and tejate
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Côte D'Ivoire
Coordinates : 8°N 5°W / 8°N 5°W / 8; -5 Republic
Republic
of Côte d'Ivoire République de Côte d'Ivoire (French ) Flag Coat of arms MOTTO: "Union – Discipline – Travail" (French ) "Unity – Discipline – Work" ANTHEM: L\'Abidjanaise Song of Abidjan
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Cocoa Production In Côte D'Ivoire
Ivory Coast
Ivory Coast
(Côte d'Ivoire) leads the world in production and export of the cocoa beans used in the manufacture of chocolate , as of 2012, supplying 33% of cocoa produced in the world. West Africa
West Africa
collectively supplies two thirds of the world's cocoa crop, with Ivory Coast leading production at 1.8 million tonnes as of 2017, and nearby Ghana , Nigeria
Nigeria
, Cameroon
Cameroon
and Togo
Togo
producing additional 1.55 million tonnes. Ivory Coast
Ivory Coast
overtook Ghana
Ghana
as the world's leading producer of cocoa beans in 1978, and today is highly dependent on the crop, which accounts for 40% of national export income
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White Chocolate
WHITE CHOCOLATE is a chocolate derivative. It commonly consists of cocoa butter , sugar and milk solids and is characterized by a pale yellow or ivory appearance. The melting point of cocoa butter, its primary cocoa bean component, is high enough to keep white chocolate solid at room temperature . CONTENTS * 1 Composition * 2 Regulations * 3 History * 4 See also * 5 References COMPOSITION White chocolate
White chocolate
does not contain non-fat cocoa solids , the primary nutritional constituent of chocolate liquor —chocolate in its raw, unsweetened form. During manufacture the dark-colored solids of the cocoa bean are separated from its fatty content, as with milk , semi-sweet , and dark chocolate . But, unlike those other chocolate types, the cocoa solids are not recombined. As a result this fat, cocoa butter, is the only cacao ingredient in white chocolate
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Types Of Chocolate
Chocolate
Chocolate
is a range of foods derived from cocoa (cacao), mixed with fat (e.g., cocoa butter ) and finely powdered sugar to produce a solid confectionery . There are several TYPES OF CHOCOLATE, classified according to the proportion of cocoa used in a particular formulation. The use of particular name designations is sometimes subject to international governmental regulation. Some governments assign chocolate solids and ranges of chocolate differently. CONTENTS * 1 Terminology * 2 Types * 2.1 By country/region * 2.1.1 United States
United States
* 2.1.2 Canada * 2.1.3 European Union
European Union
* 2.1.4 Japan * 3 Definition * 4 Quality * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links TERMINOLOGYThe cocoa bean (or other alternative) products from which chocolate is made are known under different names in different parts of the world
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